Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes BIOB 260 - 00
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Alexander on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOB 260 - 00 at University of Montana taught by Scott Samuels (P), Mark Lindsay Grimes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Cell Molec 99 Nucleotides Review Central Dogma DNA 9 RNA 9 protein Transcription then translation Of course it s actually more complicated everything is interconnected DNA Function Carrying amp transfer of genetic information Genes are the units of hereditary info and they direct the synthesis of RNA RNA constitutes cell machinery It is the genetic info for some viruses Ribosomes enzymatic RNA bundles can catalyze a reaction Small noncoding regulatory RNA Other Nucleotide functions Energy currency 9 ATP Coenzymes Signaling Prymidine hexagon shape Purine a hexagon sharing a bond with a pentagon The Phosphodiester bond gives Nucleotide chains their directionality Cellular Energetics Enzymes Change activation energy amp thus accelerate reaction rate Energetically unfavorable reactions can also occur by coupling or powering them by more favorable reactions 0 Reaction rate and direction are different 0 Enzymes catalyze reactions but don t change the direction 0 The hydrolysis of ATP is used to drive reactions forward AG AG Activated carrier molecules store energy in a readily usable form for reaction coupling Phosphate Negative Charge Three together makes a high energy bond when broken a lot of energy is released Which processes in the cell require ATP Almost everything Cell Molec 911 Thermodynamics Cells follow the rules there is no special force that makes them alive 0 Energy is conserved AE E products E reactants 1St Law of Thermodynamics 0 Enthalpy is stored or potential energy 9 AH o In biology AH AE because pressure and volume are generally constant from a biological standpoint o In all chemical reactions AH H products H reactants I If AH is negative the reaction is exothermic I If AH is positive the reaction is endothermic 0 Spontaneous reactions increase disorder 2nd Law of Thermodynamics o Entropy is disorder 9 S I G H TS 0 AG AH TAS Gibb s free energy equation I In order to make complex molecules there must be an input of stored energy to counter act the decrease in Entropy created by making large ordered molecules 0 IF AG IS NEGATIVE THE REACTION IS SPONTANEOUS I Therefore the reaction will occur without coupling 0 Entropy is zero at absolute zero 3rd Law of Thermodynamics 2 important things we derive from thermodynamics in Biology Equilibrium Forward Rate Reverse Rate Reaction rate Productsreactants o Equilibrium 0 AG determines the direction of the reaction 0 If AG 0 the reaction is at equilibrium I AG free energy at STP I AG free energy at STP 1M concentration neutral pH 0 AG RTlnkeq I RT 616 STP 0 Rate NOT THE SAME THING AS DIRECTION o The activation energy determines rate I Enzymes are Biological catalysts they lower activation energy by stabilizing transition states I Therefore they effect the rate but not the direction I Enzymes bind to their substrates through multiple weak interactions
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