Week 4 (Attention Continued, Memory)
Week 4 (Attention Continued, Memory) PSYC 2014
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2014 at George Washington University taught by Dopkins, S in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Septemer 21 23 2015 Cognitive Psychology Quiz Question Review 916 John s visual sensory store is being tested with the partial report procedure He is presented with an array consisting of 3 rows of 4 letters apiece and cued to repeat back the letters from the second row He remembers 3 letters We infer that letters were recorded in John s sensory store at the time the cue was presented A 0 letters B 3 letters C9letters D 12 letters WHY If John remembers 34 75 of the letters in the row he was asked to recall it is said that he recorded 34 75 of the letters in the entire picture If there were 3 rows of 4 there were 12 letters shown 34 75 of 12 is 9 which is why 9 is correct Why is this proportion assumed Shown in studies that people aren t looking around because they don t have time they are mainly just staring at the image as a whole You re generalizing how they did on the single row to all the rows Attention Continued Platform for Attention The text tells you that you need to pay attention but you don t make selection based on what is in the world you make it based on what is in this sensory memory that you have That is the platform from what you select Why do you work with the sensory memory as a platform for what you pay attention to rather than whats out there in the world little bit of it at one moment Septemer 21 23 2015 Basically we don t have the whole world at our disposal we only perceive a Because of our visual system we can only see a little bit sharp and clear at any given moment Sensory memory allows you to extend what you are perceiving further than what you can actually see We use it to hold on to and piece together the world Partial Report Procedure review from last time 1 Present array of letters 2 Present row signal Ex sound that indicates what row to report 3 Subject tries to report contents of the row that the signal indicated We infer how much is in their memory by the proportion of what they remember ONLY works if they are asked to report the row right after the array of letters disappears Number able to remember goes down the longer it takes for the subject to know which row to report Duration of Sensory Storage You can wait various amounts of time before presenting signal in Partial Report Procedure Why would you want to wait longershorter amount of time See how quickly the information is forgottengoes away gt Graph shows what happens as you wait longer andlonger Can essentially chart history of this memory We find that it is very SHORT quotUWW Septemer 2123 2015 This graph is showing sensory memory lifespan only What if it was longer New information would be interfered with the old information Sort of like you would be walking around with double vision almost AKA you do not want this memory to be any longer Coding in Sensory Storage Coding in sensory storage basically means what are you remembering We did 2 exercises He showed a picture of 3 rows of letters and numbers and asked us to remember either numbers or letters after it was shown He then showed a picture of 3 rows of letters some bolded and some lighter After it was shown he told us to remember either the light or dark letters This is easier why What is being remembered You re not interpreting that input as having any content you don t have time to know what it means Ex if you hear I love Paris in Chinese you would register that as a series of sounds but if they said I love Paris in English you would register that as a sentence of words Precategorical Storage information stored before it is categorized on basis of longterm knowledge You are not aware of those stimuli as letters and numbers in the short time the lettersnumbers are in your sensory memory You don t have time to register what everything is because the image is flashed so quickly it is literally just a pattern on your retina You will remember you saw this sunset but the image of the sunset will fade You categorized it as a beautiful sunset but you are no longer appreciatingseeing the beauty because the memory will fade Septemer 21 23 2015 In your sensory memory you will hold onto the memory for a second longer Attention as a Filter Attention is a system of throwing away what you aren t paying attention to What is the nature of this filter we use to throw away what happens around us Envision a scenario Ex You are on the metro talking to a friend and some guy behind you is talking on his phone Do you listen to this guy or to your friend Hopefully you are listening to your friend but how do you do that For a long time it was thought that you make this decision on the basis of the physical properties EarlySelection Filter selects and filters out information on basis of physical properties gt o I If It Isn t coming from the right place I v you just dump it it Well what if the guy who was talking on I the phone all of a sudden says your name or starts talking about something very provocative now you re paying attention Therefore now we know it cannot just be physical characteristics Cocktail Party Effect one often hears one s name when it is spoken in conversations to which one is not attending Given this exists we have to inter we are not using an EarlySelection Filter Dichotic