Chapter 8 Notes
Chapter 8 Notes PSYC 225
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood Ch8 Gender awareness developed in early childhood that one is male or female Gender Differences Gender differences are psychological or behavioral differences between males and females Boys and girls on average remain more alike than different Gender Similarities Hypothesis 78 of gender differences are small to negligible and some differences change with age Physica Differences Boys have a higher activity level Boys have superior motor performance Boys have a moderately greater propensity for physical aggression Pay Striking differences in playtime preferences and styles Sextyped preferences increase from toddlerhood to middle childhood Degree of sextyped behavior exhibited early in life often predicts later genderbased behavior Cognitive Differences Few and small No gender differences in intelligence Girs perform better on tests of verbal uency mathematical computation and memory for locations of objects Boys perform better on verbal analogies mathematical word problems and memory for spatial con gurations Boys mathematical abilities vary more than girls Girs tend to use more responsive language Gender differences are valid for large groups of boys and girls but not necessarily for individuals Perspectives or Gender Development Gender Roles Behaviors interests attitudes skills and traits that a culture considers appropriate for each sex In most cultures Women were expected to devote most of their time to caring for the household and children Men were providers and protectors Women were expected to be compliant and nurturing Men were to be active aggressive and competitive Gender roles today have become more diverse and exible Gender Typing Socialization process whereby children at an early age learn appropriate gender roles Children vary greatly in the degree to which they become gendertyped Gender Stereotypes Preconceived generalizations about male or female role behavior Appear to some degree in children as young as 2 or 3 lncrease during preschool years Peak at age 5 Perspectives on Gender Development Biological Approach Similar gender roles in many cultures Evidence of neurological hormonal and evolutionary explanations for some gender differences Boys brains are about 10 larger than girls brains at age 5 Hormones may affect the developing brain Feta testosterone levels may be related to gender typical play Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH Girls with high prenatal levels of androgens Raised as girls but tend to develop into tomboys with a preference for boys toys rough play and male playmates Estrogens have less in uence on boy s gender typed behavior Sex Assignment John Money and Colleagues Recommend children with ambiguous sexual organs be assigned to the gender that holds the potential for the most nearly normal functioning Reiner amp Gearhart 2004 14 genetically male children with ambiguous sexual organs were surgically assigned to female sex during the 1St month and raised as girls Between ages 5 and 16 8 declared themselves male 5 declared female but expressed dif culty tting in l refused to discuss the subject with anyone Perspectives on Gender Development Evolutionary Approach Gendered behavior is biologically based with a purpose Gender roles underlie the evolved mating and childrearing strategies of adult males and females Theory of Sexual Selection Gender roles developed in response to men s and women s differing reproductive needs Men want to quotspread their seedquot vaue physical prowess and competition Women invest more time and energy in a pregnancy seek a mate who will support the child and as a result of raising children are more caring and nurturant Gender roles should be universal and resistant to change In all cultures women tend to be children s primary caregivers though in some societies the responsibility is shared Critics suggest society and culture are as important as biology in determining gender roles Not all societies historically had men as primary providers Certain mating preferences are different in egalitarian versus traditional societies Gender roles may change in an environment different from that in which these roles initially evolved Perspective on Gender Development Psychoanalytic Approach 4denU cann The process by which a young child adopts characteristics beliefs attitudes values and behaviors of the parent of the same sex Considered an important personality development of early childhood by Freud ln uential but dif cult to test little empirical support Perspectives on Gender Development Cognitive Approach Kohberg s CognitiveDevelopmental Theory Gender knowledge precedes gendered behavior Chidren actively search for cues about gender in their social world Gender Constancy Awareness that one will always be male or female Sexcategory constancy Three stages Gender identity ages 23 Gender stability Gender consistency ages 37 Gender Schema Theory Chidren socialize themselves in their gender roles by developing a mentally organized network of information about what it means to be male or female in a particular culture Gender schemas promote gender stereotypes by in uencing judgments about behavior Perspectives on Gender Development Social Learning Approach Chidren acquire gender roles by imitating models and being rewarded for genderappropriate behavior Gender behavior precedes gender knowledge Social Cognitive Theory Chidren learn gender roles through socialization Observation enables children to learn about gendertyped behaviors before performing them Chidren select or create their environments through choice of playmates and activities Famiy In uences Experience in the family seems to reinforce gendertypical preferences and attitudes Boys tend to be more strongly gendersocialized concerning play preferences Parents show more discomfort if a boy plays with a doll Girls have more freedom in their clothes games and in choice of playmates Younger children with an older sibling of the same sex tend to be more gendertyped Peer In uences Peer group is a major in uence on gendertyping By age 3 preschoolers generally play in sex segregated groups that reinforce gendertyped behavior ln uence of the peer group increases with age