Week 5 class notes
Week 5 class notes PHYS 215
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Fry on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 215 at Ball State University taught by Zamlauski-Tucker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Science at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Physiology Notes Week 5 92115 Re exes Any response that occurs automatically without conscious effort 0 Simple or basic 0 Built in Remove hand from hot stove Spinal cord 0 Acquired or conditions Practice or learning 0 Reading music while playing 0 Brain Re ex Arc 0 Receptor Responds to stimuli o Afferent pathway Sends signal to integrating center 0 Integrating center Processes information Makes a decision Efferent pathway Instructions to muscle or gland o Effector Muscle or gland carries out response Withdrawal Re ex 0 Basic re ex Pain receptor Afferent to spinal cord Message to activate neurons Efferent to activate bicep muscles Inhibit tricep muscles 0 Message of pain passed up to brain Arm exes and hand pulls away Polysynaptic Stretch Re ex 0 Activation of stretch receptor 0 Afferent neuron terminates directly on an efferent o Efferent supplies muscle 0 Muscle contracts to counteract stretch o Monosynaptic Other Re exes o Crossed extensor re ex Ensures opposite limb will bear weight of body as injured limb is withdrawn step on glass 0 Receptor Physiology 0 Photoreceptors respond to light eyes 0 0 000 O Mechanoreceptors respond to physical force touch pressure stretch tension or vibration Nociceptors respond to tissue damage pain receptors Thermoreceptors respond to temperature change Proprioceptos respond to change in position and movement Chemoreceptors respond to chemicals Receptor Potential 0 O 0 Receptor End of a neuron Generator potential Cell closely attached to a neuron Receptor potential No refractory period Receptor potential is converted into an Action Potential Adaption O Tonic receptors Do not adapt or slowly adapt Stretch receptors 0 Phasic receptors Adapt quickly Tactile receptors Receptive Field 0 Area monitored by a single neuron o Discrimination ability to distinguish origin of stimuli Finesmall receptive eld Poor large receptive eld 0 Lateral inhibition 3 Block weaker input HPFM rl 39 39 39 i 39 ableuron L Heilillnin 1 I Neililrim 2 atwarequotn 3 lb Pacinian Corpuscle o Lies deep within the dermis detects deep touch pressure and high frequency vibrations 0 Receptor potential corresponds to degree of stimulation 0 Prolonged stimuli causes layers to slip 0 Thus adaptation Pain and temperature 0 Free nerve endings found throughout skin muscle bone and connective tissue o 3 types of pain receptors 0 Mechanonociceptors Thermal nociceptors Polymodal nociceptors many Pain is a result of substances released by damaged tissues prostaglandins histamine and substance P o The free nerve ending has receptors for these substances 0 O O O O O O lLivaranld h g gal I bladder Small a intestine s l l QuarriesEa 39 Appandixf A Uratsrr O Pain pathways Primary 1st order neuron projects to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord Secondary 2nOI order neuron projects on to the thalamus Tertiary 3rd order neuron projects on to the cerebral cortex Spinorecticular tract will synapse in the reticular formation and bypass the thalamus Fri rnary aarneatll iatia cortex l Samaathatic association area 39 H Tlhirdnrdar neuron l Thalamua quot V lHypathaIanIus arid limbit system Epilnathallamic tract lRatit ullar formation Epiin arati clular t ract 39 Spiir1al card 1lFir5tardar afferent neuron f Nnciceptur Seconddram pmjjecti rain inleurains Antarallatarall system 53 Referred Pa i n Results from the convergence of neuronal pathways in the CNS heart pain is felt as radiating pain along the left shoulder and medial left arm for men Why Because same pain pathway as pain receptors of the chest and arm TlT5 Skin receptors are activated more The brain assumes the pain is frompthe skin furIghi Ll n39gl and 39 dliaphragim a Liver and c gallbladder 5 Heart 7 