Listening Task set of headphones used to deliver different messages to S s two ears 8 shades 0Lquot huhMr Tm repeats back one of the messages Of interest what the S perceives and remembers of a both messages quot M x Q 4 3 EFL3F You basically have two conversations going on and you are told to pay attention to one Septemer 21 23 2015 Prove you are paying attention by repeating it back but the question is how much are you remembering of both the conversations This is quite challenging to have both messages coming through Yet you do process to some degree what comes in on both channels If you have a message coming in one ear but then the messages switches ears you are able to repeat back what was said This shows you are paying attention in both ears The content in the ear which you are not supposed 39F to be paying attention you are following Nothing special about the conversation like hearing your name or something provocative LateSelection Filter selects and filters out Early Selection Trensman 1961 information on the basis gt F SQIHBHUC of content Sensory t Fme Analys5 AUHIYSIS You are analyzing 39 everythmg and When Late Selection l39DCutSCh 8 Oeulsch 1963 Norman 1968 the information you are paying attention leads gt Sammy Semantic gt you to pay attention to AHHIYSIS MallSIS gt Fine 9 some other source your attention will go there Attention as a Resource Attention involves making choices because you really cannot pay attention to everything there is a limit to your attentional capacities Thinking of attention as a resource because you have a limited amount Capacity Theory of Attention capacity for focus varies with the level of arousal and the number and complexity of tasks that must be simultaneously performed lntroverts have a higher capacity for attention Septemer 21 23 2015 Ex when you are supposed to be paying attention but you really are just too tireddon t have enough energy to pay attention Capacity needs to be divided up between all the things you need to be paying attention to Watched VIDEO of a bunch of people passing a ball around and you needed to count the passes made by those in black shirts There is also a woman who walks through the screen with an umbrella most of the class did not notice This is because you are busy focusing on the black shirted teams number of passes do not have enough attention lnattentional Blindness a stimulus is not perceived even though the stimulus is directly in front of the subject because the subject is not attending to the stimulus Another VIDEO of The Color Changing Card Trick How is it different than the first video In this one you are not asked to focus on something specific Why don t we notice the change The changes aren t necessarily about the card trick they are about other things The woman with the umbrella walks through the middle of the picture versus these changes which are subtle You see the actual change the second time around involves movement which you don t see in the first video Typically when something moves you will notice it so when he changes his shirt you notice the second time Why didn t you see him take off his shirt the first time The camera did NOT show it You see these successive views and something changes between views because it is normally not important you don t notice the change Septemer 21 23 2015 Change Blindness difficulty in perceiving change across successive views of a scene because attention not focused on relevant part of scene Not simply that your attention is directed elsewhere it is so that it is very difficult to even SEE the change the way it is presented Another VIDEO of an actor asking directions to a stranger Then the actor gets switched with another actor behind a painting carried by and the stranger doesn t no ce This is because their attention is on giving directions not on the person asking them Another VIDEO of the same picture but one thing changes it took everyone very long to notice the difference Why You are instructed to notice the change but you don t know whatwhere it is going to be Exercise in class search for an X or a G What normally happens people do not notice the first G because it occurs right after an X Attentional Blink difficulty in detecting a search target immediately after detecting a search target Because the G came right after the X you did not notice the G Septemer 21 23 2015 Cognitive Psychology Attention Continued Attentional Blink difficulty in detecting a search target immediately after detecting a search target Automatic and Controlled Processes Attentional resources more important for some tasks than others If you can do something through an automatic process it will take less resources and therefore you will be less limited Controlled Processes Intentionally controlled Something you are conscious of doing BUT there is a limit within this because for example you39re conscious of your breathing even though you39re not focused on doing it Decide to do it made a decision to or to not do something Act of will involved Available to conscious awareness Slow Require attentional resources Automatic Processes Not intentionally controlled Not available to conscious awareness Fast Require few attentional resources Examples Heartbeat Septemer 21 23 2015 Example of driving a car while talking on the phone ls driving in the car an automatic process The different components of driving are probably automatic pressing the pedal holding the steering wheel