Chapter 5: Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood Vessels
Chapter 5: Cardiovascular System: Heart and Blood Vessels BIOL O1113
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Hallenbeck on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL O1113 at Rowan University taught by Dr. Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see General Biology: Human Focus in Biology at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Made up of the heart a pump and a network or vessels Transport delivers oxygen and nutrients removes carbon dioxide and wastes Protection transports cells of the immune system Regulation participates in homeostasis Arteries and arterioles carry 02 rich blood away from the heart 0 Arteries consist of a layer called endothelium mostly smooth muscle 0 Arterioles empty into capillaries o Capillaries permit exchange of nutrients and wastes Precapillary sphincters control blood ow 0 Venules merge to form veins that transport blood back to heart Values prevent back ow of the blood Muscle organ that pumps blood throughout the body 0 2 layers in heart walls membranous sac that surrounds the heart secretes uid 0 interior wall of tissue mostly cardiac muscle septum separates 4 chambers 2 thin walled atria 2 thick walled ventricles valves help control blood in the heart 4 valves 0 between atria and ventricles right atrioventricular valve is the tricuspid valve left atrioventricular valve is the bicuspid valve mitral valve 0 between the ventricles and the arteries into which they pump blood cups of valves attached to heart muscle via choardae tendineae heart sounds result from closing of heart valves murmur occurs when blood leaks back into atria ventricles after contraction 1 Blood enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior 2 Right ventricle pumps blood through the semilunar valve to the lungs via left pulmonary arteries Pulmonary capillaries with in lungs allow for gas exchange 02 enters the blood and C02 is excreted Oxygenated blood returns to heart via 4 pulmonary veins Blood travels through the left atrium Left atrium pumps blood through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle Left ventricles pumps blood into the to the body Veins carry oxygen rich blood Arteries carry oxygen poor blood ASD atrial septal defect Small hole between atrium Lets oxygen poor blood ow into area with oxygen poor blood serve the heart itself 0 Coronary artery disease where the arteries become blocked can lead to myocardial infection aka heart attack Angioplasty tube inserted up femoral artery to x blocked artery ln ate tube to open a stint that is inserted 0 Cholesterol is carried by high density lipoproteins HDL and low density lipoprotins LDL Pquot 39 Uquot39gt Heart rate controlled primarily by an internal pacemakers o node is located in the upper wall of right atrium Sends out an electric signal Electrical impulse travels to atrial muscle cells causing them to contract Impulse next travels to the ventricles Delated passage to allow time for the ventricles to ll o lmpulses channeled to the o Impulse carried by the atrioventricular bundle which end at the purkinje bers Cardiae center in the can alter the heart beat Measured on the surface of the chest 0 Measured on the EKG P Wave contraction of the atria QRS impulse travels through the ventricles ventricles contraction T Wave repolarization of ventricles o Fibrillation of either the atria or ventricles is caused by uncoordinated irregular electrical activity De brillator uses external electrical current 0 A pulse measures heart rate Force blood exerts on the wall of a blood vessel 0 Highest in aorta drops considerably as the arteries branch o This decline enhances the rate of exchange between the blood and the tissues Measures by sphygmomanometer O In ated cuff stops blood ow 0 When pressure exceeds pressure in cuff blood ows again top number in blood pressure contraction of ventricles bottom number in blood pressure Relaxing of ventricles circulates blood through the lungs 0 Blood travels to the lungs via the right and left pulmonary arteries Arterioles take blood to the pulmonary capillaries where 02 is acquired and C02 is given off The serves the needs of body tissues 0 Aorta receives oxygenated blood Distributed via the arteries 0 Vena cava and veins carry oxygen poor blood to the heart 0 Blood pressure and osmotic pressure controls the movement of uid through the capillary walls Blood Interstitial uid is collected by the lymphatic capillaries and is called Cardiovascular system is subject to a variety of potentially life threatening diseases of potentially life threatening diseases 0 O O 1 cause of death in the US heart attack Caused by blockage of the arteries supplying heart muscle can occur without warning or may be preceded by several weeks of chest pain O 0 Results from build up of cholesterol plaque in arteries Arteries clogged with cholesterol force the heart to work harder Blood clots can lodge in narrowed coronary arteries 0 Can dislodge and clog small vessels a process called Can cause hypertension heart attack or aneurysm High blood pressure develops gradually over time Hypertension is a prolonged elevation in blood pressure Greater than 14090 Can cause stroke of heart attack o Strokes result