I Stomach 1 39 Pancreas Gallant 7 Lllrinaryr v bladder I 39 a Kidney Phantom Pain Pain perceived from a missing limb 0 Causes Activation of the same sensory pathway Remodeling of the brain after injury 0 Fast vs Sow Pain 0 Mechanical and thermal nociceptors Fast pathway Adelta bers Brief sharp prickling o Polymodal nociceptors Slow pathway C bers Dull aching Bradykinin Capsaicin Substance P and Glutamate o Neurotransmitters 0 Released by primary afferent pain bers 0 Higher levels of pain processing 0 Substance P Activates pain pathway 0 Glutamate Activates AMPA Action potential Activates NMDA Second messenger pathway Hyperexcitability Analgesic 0 Pain suppressor o Aspirin Inhibit prostaglandin synthesis 0 Opiate receptors Bind morphine opium poppy Endorphins EnkephaHns Dynorphin Block substance P release Vision 0 Control of Light 0 Iris Pigmented region of the eye Anaridia o Pupi Circular muscle Smaller Radial muscle 0 Dilation ridge Eyelashes F39alpelarai fissure iLatIEral eemmieeure Gonjlu native 7 Tareal plate Superei iiary Eyebrow ANS control quotFina arm ru I pun air lFi IJiriil if ll Emperor 39 palpebrai eulcme IlriE Salem Media mymmiseure lLower eye I idl inferior palpebrai euleue Eye Anatomy 0 O O Suepeneory ligament Retina the innermost layer of the eye that contains the photoreceptors and neuron cells Choroid layer beneath the sclera that helps supply blood to the retina Optic disk blind spot where the optic nerve exits the eye Fovea the area of the retina with the highest density of cones color vision within the macula lutea Lens transparent biconvex structure of the eye that focuses light rays entering through the pupil to form and image on the retina Cornea transparent layer of brous connective tissue that with the lens refracts and focuses light rays Ciliary body muscles controlling the shape of the lens continuous with and beneath the iris LElnlE 0 Light Properties 0 O O Photons Wavelength Visible light 400700 nm Intensity how bright Ray Refraction and Accommodation Ci Visual o o o Refraction Bending of a lig hi ray Concave Ill 1 J Convex I39M Cornea and lens 1 I5 1 Fecal palm Milli m Em Diverging rips Fatal palmquot Accommodation Increasing the siren th aha pa 4 the lens near viaion quot il an muscle Problems Myopia nearsighted eye too long Hyperopia farsighted eye too short Presbyopiaboth nearsighted and farsightedolder lens not as viable as it used to be Astigmatism when light is bent a plane is off and not able to focus on it I lb il 5 FE quot H ll 7 ammnxDEi lc II F39url39rhti39tiiiari EIII Ll ct wmwl39 th Eq rn vm m39mssHWmimth39 e neuronti whittime tlzni Mmlr 39 IWQEEI39PHM HT l illlh Eff llil n r f fwmwf lm hit Fri 39nadml Imhwh d wr hl hx39m uiTfurmmlmm hmuJHalbujpuntdl m hulriij1ah in1pxl39rm WEED I39m hilt mm r c mr hrliun mmmil wmn m 39M39Hl39i dl lill39tmmrmnmgitllar blih39nmrtultr 39lhuriln Wa i WH tme iWWI immm dl h lh i giltelm mmud 39icslwhr i g thr f mr blm m lril h39inirs mlr bori uhrmthMlummmdr mmplm mqmwmdhrmMummyulmdla m lll39l um mmtmmd1ulm39m El nmw j nwn wmwmmnmmi d m Mhhr m lmmmd lw mm lxpand qummndvd1 39qi icinr mnmmwamhmmm m Ragtime l E J il mf uErJI u E llull Myopia Iconmm liltiuru 1115 Hot1mm 39 sua and titL EliHis ti mt7 enHr laJ The MIMI1 IJJI Imamqlulaa u39am O HathlInhi r smnqungen ihtrcilru quot mulunpmumleihalpn MFHI39I39 Filurr fF lh 1hr rF39imj l l39 BIrnnm laan39rIIIdrIna IInd iM WI F W dIHIIIrl nF I mum hrquot In WI H21 rlirllizli l I ahncitmul r llh fl 1i gl39ii myrrma39mmi thd39ih rFHw Mani I5th isquot MmeWha Hm lire mu mIim Him ul39 1 L611Lhquotihlquotm m nirvana Elia mm in ahumumlig lam ml Photoreceptors Rodsnight vision slow adapting 30 minutes to fully adjust can be affected by cigarette smoke purple is only color recognized in dark Cones day vision fast adjusting Bipolar cells synapse with rods and cones Ganglion cells receptive input from bipolar cells axons for the optic nerve Rod signals travels from bipolar cells through amacrine cells to ganglion cells 39 lulu Eaek allquot new 7 Pli 39l t 39r v j epllthwlllum