PSYCH 100s Week 3 Notes
PSYCH 100s Week 3 Notes PSYX 100S-03
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sturgeon on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S-03 at University of Montana taught by Kali Diane Strickland (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Liberal Arts at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Chapter 3 The Biological Bases of Behavior Overview of Nervous System Nervous system complex communication network that receives integrates and transmits informational signals Neural Impulse o Somacell body containing the nucleus and other necessary machinery o Dendrites receive information tree like structure called dendraic tree each branch is a dendrite o Axon long thin fiber runs from soma that transmits signal from the end of the neuron can be up to several feet long and can communicate with multiple cells by branching o Myelin insulates axons and speeds up signal made of fatty tissue MS causes degeneration of myelin which prevents transmission on some axons 0 Terminal buttons knob at the end of the axon which secretes neurotransmitters that go to another neuron o Synapse gap and which neurons interconnect and transmit information so basically where the terminal buttons connect to a dendrite o Neural impulse electrical and chemical transmission of info from one neuron to another 0 ons electrically charge atoms and molecules that produce the neural impulse I Sodium and potassium channels exchange ions voltage from hyperpolarized70mV to depolarized 40mV o Postsynaptic Potential I a voltage change at the receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane 0 Neuron at Rest I Stable negative charge in inactive neuron I Membrane negative on inside Na moves inside the cell when channels are opened 0 Action potential brief shift in the I neuron s electrical charge that travels along an axon I Absolute refractory period neuron cannot fire because the Na channels are closed I Relative refractory period harder to fire but still possible I All or none law action potential is fired completely if a certain voltage threshold is met no partial firing weak stimulus cannot push over the threshold there will be no firing o Synapse I Presynaptic neuron delivers signal that came from the terminal buttons I Postsynaptic neuron receives the signal dendrites I Synapse lies between these two Synaptic cleft space between terminal button and another neurons dendrite Synaptic vesicles protect neurotransmitters stored in the terminal buttons 1 Synthesis and storage of NTs molecules in synaptic vesicles 2 Release of NTs molecules into synaptic cleft 3 Binding of NTs at receptor sites on postsynaptic membrane every NT fits like lock and key into receptor 4 Inactivation of NTs by enzymes of removal 5 Reuptake of NTs sponged up by presynaptic neuron o Neurotransmitters and Behavior NTs chemicals that transmit info from one neuron to another Some only work for certain things so they can be related to specific behaviors Acetylcholine contributes to attention arousal and memory 0 Only NT between neurons and voluntary muscles 0 Deficiency is associated with memory loss and Alzheimer s o Monoamines Dopamine controls voluntary movements and focus Deficiency is associates with Parkinson s Disease Excess is associated with Schizophrenia Main NT in pleasure system actives Opiates effect dopamine Serotonin Excess OCD Deficiency depression Inhibitory needed to balance excitatory NTs Norepinephrine Deficiency ADHD Excess anxiety Peripheral Nervous systemeverything other than the brain and spinal cord 0 Nerves bundles of axons o Somatic nervous system nerves that connect to voluntary muscles and sensory receptors skin muscles and joints to CNS and from CNS to muscles Afferent nerve fibers skin and other sensory nerve fibers that carry information inward to CNS Efferent nerve fibers responsible for muscle contraction carry information from the CNS think exit CNS 0 Autonomic nervous system control automatic involuntary functions such as heart rate digestion perspiration Parasympathetic decreases conservation of bodily resources I Sympathetic mobilizing resources for fight or flight Research methods 0 O O O O EEG monitors brain activity over time using electrodes CT MRI PET fMRI Central Nervous System Brain spinal cord cerebral spinal fluid surrounds which are protected by the skull and meninges O Glia supports neurons by supplying them with nutrients and removing waste material 1 neuron there are 10 glia make up 50 of brain tissue Neuron cells that receive integrate and transmit information mostly interneurons sensory receive info from outside motor neurons receive info about movement of the muscles Hindbrain I Cerebellum coordination equilibrium and balance damage results in difficulty with fine motor skills I Medulla breathing and heartbeat attached to the spinal cord and is associated with unconscious function such as muscle tone sneezing coughing I Pons clusters of cells bodies that contribute to sleep and arousal Midbrain I Sensory functions I Origin of a system of dopamine releasing axons involved in voluntary movements and reward processes I Reticular formation runs through hindbrain and midbrain central core of brainstem responsible for muscle reflexes breathing and perception of pain Also regulates sleep and wakefulness Forebrain I Emotion and complex thought I Largest section I Thalamus sensory info passes through relays and integrates made of soma I Hypothalamus basic biological drives 4 F5 fleeing fighting feeding fornicating I Limbic system set of loosely attached structures that are associated with emotion memory Hippocampusmemory Amygdala fear and emotion Medial forebrain bundle pleasure I Cerebrum complex mental activities learning remembering largest structure of the human brain Divided into two hemispheres and connected by corpus callosum Four lobes o Occipital visual signals are sent and processing is begun primary visual cortex 0 Parietal register sense of touch primary sensory cortex somatosensory cortex 0 Temporal Auditory processing primary auditory cortex 0 Frontal Muscle movement primary motor cortex contains prefrontal cortex involved in memory and organization Broca s Area production of speech Wernicke s Area 1874 comprehension of language I Split brain research Left verbal processing Right nonverbal processing Refer to book for more indepth research 0 Plasticity of the brain I Reorganize neural pathways after they have been damaged I Alter structure with experience I Create new neurons I Critical period specific period of development where its optimal for certain abilities to emerge
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