ST Found Eng Electromagnetics
ST Found Eng Electromagnetics ECE 595
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roel Green on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 595 at University of New Mexico taught by Yasamin Mostofi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/212157/ece-595-university-of-new-mexico in Engineering Electrical & Compu at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
ECE 595 Spring 2009 Special Topics in Wireless Communications Professor Yasamin Mostofi Lecture1 Outline CI Course Information CI Course Syllabus CI The Wireless Vision El Current and Emerging Wireless Systems El Technical Challenges CI Spectrum Regulation Course Information El Instructor Yasamin Mostofi Email ymostofieceunmedu Office ECE 134B Office hours TBD El Class WebPage wwweceunmeduymostofiTeachingSP09html All handouts homework and announcements are posted on the website El Prerequisites ECE 441 or basic understanding of probability random processes amp Fourier techniques Course Information cont El There will be around 8 homework assignments Grading Homework20 Midterm30 Final 50 project or exam HW grading loses 20 credit per day late El Textbook Wireless Communications by Andrea Goldsmith available at Amazon Course Information cont CI Supplementary Readings Microwave Mobile Communications W C Jakes V ley 1974 V reless Communications Principles and Practice by T Rappaport 2nd Ed Prentice Hall 2001 Principles of Mobile Communications by G L Stuber 2nd Ed Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001 Digital Communications JG Proakis 4th Ed McGrawHill 2001 Digital Communications over Fading Channels A Unified Approach to Performance Analysis M K Simon and MS Alouini V ley 2000 Course Syllabus El Overview of Wireless Communications today El Channel impairment modeling Path Loss Shadowing and Fading Narrowband and wideband channels El Digital modulation and its performance El Performance improvement techniques Diversity adaptive modulation Equalization MultiCarrier OFDM Spread Spectrum MIMO Course Syllabus cont El Multiple access techniques El Capacity of wireless channels El Examples of wireless networks Cellular systems Wireless data networks Sensor networks and networked control systems History of Wireless Comm CI Wireless communication in old times Smoke Signals CI Radio invented by Marconi in the 1880s From Isle of V ght to a tugboat 18 miles away CI Many radio systems were developed during VWV2 CI Several existing examples today CI Cellular systems have enjoyed exponential growth since 1988 around 2 billion users worldwide today Wireless Vision CI Access to any form of information any time at any place conveniently CI Constitute of Advanced wireless voice and data access Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Sensor Networks Distributed control systems Smart Homes Automated Highways and more Current Wireless Systems El Cellular Systems El Wireless LANs CI Satellite Systems CI Cordless Phones El Paging Systems CI Short Range Data Systems Bluetooth amp ZigBee First Mobile Radio Phone 1924 Courtesy of wwwbelIsystemmemorialcomodphotos1html PreCellular Wireless Voice El One highlyelevated antenna El Small number of channels Very low capacity Cellular Concept Reuse Channels El First proposed at Bell Labs by D Ring 1947 Geographic areas divided into cells Resources like frequencies timeslots or codes are reused at spatiallyseparated locations El Co channel interference El MTSOs handle handoff and control functions El smaller cell size increases capacity DU Base Station MTSO Cellular Phone Networks Albuquerque y uplink I Internet MTSO PSTN Drawing courtesy of Dr Andrea Goldsmith wireless communicatio New York downlink World Telecom Statistics minions 1200 xi 1000 0 4 39 Crossover 8 4 Landline Subs 4 39 g 4 e 1 4 200 1 j l Mobile Subs 39 O I I l I wavereogxqegqgogk 0000 Graph courtesy of Dr Homayoun Hashemi wireless comm class Multiple Access Techniques frequency frequency frequency time FDMA me TDMA me CDMA Courtesy of Petri Possi UMTS World Code Division Multiple Access El Originally developed for the military El Resists jamming and interference El All users share the same spectrum CI All accepted 3G radio standards are based on CDMA CDMAZOOO W CDMA and TDSCDMA Uplink and Downlink Separations El Uplink and Downlink should be separated as well El FDD Frequency Division Duplex El TDD Time Division Duplex CI Can not be separated in codes interference too strong The Wireless Evolution Cellular was fastest growing sector of communication industry exponential growth since 1982 with over 2 billion users worldwide today Three generations of cellular systems First Generation 1980s Analog 30 KHz FM voice only AMPS in USA TACS in Europe Second Generation 1990s Digital voice and low bitrate data portable units 3070 kbps UnifiSed GSM in Europe TDMA slow frequency hopping FSK In U 900 MHz IS136 TDMA IS95 CDMA 19 GHz IS136 IS95 GSM 25G increased data transmission capabilities Third Generation Wideband CDMA CDMA 2000 voice and high bitrate data portable units data rate from 144 kbps to a few Mbps development slow Migration To 36 2756 3G Intermediate MUItlmed39a Multimedia 25G Packet Data 2G Digital Voice 1G Analog Voice cdma2000 2003 2004 Source US Bancorp Piper Jaffray 1984 1 996 Digital vs Analog Communication El Encryption and security CI Compression