when a small cranial arteriole bursts or is blocked a clot Lack of oxygen then causes part of the brain to die Can be preceded by numbness in the hands or face dif culty speaking or temporary blindness in one eye 0 Weakening of arterial wall can result in rupture of wall 0 Blood pours out of the circulatory system and often leads to death 0 Reducing atherosclerosis and high blood pressure can help prevent aneurysm 0 De ned as the heart no longer pumping as it should Can be treated with an implantable cardio venter de brillator ICD lCDs can sense abnormally fast and slow rhythms and provide an electrical shock or produce a missing beat 0 Heart beating too slowly bradycardic 0 Too fast tachycardia 2300 every year 1300 experiencing heart failure received Total Arti cial Heart TAH left ventricle assist device LVAD implanted o a tube passed from left ventricle to blood from left ventricle to LVAD which pumps it to the atria reduce risk of heart problems 0 eat properly exercising good stress management at risk can take low dose aspirin Use blood clot dissolving agents Balloon angioplasty Insertion of a stent Coronary bypass surgery OOOO Consists of plasma and formed elements blood cells and platelets 0 Plasma o Formed elements Red blood cells erythrocytes White blood cells leukocytes o Platelets Plasma is 55 of blood volume and the formed elements the remainder Blood functions include o Transports blood transports 02 C02 nutrients and waste 0 Defense white blood cells engulf pathogens and produce anti bodies blood clotting prevents blood loss 0 Regulation regulates heat maintains pH and helps maintain its own water salt balance straw colored uid that helps maintain homeostasis o transports gases nutrients hormones proteins 0 al bumins o globulins 0 alpha beta and gamma brinogen involved in clotting wastes plasma proteins help regulate blood pH and osmotic pressure some proteins serve as carrier proteins highly exible transport 0 oxygen carbon dioxide Red blood cells replenished by tem cells in bone marrow Lack nuclei and organelles Hemoglobin is an oxygen transporting protein found in red blood cells 0 Oxygen binds to the iron in hemoglobin molecules has 02 bound to home doesn t have 02 bound Production stimulated by erythroprotein EPO a hormone produced by kidneys 7 of C02 dissolved in plasma hemoglobin transports 23 of C02 C02 combines with water to form bicarbonate which diffuses into the plasma When blood reaches the lungs bicarbonate is converted back to C02 and exhaled Anemia Results in a decrease in oxygen transport by the blood Can be result of o Decreasing number of circulating red blood cells 0 Reduction in red blood cell hemoglobin content Iron de ciency lack of vitamin 812 causes pernicious anemia Folic acid de ciency hemolysis rupturing of red blood cells 0 Abnormal hemoglobin in red blood cells Sickle cell anemia Diverse group that protects from infection 0 Produced in bone marrow and circulate in the blood stream 0 Able to squeeze through pored or capillaries Multiple types granularlucocytes and non granularlucocytes Neutrophils Monocytes Lymphocytes Basothes Eosinophils Multi bed nucleus First to arrive at injury Phagocytic cells Involved in in ammation and allergic response Basophils like mast cells produce histamine Eosinophile help ght off parasitic infections and engulf allergens Phagocy ze Microorganisms dead cells and cellular debris Stimulate of her white blood cells Involved in immune reaction to pathogens and toxins Play vital role in immune protection 2 types of lymphocytes 0 T lymphocytes 0 B lymphocytes O O O O O o Caused by Ebstein Barr virus 0 Infects lymphocytes in blood stream 0 Symptoms include Fatigue aches sore throats 0 Cancer of the white blood cells Acute and chronic lmpairs bone marrow s ability to produce red blood cells and platelets o Uncontrolled production of abnormal or immature white blood cells 00 0 Stem cells lack adenosine dereinase which is needed for cells to differentiate into T and B cells Derived from No nucleus organelles Clotting or coagulation is a chain reaction stimulated by the release of Thromboplastic converts prothromW Thrombin acts on another protein Fibrinogen is converted into brin Fibrin web traps red blood cells and platelets Platelets captured by the brin web releases additional thoromboplastin Clots dissolved by O O O O O O o Potentially life threatening clotting disorder Lover fails to produce the necessary clotting factors Caused by hereditary genetic defect Can be treated with blood transfusions and blood clotting factors 0 Too few platelets 0 Can be caused by drugs for conditions 0 Lining of blood vessel becomes roughened allowing clot to form 0 Clot thrombus can break off and travel to other parts of the body causing Determined by glycoproteins antigens on red blood cell membranes 0 4 blood types A B AB and O 0 letters refer to the types of glycoprotein present of the plasma membrane of red blood cells must be typed to prevent agglutination clumping of red blood cells must also be considered for blood transfusions problem if Rh negative mother has an Rh positive baby 0 hemolytic disease of the newborn prevented with rhogam carbon monoxide disrupt homeostasis o binds to hemoglobin
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