DNA and RNA Notes
DNA and RNA Notes BIOL 160 - 021
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BIOL 160 - 021
Mary Alison Bennett
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Alison Bennett on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 160 - 021 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Purnima D Pinnaduwage in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Cellular amp Molecular Biology BIOL 160 Chapter 4 DNA and RNA M Structure some RNA 0 Nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made of monomers called nucleotides The Monomers of Nucleic Acids o Phosphate Group always the same bonded to the 5 carbon in the sugar 0 Sugar middle part of the NA 0 Ribose in RNA 0 Deoxyribose in DNA missing an O on the 2 C o Nitrogenous Base one or two ring structures containing nitrogen will form the inside of the double helix 0 Purines have two rings Guanine G and Adenine A o Pyrimidines only have one ring Cytosine C Thymine T DNA and Uracil U RNA The Formation of NAs o Phosphodiester LinkageBonding joins two sugars through a phosphate 0 o The backbone bonding is always directional 5 93 9 3o o l I A I A M9 is 41 o Condensation Reaction Primary Structure 0 The sequence of the individual nucleotides bonded in V T the backbone quot quot H Secondary Structure 0 Formed by hydrogen bonds 0 DNA is a double helix Watson and Crick Franklin and Wilkins Chargaff etc 0 Within the double helix purines can only pair with pyrimidines o A T has two H bonds C G has three Function of DNA 0 DNA can store and transmit Biological information o Carries information to grow and reproduce o Sequencing of bases contains all the vital information Cellular amp Molecular Biology BIOL 160 Chapter 4 Replication 0 DNA has to be able to replicate itself o It does so through the following process 0 Heating or catalysis cause the molecule to break in half lengthwise 0 Free nucleotides deoxyribose base pair with the newly exposed backbone 0 Two identical strands of DNA are produced Cell Storage of DNA Eukaryotes o The cell keeps DNA within the nuclear envelope 0 The nucleus contains chromosomes and is surrounded by a double membrane that has porelike openings all over it 0 Nuclear membrane and ER were probably formed by infolding of the outer membrane Prokaryotes 0 Do not have a nucleus 0 Keep DNA in the cytoplasm 0 DNA is circular M 0 RNA is more reactive and less stable than DNA Primary Secondary and Tertiary Structure 0 Primary Structure same as DNA the backbone 0 Secondary Structure results from base pairing but generally forms within the same strand hairpin structure still antiparallel o Tertiary Structure when secondary structures fold to form more complex patterns 0 Table 41 in the book can help with differentiating Function of RNA 0 Can function as a catalytic molecule Cellular amp Molecular Biology BIOL 160 Chapter 4 0 Has some degree of complexity and can catalyze multiple chemical reactions 0 DNA is not so versatile its too stable 0 It s likely that the first life form began with RNA RNA and the Beginning of Life 0 The theory life began with a lone selfreplicator with no membrane in a solution 0 The initial molecule would have to be capable of providing a template that could be copied and of catalyzing reactions that would link monomers into a copy 0 RNA is capable of both