Chidren who play in samesex groups tend to be more gendertyped Peer and parental attitudes generally reinforce each other The SelfConcept and Cognitive Development SelfConcept Sense of self Descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one s abilities and traits Determines how we feel about ourselves and guides our actions Socia aspect Children incorporate how others see them Begins in toddlerhood as children develop self awareness Develops as gains are made in cognitive abilities and developmental tasks are dealt with Changes in SelfDe nition The 5 to 7 Shift SelfDe nition Custer of characteristics used to describe oneself Changes between about ages 5 and 7 Reflects selfconcept development Age 4 Concrete observable behaviors external characteristics preferences possessions members of the household Age 7 Generalized traits recognize the ability to have con icting emotions be self critical while still having a positive self concept Singe Representations First stage in development of selfde nition Chidren describe themselves in terms of individual unconnected characteristics and in allor nothing terms Real Self The self one actually is 4dealSeW The self one would like to be Representational Mappings Second stage in development of selfde nition A child makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in allornothing terms Representational Systems Third stage in development of selfde nition Chidren begin to integrate speci c features of the self into a general multidimensional concept as allornothing thinking declines Forms of Discipline lnductive Techniques Designed to induce desirable behavior by appealing to a child s sense of reason and fairness lncudes setting limits demonstrating logical consequences of an action explaining discussing negotiating and getting ideas from the child about fairness Usualy the most effective method of getting children to accept parental standards Power Assertion Designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement of parental control lncudes demands threats withdrawal of privileges spanking etc Withdrawal of Love lnvolves ignoring isolating or showing dislike for a child Neither is as effective as inductive reasoning in most circumstances and both may be harmful Parenting Styles Diana Baumrind amp the Effectiveness of Authoritative Parenting Baumrind Studied 103 preschool children from 95 families Measured how the children were functioning through interviews testing and home studies ldenti ed three parenting styles and described typical behavior patterns of children raised according to each Authoritarian Parenting Parenting style emphasizing control and obedience Children tend to be more discontented withdrawn and distrustful Permissive Parenting Parenting style emphasizing selfexpression and self regulation Children tend to be immature the least self controlled and the least exploratory Authoritative Parenting Parenting style blending respect for a child s individuality with an effort to instill social values Children tend to be selfreliant selfcontrolled self assertive exploratory and content Negectful or Uninvolved Parenting Added by Maccoby and Martin 1983 Parents who focus on their needs rather than on those of the child Linked with a variety of behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence Parenting Styles Cultural Differences in Parenting Styles Baumrind s categories re ect the dominant North American view of child development May not apply to some cultures or socioeconomic groups Asian Americans do not associate obedience and strictness with harshness and domination but with caring concern and involvement Chinese children are taught through rm and just control and governance of the child even physical punishment if necessary Frequently described as authoritarian but may more closely resemble authoritative Special Behavioral Concerns Prosocial Behavior Altruism Behavior intended to help others out of inner concern and without expectation of external reward May involve selfdenial or selfsacri ce Prosocia Behavior Any voluntary behavior intended to help others ls there a prosocial personality or disposition Coplan et al 2004 suggests there is Preschooers who were sympathetic and spontaneously shared with classmates tended to show prosocial understanding and empathetic behavior as much as 17 years later Parents of prosocial children are often prosocial themselves Special Behavioral Concerns Aggression lnstrumenta Aggression Aggressive behavior used as a means of achieving a goal Most common type in early childhood May be a necessary step in social development Gender Differences in Aggression Boys are more physically and verbally aggressive than girls Apparent by age 2 Gender Differences in Aggression Girls may be more aggressive than they seem Overt direct Aggression Aggression that is openly directed at a target Engaged in more by boys Relational social or indirect Aggression Aggression aimed at damaging or interfering with another person s relationships reputation or psychological wellbeing More likely to occur in girls ln uences on Aggression Temperament Genetic and Environmental Sources Parenta behaviors Culture Witnessing Violence Sibling Relationships Eariest most frequent and most intense arguments are over property rights Sibing disputes and their settlement may be viewed as socialization opportunities Sibing rivalry is NOT the main pattern between siblings in early life Affection interest companionship and in uence are also prevalent Quality of sibling relationships tends to carry over to relationships with other children Friendships can also in uence sibling relationships The Only Child Stereotype they are spoiled sel sh lonely and maladjusted Only children perform slightly better than children with siblings on occupational and educational achievement and verbal intelligence Only children are usually more motivated to achieve and have slightly higher selfesteem Playmates and Friends Not until around 3 years do children begin to have fnends Friendships and casual playmates teach young children how to get along with others Preschoolers usually like to play with children of the same age and sex Frequent positive experiences lead to friendships About 3 out of 4 preschoolers have mutual friendships