Biochemistry Chapter 1 Notes
Biochemistry Chapter 1 Notes Chem 3375
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nancy Ly on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 3375 at Texas State University taught by Dr. Kerwin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biochemistry in Chemistry at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
CHEM 3375 Principles of Biochemistry CHAPTER 1 READING LOG Life Before you read What is the purpose of reading this material The purpose is to familiarize refresh yourself with basic biology materials like prokaryotes eukaryotes and genetics What do I already know about this topic Eukaryotes have a nucleus while prokaryotes lack a nucleus The simple anatomy of prokaryotes Base pairs chromosomal theory of inheritance mendelian genetics and chromosomes While you read 0 Cells morphological units Eukaryotes have a membrane enclosed nucleus more complex Nucleus encapsulates DNA Prokaryotes lacks nucleus simple structure 0 Virus nonliving due to lack of reproduction outside of host cells Mesosomes multilayered structures that are thought to serve as the site of DNA replication and other specialized enzymatic reactions Cytoplasm cell contents Chromosome DNA molecule that has several copies of which can be present in rapidly growing cell Nucleoid condensed chromosomes Enzymes proteins that catalyze speci c reactions Ribosomes site of protein synthesis 0 Pill lamentous projections that functions as conduits for DNA during sexual conjugation or can aid in attachment of bacterium to a host organism s cells 0 Sexual conjugation a process in which DNA is transferred from one cell to another prokaryotes usually reproduce by binary ssion Autotrophs can synthesize their cellular constituents from simple molecules such as H20 C02 NH3 and H25 Chemolithotrophs obtain their energy through oxidation of inorganic compounds such as NH3 H25 or even Fe2 o Photoautotrophs autotrophs that obtain their energy via photosynthesis o Photosynthesis a process in which light energy powers the transfer of electrons from inorganic donors to C02 yielding carbohydrates Cyanobacteria green slimy organisms that grow on walls of aquariums Heterotrophs obtain energy through oxidation of organic compounds and are dependent on autotrophs Obligate aerobes needs 02 Anaerobes employ oxidizing agents such as sulfate sulfatereducing bacteria or nitrate denitrifying bacteria Fermentation an intramolecular oxidation reduction process that many organism use to partially metabolize various organic compounds Facultative anaerobes can grow in either the presence or absence of 02 Obligate anaerobes poisoned by 02 Phylogenesis evolutionary development After you read A The key points of this reading are 1 2 3 10 11 Norman Horowitz 39Life possesses the properties of replication catalysis and mutability Prokaryotes are unicellular while eukaryotes may be multicellular as well as unicellular Prokaryotes have a rapid reproductive rate of about lt20 min per cell division for many species Antonie van Leeuwenhoek the inventor of the microscope rst observed proka ryotes in 1683 Prokaryotes range in size from 1 to 10 um and have three basic shapes spheroidal cocci rodlike bacilli and helically coiled spirilla Prokaryotes are bounded by an 70Athick cell membrane plasma membrane which has a lipid biayer that contains embedded proteins that can control the passage of molecules in and out of the cell and can also catalyze a variety of reactions n prokaryotic species the cells are surrounded by a rigid 30 to 250Athick polysaccharide cell wall that functions to protect the cell from injury and to prevent it from bursting in media that is more osmotically dilute than its contents Three types of prokaryotes mycoplasmas grampositive bacteria and gram negative bacteria Gram stain was developed in 1884 by Christian Gram in which heat xed cels are successively treated with the dye crystal violet and iodine and then destained with either ethanol or acetone Gramnegative bacteria possess a complex outer membrane that surrounds their cell wall and excludes gram stain whereas grampositive bacteria lack such a membrane Archaea has three different kinds of organisms methanogens are obligate anaerobes that produce methane by the reduction of C02 with H2 halobacteria can live only in concentrated brine solutions gt2M NaCI thermoacidophiles are organisms that inhibit acidic hot springs 90 C and pHlt2 B One topic I understood well is The prokaryotes and eukaryotes section about their structures and functions of each individual organelle C One topic I struggled with is Genetic mapping D These are the questions about C or another topic that I still have after reading the material 0 How do you calculate the distance between each gene E I think that consulting these resources can help me answer these questions or get additional information on this topic 0 A genetics textbook 0 A video that shows step by step
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