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# Elements Of General Chemistry CHEM 111

UNM

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Chadrick Muller on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 111 at University of New Mexico taught by Celestyn Brozek in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/212228/chem-111-university-of-new-mexico in Chemistry at University of New Mexico.

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Date Created: 09/23/15

CHEM 111121 Atom structure 39 particles practice Name of Element Elemental Atomic number of number of number of Nuclear Name of 0 number protons electrons neutrons symbol isotope Calcium Uranium2 38 2 For each ofthe following maingroup representative elements write ionic symbol and number of protons and electrons Example sulfur ionic symbol S protons amp electronsamp Sodium ionic symbol protons electrons Magnesium ionic symbol protons electrons Bromine ionic symbol protons electrons Nitrogen ionic symbol protons electrons Oxygen ionic symbol protons electrons CHEM 111 Z 12 1 Significant figures and scientific notation 1 RULES FOR DETERMINING THE NUMBER OF SIGNIFICANT FIGURES A nonzero digit is always significant EXAMPLES 3489 gt4 sig fig 12 gt2 sig fig Zeros between nonzero digits are always significant EXAMPLES 48009 gt5 sig fig 102 gt3 sig fig Leading zeros in front of the number are always not significant E MPLES 00009 gt1 sig fig 000102 gt3 sig fig Trailing zeros that follow a nonzero digit and the decimal point are significant EXAMPLES 0800 gt3 sig fig 00010 gt2 sig fig Trailing zeros that do not follow the decimal point may or may not be significant This ambiguity can be avoided by using scientific notation EXAMPLE 1800 gtambiguous sig fig 2 3 or 4 sig figs possible The same number in scientific notation 18X103 gt 2 sig fig 180 X 103 gt 3 sig fig 1800X103 gt 4sig fig 2 CALCULATIONS WITH SIGNIFICANT FIGURES Rule 1 for 39 quot 39 and division The result of multiplication or division cannot have more sig fig than the factor with the smallest number of Sig g EXAMPLE 25 X 34 18 28 factor 25quot has 2 sig fig so the final result has 2 sig fig too 1275 x 241 Rule 2 for addition and subtraction When adding or subtracting the result has the smallest number of decimal places found among the added or subtracted numbers The best way to arrive at the correct number of sig fig is to align the decimal points in the column of added or subtracted numbers EXAMPLES 3678 since 238quot has one decimal place 238 the final result has one decimal place 1188 394 45 since 45quot has no decimal place 41679 the final result has no decimal place Page 1 of 3 3 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION Scientific notation is commonly used to write down very small or very large numbers eg 4300000000 can be expressed in scientific notation as 43 x 109 Remember In scientific notation there should be ONE NONZERO DIGIT TO THE LEFT OF THE DECIMAL POINT eg 2345 x 102 M 02345 x 103 and M 2345 x 101 Learn how to punch numbers in scienti c notation on the calculator the instructor will help you Do not round off numbers when you change them to scientific notation EXAMPLES 2501 gt 2501 X 103 000345 gt 345 X 10393 01 gt 1 X 10391 52 gt 52 X 100 notice that in the range 1 to 9999999 the exponent is 0 zeroquot SIGNIFICANT FIGURES SCIENTIFIC NOTATION AND ROUNDING OFF PRACTICE 1 How many significant figures are in the following numbers a 900001 b 0000007000 c 230000 d 51000 Ans a 6 b 4 c 6 d ambiguous possible between 2 and 5 needs to be shown in scientific notation 2 Show the following numbers in scientific notation 0000405 Ans 405 x 104 00005000 Ans 5000 x 1039 360080 Ans 360080 X 104 56000000 2 sig figs Ans 56 X 107 6800 Ans 6800 x 100 3 Round off the following numbers as indicated and show in scientific notation 0000405 2 sig fig Ans 41 X 10394 66399 2 sig fig Ans 66 X 104 00005799 3 sig fig Ans 580 x 104 56000000 4 sig figs ns 5600 x 107 11gt Page 2 of 3 36008 4 sig fig 0006705 1 sig fig 0006705 3 sig fig 00004000 2 sig fig 11gt ns Ans 115 gtgt 115 3601 x 104 7x 10393 671 x 10393 40 x 10394 Page 3 of 3

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