quot quot P39hotm 3 l rewriter HiequotEMquot calls bl rTransimisaiIm l 39 1quot of mid ii li l E Transmission 39 all E l signals 5 Horizontal will Bipolar cell 39 v HEWE lmam O O o Phototransduction is the conversion of light stimuli into neural signals 0 Photoreceptor 3 parts 0 Outer segment 0 Inner segment Synaptic terminal 0 Rhodopsin Rods Sodium channels Open in the absence of light 0 3 photopigments Red green and blue Selective to wavelengths Cones Color vision is in lightday In the presence of light 0 Color vision depends on the ratio of stimulation of the three types of mew 194 l HEliIIE ll REESE J CODES 0 Dark and light Adaptation 0 Dark adaptation Gradually distinguish in the dark Regeneration of rod photopigments 0 Light adaptation Gradually distinguish objects with more light Cone photopigments 0 Visual Information is Modi ed 0 The information reaching the visual cortex Not a replica of the visual eld Thalamus and visual cortexes elaborate the visual message Hierarchy of visual processing Visual processing goes to other areas of the brain not involved in vision perception Currakin Fl Elma HI Carltrim lmmmmns a lwmnods ulzl incl ne half of fibers cross over at the optic chieem harassed dpEd mi39 ll h 39r Eros5m i rclontralat aralli by piiii radia an mlpltali 39 39 lobe visual I 39 quotDEEREMill 39 l Fixation 7 point Enuprexrier leo liculua quot pliic f new1e Until a F r39steoll Emmi EhllEIE lll39l nucllwur genieulleile nucleus oi Elli Lilli 39 39 39 lh ll i ln u e Rods and Cones o Rods have rhodopsin consisting o Retinaand opsin in membrane 0 Retinal is a form of vitamin A and is hooked to the opsin o A photon changes retinal from 11cis to all trans o Retinal changes it shape and leaves opsin o Opsin undergoes conformational changes to metarhoo opsin o Metarhodopsin II is unstable 0 Crosses into the intracellular space and turns back to alltrans retinal o A transporter transports the alltrans retinal out of the outer segment into the pigment epithelium o Alltrans retinal turns into alltrans retinol which is the precursor for 11cis o Cones o Opsin rather than rhodopsin o 3 cones opsins blue red and green 0 cGMP controlled by cGMP phosphodiesterase activation of pigment molecules lead to the activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase o Ampli cation each rhodopsin molecule leads to hydrolysis 100 tranducin each activating a phosphodiesterase molecule which hydrolyzes 1000 cGMP 0 Changes membrane potential via cGMP gated ion channels outer segment 0 3 cGMP molecules binds directly to the channels cytoplasmic part Opens the channel in the outer segment primarily o In the dark there are high levels of cGMP opening the cGMP gated channel Na enters in leading to the dark current o lnthe 0 92315 Heanng mam llil Film mammal ansmmln I l1 5 w o Membrane potential aliMOr glf il W mmmmv light A mir 2 cGMP decreases cGMP channels close Na current decreases Membrane hyperpolarizes rig mAcuimn mr cf rimm39rr yymmns wrighr swam ui mmrmm mmn ES ESnFE Iil ai mEuIiS in closing a email mledclhamels iii the ME aegmenumml m hi39a intslime mid aim I39Di 0 External middle and inner ear The external and middle ear 0 Transmit sound waves to the uid lled inner ears The inner ear the cochlea o Receptors that convert sound waves into nerve impulses The vestibular aqqaratus of the inner ear 0 Sense of equilibrium Each inner ear region had mechanoreceptors o Cochlea inner ear Basilar membrane separates the scala tympani from the scala media Organ of Corti sits on the basilar membrane and contains the auditory receptor neurons Tectorial membrane lies above the organ of corti Perilymph uid in the scala vestibule and the scala tympani ECF similar to CSF low K high Na Endolymph uid in the scala media similar to ICF high K and low Na SE Semicircular iliiits1 E dclymphatic E 39 Superior Z Vestibular 39 PSaerzljle 2 ganglia ii i39 x f Veatibular l 39 ap lam I Ultricle nerve Anterior E39squot r it y M I PosteriorquotEff 4354 Pgh e r J k I V gt ENE l l Piml Cochlear Df m h39ea 0 Hi o How