notes for the chapter of tissue
notes for the chapter of tissue Anatomy 3001
U of M
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by ziyue zhang on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anatomy 3001 at University of Minnesota taught by mark cook in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Human anatomy in Anatomy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
4 types of tissue Epithelia connective tissues muscle tissue nervous tissues Epithelium definition a sheet of cells with little extracellular matrix nonliving protein matter that cells secrete that cover a body surface or lines a body cavity two forms of epithelia ltgt covering and lining epithelia cover outer and inner surfaces of body organs ltgt glandular epithelia cover body glands function protection secretion absorption structural characteristics 1 polarity apical surface basal surface 2 a vascular but innervated no blood vessel go throughconceive nutrients from capillaries in the underlying connective tissue yes nerve ending go through 3 Regeneration polarity apical surfaceexposed to internal cavity or exterior of the body basa surface attached to adjacent tissueconnective tissue 5 cellularity cell separated by minimal extracellular material cell bound closely together by cell junctions little or no intercellular space between the cells in epithelial tissues secrete basal lamina basal lamina reticular lamina from connective tissue basement membrane 6 specialized contacts cells joined by special junctions 7 secretion 8 absorption Classification classified by two properties shape of the cell number of cell layers ltgt simple epithelia one layer stratified epithelia more than one layer protection ltgt squamous cells flat cuboidal cells cube columnar cells colume two exception psuedostratified columnar transitional Function ltgt Simple squamous diffusion filtration secretes lubricating substances in serosae located at heart blood lymphatic vessels ventral body cavity ltgt simple cuboidal secretion and absorption secretory cells of glands kidney tubules ducts of small glands and ovary surface simple columnar ltgt simple columnar secretion of mucus enzymes and absorption bear ciliahelp molecules to move functions in active movement of molecules lines the digestive tube form the stomach to the anal canal ltgt pseudostratified columnar single layer of cells varied in heights only tall cells reach the apical surfacefree surface nuclei seen at different levels contain mucussecreting goblet cells and bear cilla ltgt stratified squamous epithelium functions in protection basal cells are cuboidal or columnar whereas apical surface cells are squamous regenerate from below the basal cells divide and push apically to replace the older apical surface cells the epithelium forms the outermost layer of the skin and extends a certain distance into every body opening that is directly continuous with the skin in the keratinized al ikl Hit typeepidermis of the skin the surface cells full of keratin are dead nonkeratinized type forms the moist linings of esophagus mouth and vagina ltgt stratified cuboidal and columnar epithelium basal cells usually cuboidal superficial cells elongated and columnar rare functions in protection transitional epithelium ltgt transitional epithelium lines the inside of the hollow urinary organs basal cells cuboidal or columnar surface cells suamouslike urine fillgturinary organ stretchgt six cell layers to three cell layers apical cells unfold and flatten Glands glands are derived mainly from epithelial cells that migrate into the underlying connective tissues Exocrine glands Endocrine glandsglobal ductless glands secrete messenger molecule hormone directly into the tissue fluid and than hormone enter capillariesgt blood streamgttarget organ Exocrine glands local have ducts secrete their products onto body surfacesskin or into body cavities digestive tube types mucussecreting sweat oil glands of skin salivary glands of mouth and mammary glands unicellular exocrine glands goblet cell multicellular exocrine glands 9 tubular secretory simple tubular gland simple branched tubular gland simple coiled tubular 9 alveolar secretory simple alveolar simple branched alveolar compound duct structure tubular alveolar tubularaveolar Connective Tissues characteristic of connective tissue 1 few cells and lots of extracellular matrix CTs are separated from one another by 2 extracellular matrixno cellularityunlike epithelia extracellular matrix composed of ground substance and fibers CT are cells produce and maintain the matrix with two components fibersreticular fibers and ground substance glycosoaminoglycans 3 embryonic origin from mesenchyme derived from embryonic mesoderm proper connective tissue ordinary m three types of loose connective tissue areolar widely distributed under epithelia of body function in supporting and binding other tissues holding body fluids defending the body against infection storing nutrients as fat adiposefat under skin in the hypodermis around kidneys eyeballs within abdomen in breasts insulates against heat loss function similar to areolar connective tissue more storing fats reticular lymphoid organslymph nodes bone marrow spleen soft internal skeleton dense fibrous three types irregular dermis of the skin regular tendons and ligament major cell type is fibroblast elastic specialized connective tissue fluid connective tissue blood and lymph supporting connective tissue cartilage and bone Blood red and white cells in a fluid matrixplasma transport of respiratory gases wastes nutrients cartilage cellchondrocyte matrixlacuna hyaline amorphous but firm matrix collagen fibers form an imperceptible network supports and reinforces serves as resilient cushion resists compressive stress embryonic skeleton forms costal cartilages of the ribs elastic more elastic fibers maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility external ear epiglottis fibrocartilage thick collagen fibers predominate tensile strength with ability to absorb compressive shock intervertable dics public symphysis dics of knee joint Bone Tissue connective tissuetoo 0 Description Calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers Osteoblasts secrete collagen fibers and matrix Osteocytes mature bone cells in lacunae 0 Well vascularized 0 Function Supports and protects organs Provides levers and attachment site for muscles Stores calcium and other minerals Stores fat Marrow is site for blood cell formation Covering and Lining Membranes Mucous line body cavities open to the exterior lines the tubes of the respiratory digestive reproductive and urinary systems Serousserosae line body cavities closed to the exterior pleural pericardial and peritoneal cavities epitheliummesothelium lying on a thin layer of areolar CT Cutaneous Skin Cover the exterior surface of the body Synovial a connective tissue membrane that covers joint cavities Muscle and Nervous tissues composite tissue contain small amounts of areolar CT Muscle Tissue three types skeletal muscle tissue thin long striations perpendicular stripes cardiac branching the wall of the heart smooth no striations the wall of hollow organs Nervous Tissue brain spinal cord and nerves
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