Lecture 2 Notes - Life
Lecture 2 Notes - Life BIL 255
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Mompoint on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 255 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Mallery in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Cellular & Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Cell and Molecular Biology Lecture 2 Properties of Life Attributes of the Living Condition 1 2 Life begets Life a prime detective of lie Empedocles 490 430 BC argued that everything in life is made up of 4 eternal elements earth water air amp fire Aristotle 384 322 BC divided the world into 3 major groups animal vegetable amp mineral The cell is the fundamental unit of life 0 It s an inanimate mixture of biomolecules which have been selected for their fitness to perform certain biochemical reactions that characterize and define life A good model system for CMB is cells grown in culture 0 ie Hela cells when frozen they show no signs of life but if warmed up to room temp they move about feed and metabolize maybe even reproduce Life may be best defined in terms of the individual cell and its molecular constituents Most biologists prefer to use an operational description of what living entities can do and perform rather than to use a strict definition of life Autonomous Replication selfreplication of cells a All cells store their hereditary info in DNA coded as genes b Copied by semiconservative replication of DNA n l a 1 m f r I 3 y l I lquot Hela cells wl39th their tubelike wtoplasmiclpralec gns called llnpodla which play a role in sensing migration and cellpcell communication Theile st Jun 11 2013 by it Deerinicha Ml Slimjun fall Picture Show a Prime detective all living cells arise from pre existing cells Rudolph Virchow 1858 b Eliminates the idea of Spontaneous Generation theory that whole organisms could arise spontaneously or from inanimate matter 0 Francesco Redi 1668 published research on shielding meat jars from egglaying ies with gauze and saw that maggots never developed keeping airborne contamination from broths never allowed the production of microorganisms d Louis Pasteur 1860 proposed that the air itself was full of bacteria spores and other forms of reproducing life 6 Pasteur sterilized nutrient broth as part of his experiments as well as using a Utube swanneck ask preventing air from reaching the broth F l nl rm IM I hleluphuse T EI DHJ I39I as E 3 Life has an Evolutionary Origin all living things have evolved from a common ancestral cell trough processes including natural selection and genetic drift acting on heritable genetic variation a LUCA Last Universal Common Ancestor b Supporting evidence based on commonalities such as i All living things are composed of very similar organic molecules the same proteins lipids carbohydrates amp nucleic acids DNA amp RNA ii All proteins are made from one set of 20 standard amino acids xamino acids amp L stereoisomers iii All contemporary organisms carry their genetic info in nucleic acids DNARNA and use the same genetic code 4 Life Exhibits Emergent Properties large a RIA AC39l E Low5c9iram High 3 4 5 gram posrliyes positives Korarchaaola y lipunples Sp irmshaeias v Fusobnclmia r Henrikactor Baclmoidios 39 c a Cyanobacteria Thaimus Aguilar Figure 11 Molecular Cell Biology Seventh Edition 2013 WH Freeman and Company ARCHAEA Eurin mihaenta remenchaeota Pinima ls EU KMYWA Fungi M ic osooridia Eniamoebe if Apicom pleats ieg Piasmodiumi Euglena Klinmoplaslai leg Trymnosoma Parabaoa lia 6 legquot Tri39ci39iomonasi Mnmmonda lege Gleam Presumed Inst common ancestor of eukaryote and mhaeham a last common ancestor of all mm organisms scale complex group behavior in a system Which doesn t seem to have any clear explanation in terms of the system s constituent parts a ex oxygen colorless odorless tasteless reactive GAS that supports combustion hydrogen colorless odorless tasteless reactive GAS that is ammable water H20 a non ammable chemically reactive polar LIQUID that exists in 3 phases ex metal Na is explosive amp gas Chlorine is poisonous gt edible table salt NaCl c Emergent properties are unexpected nontrivial results of relatively simple interactions by relatively simple components 5 Life requires a critical level of biological molecular complexity 3 Structural complexity and information content are built up by combining simpler subunits into multiple complex combinations b elements gt stable monomers gt polymers gt metabolism gt supramolecular complexes gt organelles gt cells i elements C H O N ii stable monomers sugars amino acids nucleotides iii polymers carbohydrates proteins nucleic acids iv metabolism complex enzymatic pathways molecule molecule molecule molecule molecule molecule o r quot to catalysis by catalysis by catialysis by catalysis by catalysis by enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3 enzyme 4 enzyme 5 Home 31 Emmial ell Binlow WI ed rGarland Science 2014i lecular complexes proteasomes spliceosomes molecular motors sugar polysaccharide ammo 7 protein 7 7 acid nucleotide nucleic acid run I39 las de imniJmI39Jrhiiii lainz 39ei Each machuni oleeuie is a polymer formed from small malewlee I liecl munin are air album ital th at are iinii Edi 10th er by covalent bonds ONUVJ vi organelles a subcell entity with specific range metabolic function greetiii menus vii cells basic unit of living systems i viii organisms complex living entities ismsquot I y exhibiting emergent Properties mm 1th omens Individual molecules have no concept of 39 7 gure 1I19 mtial all Hitting IElI edL id Garland SIlEMF N111 M est ki nesine move toward the plus and oi a microtubule Whereas dyneins more toward the minus and Moule WE Both types of mlm otubtule motor proteins exist in many terms each rot which is thought to transport a dil letent type of cargo 39I he tail of the motor