El Channel coding El Signal processing Wireless Local Area Networks Y lnternet Access point El Data applications not delaysensitive and bursty El Short range wireless data transfer El Breaks data into packets El Random channel access El Poor performance for realtime applications like video or realtime conversations Wireless Data Standards El 80211b 24GHz ISM band Spread spectrum 11 Mbps around 100 m range El 80211a 5GHz OFDM 54 Mbps around 30m range D80211g Standard in 24 GHz OFDM Speeds up to 54 Mbps D80211n 24 and 5 GHz OFDMMMO 600Mbps Standardization close to end EIWiMAX 80216 Wordwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Metropoitan area Network OFDMMO 15Mbps 12mile Satellite Systems El Like a base station with a large coverage area El Different orbit heights GEO 40000 Km MEO 9000km LEOs 2000 Km El Best suited for oneway transmission DERr51 Audio Broadcast DAB Digital Video Broadcasting El Most twoway attempts did not make it Example Iridium launched on November 1 1998 and went into Chapter 11 bankruptcy on August 13 1999 Causes high cost bulky handheld units competition from terrestrial service providers Cordless Phones DAppeared in late 70s El Range less than 100m CI Use ISM bands El Can have cochannel interference due to neighboring homes El Has multiple voice channels to scan Paging Systems CI Suitable for short messaging CI Broadcast from all base stations El Optimized for 1way transmission Short Range Communication Bluetooth El RF technology for cable replacement CI Short range around 10m CI 24 GHz ISM band CI Supported by consumer electronics CIApplications beyond cable replacement debatable Short Range Communication IEEE 802154 I ZigBee El LowRate short range data communication El Data rates of 20 40 250 kbps El Shorter range and rate than Bluetooth El CSMACA channel access El Very low power consumption El Operate in ISM bands Ultrawideband Radio UWB El UWB sends pulses of 10 3912s to nanoseconds 10 399s El Uses a lot of bandwidth GHz El Low probability of detection El Multipath highly resolvable El Need new channel characterizations Compare Data Rates I l LIVVB 8021 1 g 10 Mbit sec 8011113 1 Mbitx ec 360 100 kbitsx sec Bllletooth ZigBee ZigBee 1 O kbitsf sec q I I I I I O CHZ IGHZ 2 CHZ 3 3H2 4 GHZ 5 GHZ 6 Courtesy of Dr Andrea Goldsmith Wireless Comm Class Compare Range 10 kln 1 kln 360 100m 80211bg 39 Bluetooth 10 In Z1gBee ZigBee 1 IVVB 1 1n 39 39 39 r I I I I I I 0 GHZ lGI Iz 2 GHZ 3 GHZ 4 GHZ 5 GHZ 6 3112 Courtesy of Dr Andrea Goldsmith Wireless Comm Class Compare Power Consumption 10 W 1 W 3G 80211bg B1uetooth 10 mW ZigBee ZlgBee 1 111VV 39 39 39 39 39 39 0 GHz lGHz 2 de 3 de 4 din 5 GHz 6 39GHz Courtesy of Dr Andrea Goldsmith Wireless Comm Class Emerging Systems CI Sensor networks El Networked control systems Sensor Networks Examples Environmental monitoring Machine health monitoring Goal Nonreal time information gathering Constraint battery life time non rechargeable baterries Typically shortrange Require routing and multihop optimization Typically adhoc no center node Data can be correlated in time and space Cooperative data processing is beneficial Crosslayer design is beneficial JPL sensor web Huntington garden Networked Control Systems Examples Target tracking Vehicle formationswarming Emergency response Constraint Realtime nature Send and receive control commands over wireless links Estimation amp control over Wireless Decentralized decision amp control Estimation amp Control over Wireless Estimation amp Control over Wireless Channel impairments impact controller Crosslayer design can be beneficial Not clear what the right design strategy is packet loss channel noise and delay can ruin the performance or result in instability Technical Challenges El Wireless channel degrades the signal path loss shadowing fading El Limited bandwidth results in interference El Different applications have different requirements El Mobility makes it more challenging El Two major constraints delay energy Application Requirements El Voice delaysensitive can tolerate less than 100ms Can tolerate bit error rate of up to 001 Does not require large bandwidth Traffic is continuous gt circuit switching El Data Not realtime hence no delaysensitivity Requires low bit error rate less than 10 396 Requires larger bandwidth Traffic bursty gt packet switching Application Requirements El Emerging applications El Networked control systems Deals with dynamical systems Delayconstrained Different from both voice and data Needs new design principles El Sensor networks Energyconstrained El No single design works CrossLayer Design D D D D D D Physical layer responsible for transmission and reception over the link Traditional systems such as wired data networks are modular New applications can benefit from crosslayer designs Example wireless data Should there be a crosslayer design If so to what extent How to maintain robustness Application Layer Network amp Transport Physical Layer Spectrum Regulation El FCC controls commercial spectral allocation in US through auctioning parts of the spectrum El ISM band Industrial Scientific Medical Unrestricted Restriction on transmission power crowded El ETSI controls commercial spectral allocation in Europe El lTU controls worldwide spectrum Next class El Characterization and modeling of wireless channel impairments path loss largescale fading