Chapter 7 Notes
Chapter 7 Notes PSYC 225
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Ch 7 Bodily Growth and Change Around 3 children lose quotbaby roundnessquot Toddler potbelly tightens Limbs lengthen Head is still large Size increases Grow 23in per year Gain approximately 46 pounds Muscular and skeletal growth progresses Cartiage turns to bone faster Bones become harder Sleep Patterns and Problems By 5 most US children Average about 11 hours sleep a night Give up naps Bedtime varies among cultures Gusii Javanese and Zuni No regular bedtime stay up until geepy Canadian Hare Bedtime after dinner but no naps 1 in 10 US parentscaregivers report their child has a sleep problem May be caused by Accidental activation of the brain s motor control system lncomplete arousal from a deep sleep Disordered breathing or restless leg movements Tend to run in families often associated with separation anxiety Usually outgrown Persistent sleep problems may indicate an underlying condition Night Terrors Abrupt awakening extremely frightened Quite common Occur mostly between 3 and 13 years Affect boys more often Walking and talking Fairy common Harmless but may be a danger to themselves Best not to interrupt sleepwalking or night terrors as it may confuse and frighten the child Nightmares Common Often brought on by Staying up too late Eating a heavy meal too close to bedtime Overexcitement Frequent and persistent nightmares may signal excessive stress Enuresis Repeated urination in clothing or in bed Affects 10 15 of 5year olds More than half outgrow by age 8 More common in boys Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills Great advancements are made in preschool children Jumping and running 20 of 4year olds can throw a ball well 30 can catch well Children under 6 are NOT ready for organized sports Fine Motor Skills Gains allow for more responsibility in personal care Buttoning a shirt drawing pictures Systems of Action ncreasingy complex combinations of skills Permit a wider or more precise range of movement and more control of the environment Motor Skills Handedness Handedness Preference for using a particular hand Evident around 3 years Most people are righthanded Lefthandedness is more common in boys s handedness genetic Theory of a single gene for righthandedness 82 receive this gene from either or both parents Those who do not inherit the gene have a 5050 chance of being righthanded Piagetian Approach The Preoperational Child Preoperationa Stage approx 27 The second major stage of cognitive development Symboic thought expands but children cannot yet use logic Advances of Preoperational Thought The Symbolic Function Symboic Function Abiity to use mental representations words numbers or images to which a child has attached meaning Heps children remember and think about things that are not physically present Deferred Imitation Based on having kept a mental representation of a previously observed event More robust after 18 months Pretend Play Pay involving imaginary people and situations Fantasy play dramatic play or imaginative play Advances of Preoperational Thought Understanding of Objects in Space Around 3 children grasp the relationship between pictures maps or scale models and what they represent 90 of 5year olds can use a map to nd or place an object Only 60 of 4year olds can do this DeLoache 1987 3year olds but not 2 12 year ods could use a model to locate a stuffed animal Advances of Preoperational Thought Understanding of Causality Piaget believed preoperational children cannot reason logically about cause and effect Transduction Tendency to mentally link particular phenomena whether or not there is logically a causal relationship Young children do grasp cause and effect 2 12 to 5year olds conversations show exible causal reasoning View causal relationships as equally and absolutely predictable Advances of Preoperational Thought Understanding of Identities amp Categorization dentities The concept that people and many things are basically the same even if they change form size or appearance Understanding this underlies selfconcept CategorizationClassification Requires children to identify similarities and differences By age 4 many children can classify by two criteria Advances of Preoperational Thought Understanding of Number Wynn Suggests infants as young as 4 12 months have a rudimentary concept of number Ordinality The concept of comparing quantities more or less bigger or smaller Begins around 12 to 18 months Can solve simple numerical ordinality problems Cardinality Understanding that the last count of a group of objects represents how many are in the group Consistently used by 3 12 years By age 5 most children can Count to 20 or more Know the relative sizes of the number 1 through 10 By elementary school most children have developed basic number sense ncudes counting number knowledge ordinality number transformation addition and subtraction estimation and recognition of number patterns Number ability is affected by SES and preschool experience Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought Centration The tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others Decenter To think simultaneously about several aspects of a situation Centration can limit children s thinking about social and physical relationships Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought Egocenntrism Egocentrism The inability to consider another person s point of view Characteristic of young children s thought ThreeMountain Task Child sits facing a table holding three large mounds Asked how the mountains look from a different point of view Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought Consevation Conservation Awareness that two objects that are equal according to a certain measure remain equal in the face of perceptual alteration so long as nothing has been added to or taken away from either object Not grasped until next stage of cognitive development rreversibility Preoperational child s failure to understand that an operation can go in two or more directions Limits the ability to conserve Children focus on successive states and do not recognize transformations from one state to the next Vocabulary At 3 they know and can use 9001000 words By 6 