Week 9/21-9/23 Psych 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Reardon on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Jerika C Norona in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
921 Learning Chapter 6 Learning Change in an organism39s behavior or thought as a result of experience Classical Conditioning Researcher Ivan Pavlov Responsible for creating classical conditioning Classical Conditioning How we associate one thing with another How we know what different kinds of actions mean Example Alarm goes off in the morning responds to wake up 0 Studied digestion in dogs He would bring in food for dogs to see how they salivated and see what their eating process were like When the food was brought in the dogs would begin to salivate even though there was no food present Associated certain people and sounds with the presence of food there is no actual food only things that were brought out with the food originally Classical conditioning 0 Animals respond to a previously neutral stimulus that was paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response Pieces of Classical Conditioning 1 Unconditioned Stimulus UCS Stimulus that elicits an automatic response Any object anything we see hear feel or tastes that elicits a response that we did not have to learn it is automatic i Ex When a gun is shot you jump because of the stimulus it elicits 2 Unconditioned Response UCR Automatic response to a nonneutral stimulus that does not need to be learned Ex Jumping at a loud noise that is an unconditioned response 3 Conditioned Response CR Response previously associated with nonneutral stimulus elicited by neutral stimulus through conditioning After classical conditioning has happened after pairing unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus it is the response that we get Ex After a dog is conditioned with a bell the conditioned response is to drool 4 Conditioned Stimulus CS Neutral stimulus that come to elicit a response due to association with UCS Ex Bell is a conditioned stimulus the bell carries different meanings Higher Order Conditioning We learn how to develope association with other stimuli that are neutral When the cat hears the electric food opener and the food comes she is going to salivate Sounds of the can opener is neutral The can opener is tied with food now though so it elicits a response When you open the door to get the food and the can opener comes next the cat understands that the squeaky door means that the food is coming Classical Conditioning and Daily Life Fears and Phobias Reacting to the fear of clouds because one time you were in a very bad tornado so you react to the cloud even if there is no tornado that will happen Fears are learned 0 Little Albert overtime he generalized the fear of furry things because the loud sound and the rats scared him originally Stimulus Generalization Conditioned stimuli similar to the original CS elicit a CR Fe shes Fetish When people have sexual attractions to objects Started with classical conditioning Disgust Sushi getting the flu after eating sushi makes me associated sushi with being sick 0 Thinking about sushi Nama makes me sick and am unable to eat it any longen 923 Operant Conditioning Terminology Operant Conditioning Learning controlled by the consequences of behavior It is considered after we engage in a behavior this helps us determine whether we should repeat the behavior or stop the behavior 0 Example We did I go to class today What happens after I go to class I understand the material get the points for the quiz at the end of the class We engage in these behaviors because in the end we get some kind of feeling and or some kind of tangible reward Reinforcement Consequence that strengthens the probability of the behavior It makes you either want to or not want to do the behavior again 1 Positive Reinforcement Presentation of stimulus to strengthen the probability of the behavior a Means adding something to the situation in order to make sure that the behavior happens again i Simba the dog goes to the bathroom outside we give him a treat and reward him 2 Negative Reinforcement Removal of stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior Taking away something from the situation still trying to increase the likelihood of that behavior but by taking something unpleasant away so the subject is motivated to continue doing that particular behavior Tuesday is garbage day so Monday night we nag to take out the trash If your boyfriend takes the garbage out his girlfriend will stop nagging him She is taking away the nagging but once he does what she wants him to do she removes the unpleasant nagging so hopefully he will continue to engage in that behavior Punishment Consequence of behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior Anytime there is something that you don t want to happen again you would use the principles of punishment Punishment doesn t always work 1 Positive Punishment Presentation of stimulus to weaken the probability of behavior a Adding something to the situation It is not about good or bad it s about adding something to weaken the probability of behavior i Sheldon doesnt like what Leonard was doing so Sheldon introduced a spray bottle with water This is unpleasant so the adding of the water will decrease the likelihood of Leonard talking back to Sheldon 2 Negative Punishment Removal of stimulus to weaken probability of behavior Indicates taking something away Taking away a child39s privileges when they act out If your kid comes home from school and you found out he bit something you take away his toys to help promote stopping that behavior On a regular day he has those toys so as punishment you would remove them Schedules of Reinforcement Don t worry so much about definitions Pattern of reinforcing behavior 1 Continuous Reinforcing behavior every time it occurs Ex Every time the dog goes to the bathroom outside it gets a treat Faster learning dog will always go outside if it gets treats it will catch on fast Faster extinction If you stop giving your dog treats it will catch on and think if I don t get rewarded I won t do it anymore 2 Partial Only occasional reinforcement of a behavior Ex Only sometime Panera will give you a free cookie It only sometimes rewards you for coming in It is harder to get rid of a Ex Gambling Slot machine put your coin in and pull the lever They do not reward you every single time it is not based on a continuous reinforcement schedule Put some money pull the lever nothing happens for 4 times But when you win the 5th time you think I won maybe i ll win again so I m going to keep trying I don t know when it s coming but it s going to come Partial is harder to get rid of because there is always the thought that at some point you are going to be rewarded Schedules of Reinforcement be able to apply in real life Fixed Ratio Reinforced after a regular number of responses Giving a dog a treat after it sits 10 times 0 Going off the animal s behavior lfthey do what you want them to do after a fixed number of times you will give them a treat Fixed Interval Reinforcement after a set amount of time It doesn t matter how many times the dog sits it only matters have much time is passed Getting paid every Friday as long as you went to work that week at least once based on salary pay Variable Ratio Reinforce after a random number of responses Slot machine after a certain amount of times you do win But you don t know how many because it is random lfl ask mom enough times for 20 dollars eventually she will most likely give me the 20 dollars Variable Interval Reinforce after a random amount of time has passed Give a dog a treat after 4 minutes then 10 minutes then 30 minutes 0 The number of times in the behavior isn t important but rather how much time has passed The less predictable a reinforcement is the more likely we are going to engage in that behavior a Operant Conditioning in Life Animal Training Procrastination Superstitious Behavior Therapy Shaping by Successive Approximation Progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer to the target Cognitive Models of Learning In many cases we don t have to experience something directly to learn Cognitive Thoughts Observational Learning Learning by watching others Bobo Doll experiment Media and aggression 0 Some relationship We can watch some other people and learn from them Biological Influences on Learning We have things in our brains called mirror neurons 0 When we see someone engage in a behavior parts of our brain light up as if we were engaging in that behavior ourselves
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