etc Automatic when things around you are normalexpected NOT automatic when things are abnormalunexpected Driving a car is really not automatic or controlled because it varies Mostly automatic but somethings it becomes not automatic because something unexpected happens Can t tell about your skills in driving a car while on the phone until you re put in an unexpected condition Stroop Effect PURPLE YELLOW RED Color names are printed in colored ink gt BLACK RED GREEN RED YELLOW ORANGE BLUE PURPLE BLACK Findings the ink color is named more slowly when RED GREEN ORANGE the ink color is not the same as the color name written in that color S s task name ink color What is the process interfering Reading the word is the process that is interfering with naming the color Article to Read for Assignment 1 On the Stroop Effect Questions we answer in the paper are in the syllabus and on blackboard What theories guided their search What questions did they try to ask What were their hypotheses What is the key difference between these three questions Theory is the broadest level of research assume the theory is true and not question it Think about this as their are basic things that are not going to be questioned Septemer 21 23 2015 For example people can read people can name colors etc Want to get to the level right below these assumptions to get to the overarching theory What were their basic assumptions They will then ask questions within that theory Difference between the questions you39re asking and the hypothesis What the authors think the outcome will be X and the hypothesis will state this opinion on outcome The hypothesis is taking question and putting it in the context of this experiment It is also stating what the answer tooutcome of the hypothesis Population vs Sample Population while group you are wondering about Sample smaller part of the group you are testing IV vs DV IV variable that is being manipulated by the researcher DV variable that changes due to the manipulation of the IV Variable you are observing Don t look at the articles they used as references more important to focus on the ques ons Quotations not necessary Not a formal paper don t need citations and references Speak in colloquial sense about the answers to the questions Congruent vs incongruent Referring to whether the color matches the word written Not much info on the sample in this kind of research not a whole lot of attention is put on sample Pretty much the same for everybody which is why not a lot is said about the sample 10 Septemer 21 23 2015 Just say a little something about the sample that the article talks about Get right to the questions avoid summary Try to put it into a paragraph format don t just put numbers to the questions Try to lead from one question to another Attention Continued Neuropsychology of Attention 11 Where in the brain is attention supported What part of the brain is responsible for paying attention Simultanagnosia Usually from tumors strokes etc Damaged area is between where the visual and touch information are registered where the yellow star is On BOTH sides Lateralized function where there is actually 2 different processes being lateralized one on the left and one on the right side Need to have both of these damaged in order to lose this function Symptoms include difficult identifying more than one object at a time Subject would not be able to trace the hammer or the flower could if there were JUST a hammer or flower there What is the function that is evidently supported in these two areas of the brain Subject would be missing the ability to zero in on one thing out of several things 39 VIDEO Man cannot even reach out and grab a spoon because he is getting it confused with objects throughout the room Septemer 2123 2015 He can see everything he just can t zero in on things Short Term and Working Memory Imagine that you have a very rich sensory experience Ex taking a bath can feel the water on your skin touch candles burning smell music playing hear looking out the window at Paris vision drinking wine taste Now image a week in the future from when this happened what do you remember You re not feeling the water or smelling the candles or tasting the wine or hearing the music or see the streets of Paris You may just remember being drunk in a bathroom If you want to hold onto something for a very long time say the rest of your life you can t remember it in very much richness Can only hold onto this richness for a second There actually are people who can remember everything in all its richness they can actually draw a picture that says exactly what happened These people are typically dysfunctional they are not functioning because they cannot cope with the world You have to abstract you can t live life this way ShortTerm Memory STM The longer you hold onto to something the less vivid you recall it Memory that holds onto things a little longer than sensory memory but not by much Capacity STM How much can it hold Adult humans can recall about 7 letters integers words acronyms from STM Not large Shows us a series of letters quickly how many can you remember KFCBLTAMMABC Just really need to remember 4 because of this 12 Septemer 21 23 2015 KFC kentuoky fried Chicken BLT bacon lettuce tomato AMM add mayo and mustard ABC already been chewed You already know these acronyms Chunk unit of storage in short term memory 13 Meaningful unit of interpretation for the person doing the storing