Week 4 Notes
Popular in Intro to Social Pysch
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willa Sharpe on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3430-02 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Pysch in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Notes Week Four Social Psychology September 15 2015 Genes Gender and Culture Are people the same everywhere I Sleep 0 Biological phenomenon 0 Cultural phenomenon I Does everyone need selfesteem 0 American s vs Asians 0 Better than average effects I Natural selection 0 Process where b those numbers of a species who survive and reproduce most effectively are the ones who pass genes I Evolutionary psychology I Cultural perspectives 0 Culture 0 The enduring behavior attitudes ideas and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Evolved for culture 0 Standards for accepted and expected behavior 0 Unwritten rules 0 All cultures have I There are similarities 0 All have incest taboo 0 Treat friends with respect friendship rules I There are lots of different I Cultures close to equator value personal space less 0 Americans like a lot of personal space 0 Punctuality 0 What is considered late I Brazil 335 min CA 19 min 0 What is considered early I Brazil 54 min CA 24 min 0 Place of life 0 Accuracy of bank clocks 0 Speed at which people walk 0 Time to sell a stamp Social Roles 0 All cultures have social roles 0 Social roles are a set of norms defining how people in a given social position out to behave I High status decision making power I Low status 0 Across all cultures gender is an important social role Gender vs Sex Notes Week Four Social Psychology 0 One view I Sex is a biological category I Gender is a social constructed notion of what is masculine and what is feminine 0 Not perfect agreement of this front 0 Use gender as defined by the textbook Gender typing 0 Process of categorizing people and things as masculine and feminine 0 Automatic processing 0 Gender typing begins before birth I 90 of infants dressed in gender typing clothes 0 Continue through childhood and adulthood Gender and self 0 Children know own gender at 23 years can label others genders by 45 years old 0 Transgender I People whose gender identity does not match the gender they were assigned at birth Gender Stereotypes O Beliefs about the personal attributes of females and males 0 Activating gender stereotypes I Amount of information 0 The less we know the more likely we are to use stereotypes I Salience of group membership 0 EX Solo status 0 Applies to religion and ethnic groups too 0 Power and stereotype I Powerful people are more likely to stereotype Dangers of stereotyping 0 Some are wrong 0 Exaggerate difference between groups and minimize differences within a group 0 Can be selffulfilling prophecies Gender stereotypes and performance evaluations 0 Early research showed men evaluated more positively than women 0 Gender typing of work being done Gender similarities 0 Despite stereotypes men and women are more similar than different 0 Focus more on differences than similarties Gender differences Theoretical Perspectives 0 Biology I Weight height and fat content are different I Women are more sensitive to sounds and smells I Men enter puberty two years later than women I Men live five years less than women 0 Socialization I Children are taught sex appropriate behaviors Notes Week Four Social Psychology I Children prefer same sex social groups 0 Social Role theory I Biological and socialization theory I Talks about how the division of labor may make these gender differences 0 Social Situations I Women participated in mock job interviews I Half told they would be interview by a man who was more traditional or nontraditional I With traditional man they wore more jewelry make up and talked less September 17 2015 Genes Gender and culture Women in leadership 0 Women are 35 of physicians and surgeons but only 16 of medical school deans O 16 of directors producers or writers on top grossing films are women 0 18 of the US House 20 of Senators and 10 of governors are women Social Role Theory 0 People infer qualities of a group based on the roles that members of a group usually occupy I Segregation by role stereotype I Women are usually in a more communal role I Men are more agentic Implication of gender role beliefs 0 Roles create both prescriptive should and proscriptive should not 0 Agentic Women I Face backlash may be competent and respected but not liked I Face prejudice The double bind for females 0 If they are too feminine they may be thought of as insufficiently decisive 0 If they are not feminine enough they are thought of as not nice Role Congruity 0 Incongruity between taking charge and taking care leads to prejudice 0 Females are seen as less capable and evaluated less favorably for leadership positions Media Images contribute to problem 0 Females view two sets of ads stereotypical and counter stereotypical They were then selected to lead a three person group 0 When compared to the females who looked at the stereotypical ad the women who viewed the counter stereotypical ad felt more confident and overall there was a significant increase of those who aspired to have leadership positions Notes Week Four Social Psychology Implications of the Social Role Theory 0 Biology is not destiny I Social roles can vary and change I Today females make up half of the United States work force I As roles and stereotypes change people s aspirations may change Gender differences 0 Aggression I Big gender difference in physical aggression 0 Eg FBI crime statistics say that 85 of violent crimes are committed by men I Why I Testosterone in men I Give young boys weapons as toys at a young age 0 In verbal aggression there is no difference 0 Women are slightly higher when it comes to relational aggression 0 Women may fear retaliation O Conformity I Traditional Roles dictate that men be less easily in uenced than women I Results of a metaanalysis 0 Small tendency for women to be more easily in uenced than men I Results vary largely from study to study I May depend on the gender typing of a task 0 Nonverbal communications I Metaanalysis revealed that women are better at nonverbal communication I What are the diffences 0 The largest difference is in reading facial expressions which the women excel at 0 The next largest is reading the body language 0 And the smallest is for decoding the tone of voice 0 Sexuality I Men have more permissive attitudes about casual sex I Differences have decreased since the 1960 s but still exist I Why 0 Men are said to have a higher sex drive 0 Mating preferences I Women are more likely to try and choose a mate who is a powerful ambitious or wealthy partner I Men are more likely to try an choose a partner who is physically attractive I Why 0 Parental Investment Theory Notes Week Four Social Psychology 0 Women are limited on the amount of children they can have so they invest in the few they do 0 Women also want partners who have the resources for children 0 Men want women who are fertile and can bear children I As the wealth gap closes then men and women want more similar qualities in partners 0 Personal Entitlement I What people believe they deserve for their work I Men have more personal entitlement I Why 0 Women are content with less or do men need more to be happy 0 Men compare their pay to men 0 Women compare their pay to other women 0 Men overall generally make more than women making this unbalanced Changing Roles for men and women 0 Roles vary across cultures and across time 0 Culture I Ideas or ideals for marriage I Western Love 0 Other cultures for uniting families I Number of women in management positions vary I Gender typing of jobs and clothes vary Division of labor 0 O 0 US proportion of married women who work doubled between 1990 and 1998 There are more women in college today than men Women make less money Homework and Childcare O Housework gap is narrowing I Working women spend less time on house work than they used to Hetero men do more housework if there are nontraditional sex attitudes they re needed because of the mother s work schedule or the incomes are similar Gay couples I Men divide work by preferences I Women share tasks work together