Week 3 Notes
Popular in Intro to Social Pysch
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willa Sharpe on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3430-02 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Pysch in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Notes Week Three Social Psychology September 8 2015 Social Cognition Social thinking 0 Automatic V controlled processing 0 Attribution theory I Theory of how people explain other s behavior Cognitive Processing 0 Controlled processing I Conscious intentional voluntary effortful thinking 0 Automatic I Nonconscious unintentional involuntary effortless 0 Cognitive misers I We are stingy with what we think about I Aint got time to think in depth about everything Automaticity 0 Use of schemas I Organizational mental structures I Function efficiency aid recall resolve ambiguity O Resolve ambiguity I Kelly study 1950 0 Rating a guest lecturer 0 Actual teacher told students different things about the guest lecturer whether they were coldwarm 0 When they were told the lecturer was warm I Students participated in class I Gave positive responses 0 When told lecturer was cold exact opposite I Which Schema when I Depends on accessibility 0 What s on the forefront of our mind 0 More likely to be used I Priming 0 Temporal accessibility 0 Recent experiences 0 Text or song may link to a memory I Chronic Access 0 Past experiences Schematic Errors 0 Automatic thinking helps us with memory and judgement 0 Also responsible for bias and memory error 0 Memory error I We use our memory to fill in blanks I Carli 1999 I Read a story about a couple on a weekend getaway 0 Ends in rape or proposal Notes Week Three Social Psychology I Asked for details later 0 Added in details that fit each schema O Attribution error I Biased perception 0 Confirmation bias 0 Tend to seek out the information that is consistent With our thoughts 0 Illusory correlation I Autism and vaccines 0 Finding order in random evens I Gambling I Hot Hand Phenomenon 0 In sports to athletes have lucky streaks 0 Is it just confidence Using Heuristics Rule of Thumb 0 Mental shortcuts I Representativeness 0 Similar to typical case I A student is blonde surfs and laid back Where is he from 0 Availability 0 What comes to mind 0 Anchoring and Adjusting 0 We use reference points for our judgements Causing confirmation 0 Selffulfilling prophecy I Making our schema come true I Expectation in uences perceivers behavior Which in uences targets behavior Which confirms the perceivers thoughts Taking control 0 Controlled processing I Requires mental capacity I Requires motivation Attribution 0 Understanding cause of behavior or events 0 Process of making inferences 0 When ask Why I Unexpected or unusual events I Bad painful or unpleasant events 0 Most common attribution I Dispositional 0 Personality you think a behavior is caused by the person s personality 0 External 0 Outside forces Kelly s covariation model 0 Consistency Does this person usually behave this way in this situation Notes Week Three Social Psychology Distinctiveness Does this person behave differently in different situations Consensus Do others behave similarly when put in the same situation High consistency low distinctiveness low consensus internal attribution High consistency high distinctiveness high consensus external attribution 0 Low consistency external attribution Fundamental Attribution Error 0 Bias in attributional error 0 Overestimate the role of the personal factors 0 Underestimate the role of situational factors 0 TwoStep Model I Behavior we first assume that it s a personal attribution but after later thought we realize it may be a situational attribution I This happens mostly in individualistic cultures ActorObserver Effect 0 Fundamental attribution error applies less to ourselves than others I Selfsituational attributions I Others its dispositional I Perspective matters Why are we sometimes wrong 0 Using mental shortcuts I Rely on automatic processing I Schemas I FAE Why do we seem right 0 Limited opportunity to be proven wrong 0 We make our beliefs come true 0 Everyone else is wrong OOOO September 10 2015 Attitudes 0 Positive or negative evaluation of something 0 Cognitive affective and behavioral components Measuring Attitudes O Selfreport measurements I Attitude scales I Bogus pipeline 0 Some attitudes people are not honest about 0 Hook up to lie detector more honest about racism even if it wasn t actually on I Covert measures 0 Face EMG 0 Implicit Association Test Notes Week Three Social Psychology 0 Can look at multiple things I Behavior I No one way to measure is perfect Sources of Attitudes O Conditioning I Classical Conditioning 0 You like to visit your grandma and she smells like moth balls in turn you find the smell of moth balls appealing I Operant Conditioning 0 Behavior is in uenced by reinforcement or punishment 0 Associate Behavior with outcome 0 Balance Theory I Cognitive consistency theory Heider I Involves the perceiver and another person and an attitude to an object 0 Genetic In uence I Studies show similarities in disgust I Know through twin studies 0 Social Roles I Stanford Prison experiment 0 Zimbardo I Unethical What functions do attitudes fill 0 Object appraisal I Attitudes categorize stimuli I Approach or Avoid 0 Value expression I Represent our identity 0 Social adjustment I Facilitates relationships 0 Ego defensive I Attitudes can defend the self from potentially harmful things Do attitudes cause certain behaviors 0 We usually do believe they should I Fundamental attribution error 0 Cognitive consistency theory I Strive for coherence meaning 0 When attitudes predict behavior I Selfawareness I When reminded I Strong attitudes 0 Direct experience I Rehearsing Stable attitudes 0 Measured at same time Relative to behavior 0 Specific vs general attitude Notes Week Three Social Psychology Why Behavior effects attitude 0 Cognitive dissonance theory I If the behavior and attitude do not match it is uncomfortable I Need to reduce dissonance I Magnitude of dissonance is key I Results usually end in a changed attitude I Insufficient justification O Selfperception theory Bem I Observe own behavior I Infer attitudes 0 Comparing Theories I In most comparisons cognitive dissonance and selfperception theory make same predictions I Critical differences 0 Cognitive dissonance arousal causes change I Selfperception Theory no arousal needed 0 Problems With Selfperception I When arousal is misinterpreted they realize they need the arousal to change the attitude 0 Problems With cognitive dissonance I Over justification I Tactical feedback finding Conclusion 0 Behavior affects attitude on multiple parts 0 Dissonance may explain change 0 SelfPerception Theory may explain formation
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