Lecture 1 notes
Lecture 1 notes CAS NE101 A1
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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Rocheleau on Tuesday September 16, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to CAS NE101 A1 at Boston University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Intro to Neuroscience in Neuroscience at Boston University.
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Date Created: 09/16/14
Lecture 1 Roots of Neuroscience 0 4 main questions o What are the connections and circuitry in the brain o How are cognitive and psychological processes supported by the brain o Compartmentalizationwhere are the locations of functions in the brain o Will we find a cure for mental illnesses 0 Connection o Neurons and synapses gt neural circuits gt brain systems o History Reticular theory vs Neuron theory I Reticular theory states that everything in the nervous system is a single interlinking network I Gogi s black reaction 0 Stained some cells and ended up isolating individual neurons 0 Cajalidentified neurons as discrete units of the brain 0 Proved the neuron theory over the reticular theory I Galvani 0 Saw electric stimulation activates nerves and muscles 0 But unlike electricity nerve conduction does not need a complete circuit I Otto Loeui 0 Discovered the chemical basis of neural transmission o Stimulated the vagus nerve to slow heart rate then extracted fluid and used it to influence the heart rate of a second heart I The fluid slowed that heart too I Something was in the fluid it was not due directly to electricity o Led to the discovery of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators I Current treatments for mental illnesses manipulate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the brain I Charles Sherington 0 Elaborated on findings of the reflex arc stimulus at one end of neuron produces muscular movement at other end 0 Argued neurons are independent units o Coined the term synapse 0 Outlined complex circuitry of reflexes including exhibitory and inhibitory connections o More advanced understanding of reflexes than reflex arcs gave 0 Speculated higher functions result from concatenation of reflex pathways 0 Cognition Herman Ebbinghaus I Sought to create quotpsychophysics I Developed methods for measuring memory 0 O O O 0 Ivan Pavlov Saw that muscles do not contract all at once o This is called reciprocal inhibition o Result of our nerves working and communicating when we use our muscles Developed nonsense syllables o A series of three letters two consonants separated by a vowel o Measured how many he could memorize at one time in a certain amount of time I Set out to characterize conditioned reflexes I Classical conditioning Karl Lashley Pavlov conducted an experiment in which he paired stimuli a bell and presentation of food to a dog who after time begain to exhibit the same response to the bell by itself as the food Discovered psychic secretion phenomenon that other non biological stimuli can cause gastric secretions I Wanted to understand the reflex arc for more complex actions Edward Tolman Believed there must be a reflex arc between the visual and motor area of the brain He cut between the sensory and motor areas in a rats brain o No effect He made larger lesions between the two areas and this did affect its processing As a result Lashley concluded learning is impossible I Maze learning in rats Donald Hebb Rewarded rats learned quickly and showed they were capable of latent learning and insight o Rats developed cognitive map of maze Unrewarded ratsdid not learn as quickly but still developed cognitive maps Further tests proved unrewarded rats still learned but didn t show it because they had no reason to I How do neural circuits support behavior 0 Key ideascell assembly network of neurons connected by plasticity and capable of representing something 0 Phase sequencemoving through cell assemblies o Evidence for insight and inferences o Stanford Experiment for associative transitivity I fMRs shoed hippocampus activity when subjects linked A to C 0 the experiment wanted subjects to conclude that since AB and BC AC 0 Compartmentalization o Thomas Willis I Dissected brains and saw different components within them 0 Saw brain areas were altered in those with brain injuries o Franz Joseph Gall I Looked for brain activity by looking at bumps on skullslocalized qualities to certain areas on skulls 0 Came to be known as phrenologydiscredited o Broca and Wernicke I Broca s patient suffered from strokes and lost speech ability 0 At patient s death Broca found damage in a specific area in the brain o Became Broca s area I Wernicke has a similar situationpatient couldn39t understand language 0 Found damage localized to one area now known as Wernicke s area o Functional map of cortex I fMRs help with this 0 they show parts of the brain most active in an activity
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