they have a spoken expressive vocabulary of 2600 words and understand more than 20000 Forma schooling will quadruple their understood words to 80000 by the time they enter high school Fast Mapping Process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation Grammar and Syntax By age 3 children Begin to use plurals possessives and past tense Know the difference between I you and we Can ask and answer What and Where questions Use short simple declarative sentences Often omit articles but include pronouns adjectives and prepositions 4 to 5year olds use Sentences averaging 4 to 5 words Declarative negative interrogative or imperative sentences Complex multiclause sentences Chidren this age are Affected by peers Peers with strong language skills have a small positive effect String sentences together in long runon narratives Ages 57 years Speech becomes quite adultlike Chidren speak in longer and more complicated sentences Chidren use more conjunctions prepositions and articles Rarely use the passive voice conditional sentences or the auxiliary verb have Often make errors because they have not learned exceptions to rules Overgeneralizeoverregularize Pragmatics and Social Speech Pragmatics The practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes How to ask for things tell a story or joke begin and continue a conversation etc Social Speech Speech intended to be understood by a listener Most 3year olds are talkative and pay attention to the effect of their speech Fouryearods especially girls simplify their language and use a higher register when talking to a 2yearold Most 5year olds adapt what they say to what the listener knows Private Speech Private Speech Taking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others Piaget Sign of cognitive immaturity Vygosky Special form of communication Supported by research ncreases when children are trying to solve problems or perform difficult tasks Preparation for Literacy Emergent Literacy Preschoolers development of skills knowledge and attitudes that underlie reading and writing Prereading Skills Oral language skills vocabulary syntax structure Specific phonological skills linking letters with sounds Social interaction is important in literacy development As children learn skills for reading they also learn the value of writing Scribble rst then use letters numbers letterlike shapes syllables or phonemes Reading to children is one of the most effective paths to literacy motivates them to learn to read Media and Cognition Preschoolage children comprehend the symbolic nature of television and can imitate behaviors they see By age 3 children are active media users Able to pay greater attention to dialogue and narrative Early television exposure is associated with poorer cognitive development After age 2 television exposure is related to cognitive enhancement Types of Preschools Childcentered US Stress social and emotional growth Children choose activities and interact individually with the teacher Academically focused such as China The Montessori Method Maria Montessori Based on belief that children s natural intelligence involves rational spiritual and empirical aspects Stresses the importance of children learning 4ndependenUy At their own pace With developmentally appropriate and selfchosen tasks Multiage classrooms nfancy to age 3 quotthe unconscious absorbent mindquot Age 3 to 6 quotthe conscious absorbent mindquot Teachers serve as guides Oder children help younger ones Curriculum is individualized Definite scope and sequencing Environment is of calm productivity Cassrooms are orderly and pleasing Evauation of Montessori approach 5year old Montessori students were better prepared for elementary school in reading and math The Reggio Emilia Approach Loris Malaguzzi Socia constructivist in uenced by Dewey Piaget Vygotsky and Montessori Envisioned an quoteducation based on relationshipsquot which supports the child s connections to people society and the environment Less formal than Montessori Teachers follow children s interests and support them in exploring and investigating ideas and feelings through words movement dramatic play and music Cassrooms offer complexity beauty organization and a sense of wellbeing Compensatory Preschool Programs Designed to aid children who would otherwise enter school poorly prepared to learn Project Head Start Federaly funded program Goals Enhance cognitive skills mprove physical health Foster selfcon dence Foster social skills Provides medical dental and mental health care social services and at least one hot meal a day In early reports gains seen by Head Start children were not maintained Controversial Control group was not a good control Head Start children make gains in vocabulary letter recognition early writing early mathematics and social skills Cosely related to parental involvement Benefits outweigh the costs Chidren from compensatory programs are Less likely to be placed in special education or repeat a grade More likely to nish high school Less likely to become juvenile delinquents or become pregnant in their teens Outcomes are best with earlier and longerlasting interventions through highquality centerbased programs The Child in Kindergarten Kindergarten was originally a year of transition Now kindergarten is more like rst grade Less time on selfchosen activities More time with worksheets and prereading Most 5year olds attend kindergarten lncreasing number spend a full day in school Associated with greater growth of reading and math skills from fall until spring advantages are small to moderate and disappear by 3rd grade mportance of the preparation a child receives before kindergarten Preiteracy skills and literacy environment predict reading achievement persist or increase through rst 4 years Children with preschool experience tend to adjust more easily Emotional and social adjustment also matter Ability to sit still follow directions wait one s turn and regulate own learning are more important than ABCs and counting Adjustment can be eased by Allowing children and parents to visit Shortening school days early in the school year Having teachers make home visits Hoding parent orientation sessions Keeping parents informed
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