protein detentiinee what cargo the protein transports whole cell a single cell has no concept of the whole From a mix of biomolecules thus emerges a complexity that exhibits properties we call Life 6 Life exhibits biochemical autonomy it carries out and regulates its own metabolism a Cellular energetics occur via a few basic molecular reaction mechanisms common in all cells i Cellular redox reactions ii Photosynthesis iii Electron transfers through carrier proteins iv H ion pumps v Concentration gradients across membrane interfaces Light lphotosynthesis or compounds with high potential energy lresp irati onl hydrolysis 73Kop m Synthesis of Cellular movements Generation of an Heat Sir nthesis of other Transport of Blochamlcal aCt1V1t1 S 111 06118 eellularmaorm oellulereortetituents including muscle eons molecules electric potential molecules lDN t Such as membrane traction crawling against a across a membrane FINA proteins phoephelipids and movements of entire concentration timeorient For nerve transform molecules and energy messengers required ens gem meteholileei of chromosomes often via ATP to sustain cells during mime Life is a chemical system far from equilibrium 39 y 39 phospha nhydrlde bond It consumes free energy stored in high energy bonds or gradients and the release of this energy is coupled to ion concentration thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to mum m w drive biological processes and keep reaction from reaching equilibrium The ability of cells to couple reactions is a r unique property of life were quotit phosphate itquoti lHlGHENERG lr BDNS W quot quotquot One of the most common reactions in the cell is hydrolysis iil39l which a covalent bond is split by adding TABLE 12 1 A COMPARISON OF IION CONCENTRATIONS INISIDE AND OUTSIDE A TYPICAL MAMIMAIL IAN CELL i Intracellular Concentration lli V ExtracellularConcentration lmllrll water Cations I l V Nil 5 5 quot45 hydmws39s OH Hi Ce K39 we 5 gt Mgz39 CLE 1 2 Ca2 10 1 2 Tlhe LllG39 for this reaction is sometimes loosely termed the r x 1054104 M or pH 12 4 x metroM M or pH 14 quotbond energyquot Compounds such as acetyl phosphate and Anions ATP which have a large negative 6 of hydrolysis in an CI 54 5 ml aqueous solution are said to have highenergyquot bonds The concentrations of M 2 and 332 given are for the tree ions There is a total of about 20 mM M92 and 1 2 li 233 in cells V a but these ions are mostlyr curd to proteins and other organic molecules and for Caz stored within various organrel e5 Kate s i ezsir iie339lreiteratetittiesitiisiiiititrsziettiequot3555Letter charged ikcalrmoIei Tattle lie1 Essential ell Biology 4th ed 3 Garland 5cienltei l4l 7 Life is manifest by the absence of the living condition acetv39 I acetate o 403 a The absence of life is something that dead organisms MP ADP 0 43 have in common with nonliving things a lack of the glucose6P glucose i a properties of the living state is not definitional of the living state Death is a deterministic event because all living beings will eventually die but the fact that living things have an ability to die is somewhat defining Note that for simplicity H20 is omitted from the above equations Parnell1i Essential Cell Biolttgtt4th ed i3 Garland Stiemrce will Cells die when metabolism ceases with no prospect of starting again Cell death does play a role during physiological processes of multicellular organisms particularly during embryogenesis and metamorphosis apoptosis in pawfinger development Senescence is process of aging Cellular senescence is a phenomena where isolated cells show limited ability to continue to diVide in culture to age 0 Summary of How Cells Work Cells obey laws of chemistry amp physics the laws of Universe including 0 O O O O 0 Cells build and degrade numerous molecules generally Via use of ATP Cells extract energy from enVironment and maintain a homeostasis far from equilibrium Cells acquire and utilize energy Via metabolic pathways as Glycolysis Krebs Cells metabolize capable of 100039s of reactions Via Enzymes in metabolic pathways Cells are capable of selfregulation series of ordered reactions that are selfadjusted Cells osmoregulate control what gets inout of membranes organelle or plasma Cells are motile O ie kinesin motors AB Three Irames separaiied by intervals at 1 second record The movement of an individual kimesin G FP molecule lrecl aimlg a micrmubulrelgreen the labeled hinesi39n moaes at a speed M 03 um sec l3 5 kinesin heads l ll 3 I nm l mWI i and liinuim aw 1 l3 A series ufmollecmlar imodels ul39tl39ie two headls Dl39a kinesin molecule 5 showing how they are mougm to walk processively along a microwbwle In a series of E nrm sseps Iirnwl39lich one head swing5 past the lather Movie 176 A and B f lul l sy 0F Ran Vale rniinus and e r plu microtu bule end ngmr39 m Euicmliial ll BMW 4amp1 GirlsI Earlw Sticnw 2014 Cells work by response to stimuli Via external surface or internal cell receptors Cells grow and diVide 00 They use nucleic acid for genetic info They are capable of selfreplication They regulate their gene expression RNA and protein synthesis The differentiate to establish form and shape 5 palema39l E lhnmalog a FMPIQ39M maternal u SEW 9E I hamlet09 E 39Hl M EDMIE Cummnsnm 39 5 DUPLICNITIIGN DUiFmenTmN T PAIBEMNG 0F DILI FLICM ED 7 memes mn REEDMBIINATICIN DUTPLICATTED HOMOLGE PAIRS W lLIME UP ONTHE MlET PHASE SPINDLE a EH1 E III E IDIUIPILICHI39IED SEPARATION OF HOMDLU S CHHUM39DSDMIES AT AIMAPHA39SE 0F MEIDSISI lLiNE UP INDWIMD UAIILW ON THE MEWAPHASE SPINDLE ACDMPLETION DF CELL Dmusmm SPARATIDN OF A EPAMTIOH U F I smummommms EISNEH CH EDMHIIIDS 7 9 AT QNAFHRSE DF MEiosIs ll 7 AT mamas F y quotr I in r r l 7 quotT a com PLETwoN or CE EELL DIVISKIQIHLII 1 v quot Figure 19 Essential Cell Biulugvy 4th ed Garland Science INN SEMIId 5 JIJQMH ES UHd H
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