crim102weekfive.pdf CJC 102 -2
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Eiseman on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 -2 at Ball State University taught by Jonathan Intravia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
921 Rational Choice theory etc 1 Situational choice Theory a variation of rational choice theory b Argues that the decision to engage in crime is shaped by the situational constraints and opportunities c situations vary according to time location personal circumstances who is present and what is going on i decision to violate the law or not i Motivation 1 temptations bad influences 2 idleness 3 provocation ii opponun y 1 financial rewards 2 knowledge of criminal techniques 3 personal experiences iii criminal opportunities are created by 1 knowledge of the necessary skills and techniques 2 understanding limitations 3 not getting caught 2 Routine Activities theory a variation of rational choice theory i Cohen and Felson ii Crime is understood in terms of the routine activities of everyday life such as 1 what we do 2 where we go 3 who we interact with iii argues that victim and offender lifestyles contribute to both the amount and type of crime within a society iv translate criminal intentions into action b three characteristics must be present for crime to occur 1 motivated offender a one who plans to commit a crime 2 a suitable target a potential victim 3 an absence of capable guardians a those who might prevent the victimization c found in daily activities led to higher crime more people worked outside of home 1 increases likelihood of exposure to would be criminals in public places such as parking garages or bus stops 2 also reduces the guardianship of one39s home and personal goods 3 more people are likely to be outside the home makes you more likely to be victimized number of portable goods that are easier to steal increased 1 electronics became lighter a tvs vs tvs in the 70 s b ipads c phones d mp3 players portable 2 changes in lifestyle led to higher crime a crimes it explains i assau s ii theft 3 Deterrence Theory a the rebirth of the classical school of thought in the 1970 s was a response to the apparent failure of rehabilitation V national surveys failed to show what methods worked regarding rehabilitation of offenders made more sense to frighten criminals with severe punishments than to waste public funds trying to improve social conditions linked to crime 1 thoughts of being too harsh led to failure of rehabilitation and went back to a theory of deterrence instead of wasting public money to improve offenders in society Retained the classical school concept of punishment to deter crime 1 the modern notion of deterrence is consistent with Beccaria and Bentham Informal deterrence 1 negative reactions from others when they find out about the arrest or conviction of the offender a loss ofjobs or friendships b divorce c social stigma 2 calling parents a scares people still under control of parents 3 involves negative reactions you get from others a wearing crocs General deterrence 1 crime control policy 2 members of the public are deterred from committing crime when they fear penalties 3 involves the indirect or vicarious experience of punishment through seeing others receive unpleasant outcomes for their ac ons 9 repeated often high profile followed by media increase police activity in problem areas or problem times i such as bars during holidays vi Specific deterrence 1 offenders already punished will be deterred from repeating criminality due to fearing punishment 2 goal of sentencing is to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality a nes i tickets ii jail time or bail in coun iv community service 1 ex drunk driving 2 refuses to do act again because he remembers punishments and wants to avoid getting them again 4 Evaluating classicalrational choice theory a shaped the course of criminological theory for hundreds of years i criticisms of classical theory 1 individuals do not always weigh the costs and benefits of their ac ons a overestimate free will 2 people do not always agree on what constitutes pleasure and pain 3 it fails to take account of the wide variety of variables affecting an individual39s decision to engage in crime b major criticisms i over simplifies the complexity of human interaction with the social environment 1 some crimes do not appear to be rational a example burglary vs violence i burglary is more planned and thought about ii planned escape routes timing iii violent acts are usually done out of irrational judgement or over emotional expression of feelings 90 2 Felson a irrational violence has very specific meanings and motives and also serve several specific goals i violence as a means of control 1 example spousal abuse ii violence as a means of revenge iii violence as a means of deterrence iv violence as a means of establishing reputation 1 gang activities c Fails to account of the wide variety