do we hear Sound waves that reach the ear into the external auditory canal Waves strike the tympanic membrane causing the membrane to vibrate lt vibrates slowly in response to lowfrequency sounds and rapidly in response to highfrequency sounds O The central area of the tympanic membrane is connected to the malleus which also starts to vibrate The vibration is then picked up by the incus which transmits the vibration to the stapes As the stapes moves back and forth it pushes the oval window in and out 0 Middle ear bones conduct a signal vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear The middle ear ampli es tympanic movements and transmits them to the oval window The movement of the oval window produces waves that travel through the uid in the cochlea The cochlea contains the organ of Corti the sense organ for hea ng O 0 Sound Waves Consist of alternating regions of compression and refration of air molecules Pitch Depends on the frequency of air waves 0 Region of the basilar membrane that vibrates Loudness Depends on the amplitude of air waves Timbre Determined by overtones o Waves in the cochlea These waves have the same frequency as the sound waves in the air Different frequencies of waves disturb different parts of basilar membrane in the cochlea Hair cells are mounted on the basilar membrane Outereer Miidtllileeer Inner ear Marlene f fquot Seurnrlaf fg39 wave Tymipeniie membrane ff Basiliar membrane Secemd ary Fluid rmeanie membrane 3 39 ected In relation to an overhanging tectorIal membrane Different groups of hair cells move to different frequencies Duterear Miiddlleear Inner ear Stapee 3 oval incue window Marlene Sound jegg quot Besiller wave membrane Tymipaniic Secemd ary tympanie membrane 55f quot quot membrane Auditory t tube 0 Hair cells 0 Hair cells auditory receptors located in the organ of corti Inner hair cells lie between the modiolus and the rods of Corti Outer hair cellf cells beyond the rods of Corti possessing 1OO stereocillia arrange in a V 3 rows Hair cells synapse onto spiral ganglion whose axons enter the Vestibulocochlear cranial nerve VIII Dieter heir eelile l l I Inner heir eelllle r lillielemue 1 Prlrii39rrlargrr i 7 i auditier eerie Ilrif elrier eeIlleulrue Superier xeiliivery nucleus Geehleer meleee Medella elelengete Vestibula eeensleer nerve Beehilee lib o The semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus detect rotational acceleration or deceleration changes in the body The utricle and saccule of the vestibular apparatus detect changes in the rate of linear motion in any direction rr quotlateral 39 E Wi la S h hfjnn iiIII lam The structures of the vestibular apparatus have hair cells that are sensitive to mechanical deformation 0 These cells are sensitive to uid shifts and the movement of other structures such as otoliths in the saccule and utricle Neural signals are generated by changes in these hair cells These cells are transmitted to the brain for interpretation 0 Chemoreceptors detect chemical changes for the senses of taste and smell Taste receptors are located within taste buds in the tongue Dissolved molecules bind to receptor sites producing receptor potentials All tastes are varying combinations of the four basic tastes salt sweet sour bitter Fifth taste has been recognized Any chemical produces the differential stimulation of the four receptors for taste This generates a pattern of action potentials that travels along afferent pathways to the brain One pathway passes through the limbic system for emotional and behavioral processing Another pathway passes through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex for conscious processing 0 Olfactory receptors in the nose are specialized ending of afferent neurons Different olfactory receptors detect discrete parts of an odor Odor discrimination is coded by patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb glomeruli Afferent signals are sorted by scent component The olfactory system adapts quickly
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