of variables affecting an individual39s decision to engage in crime i such as differences in biological and psychological factors ii these criticisms inspired the rise of positivist theories d fails to explain the impact of socialization poverty and social structure of crime e does not account for certain characteristics that may influence reasoning i impulsiveness ii drugs iii alcohol 923 1 Policy implications a crimeprevention policies and procedures that rely on the classicalrational choice perspective 1 if crime is rational how do we make crime less attractive ii situational crime control iii deterrence strategies 1 general specific 2 specific iv incapacitation strategies b Situational crime prevention i includes policies designed to make crime a more difficult and costly alternative 1 alters fiscal settings in high risk settings ii Key elements 1 increase the effort needed to commit the crime a locking gates b bars on windows c brighter lights 2 increase the perceived risk of committing the crime a neighborhood watch groups TRAIT THEORIES b street lighting c more cops on patrol 3 reduce the potential rewards of the crime a dye packs in bank bags b gps systems in cars 4 reduce situations that provoke anger and aggression a limiting the capacity in bars and night clubs 5 removing rationalizing excuses for committing crimes a set clear examples i signs that say they prosecute or that they39re under surveillance deterrence strategies 1 general deterrence a used to reduce ceme and deviance by setting standards that apply to everyone b key strategies i determinate sentencing 1 fixed sentence for committing an offence ii random traffic stops 1 deter drunk driving 2 specific deterrence a intended to teach criminals a lesson b key strategies i mandatory minimum sentences 1 fixed jail terms for offences ii truth in sentencing guidelines 1 offenders serve more than 80 percent of their sentence in prison before they can beHeved a no probation b serve more percentage of prosecution time incapacitation strategies 1 sentencing philosophy aimed to prevent rather than deter future offending a people age out of crime 2 incapacitation effect a increase numberpercentage of population in jail or prison and reduce the crime rate i some argue that this effect is simply deterrence 1 biological perspective overview a built on the foundation of positivism i presumes that criminal behavior is caused by biological forces beyond an individual39s control ii REJECTS the notion of rational choice and free will and uses the scientific method to uncover the root causes of criminal behavior iii studies the biological properties attempt to establish a link between traits and criminality 1 establish links between certain links and crime 2 fundamental assumptions of the biological approach a the brain controls the mind and personality b human behavior is linked to a person39s bio structure c differences in behavior are partly due to bio differences d human behavior may be inherited and passed down from generations i upbringing 3 Early biological theories a Criminal anthropology i a relationship between physical features and criminal behavior 1 Franz Joseph Gall a phrenology i study of skull size in relation to criminality b able to predict the development of personality mental capacity and criminally from the shape of the skull c empirical testing did not support phrenology ii Cesare Lombroso 1 criminals have biological characteristics suitable for pre homo sapiens species but UNFIT for current society a labeled them born criminals 2 Atavism a criminals are throwbacks to an earlier stage of evolution b throwbacks were identified by physical features i anomalies 1 ex of criminal characteristics a sloping forehead b unusual size ears c low cranial capacity d receding chin e long arms c criminal due to biological states d represented primitive peoples rather than modern society i savages e cephalic index iii William sheldon 1 somatology a body shapes affect criminality i identified three basic body types and corresponding temperature 1 physical traits a quiet round and heavy b wide hips and narrow shoulders or pearshaped c slim ankles and wrists 2 psych traits a extroverted b seek affection iii 1 physical traits a narrow shoulders b thin c high forehead d thin legs and arms 2 psych traits a private b introverted c socially anxious d artistic e mental or emotional disorders Iv 1 physical traits a large head b broad shoulders c narrow waist d muscular e very little body fat 2 psych traits a adventurous b courages c enjoy sports d desire for power and dominance e aggressive v compared 200 delinquent boy with 200 college students 1 resluts a delinquent youth were more mesomorphic than non delinquents i consulted strong correlation between body type and personality b false very subjective and bias 2 college kids can commit crimes and not get caught a labeled as non delinquent
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