Data Management MGMT 329
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyson Cole on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT 329 at University of New Mexico taught by Stephen Burd in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see /class/212229/mgmt-329-university-of-new-mexico in Business, management at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
MGT 329637 Database Management Systems Overview 39I lid llt THE ROBERT O ANDERSON SCHOOL AND GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT The University of New Mexico Last Revised 1222008 659 PM Formal Definitions Database DB Integrated collection ofdata and metadata Metadata Data that describes other data Database Management System DBMS Application or system software that stores and provides access to data stored in one or more databases Data Integration Modern organizations store and use petabytes 1015 7 bytes of data Data relates to all aspects of the organization accounting and financial customers suppliers inventory products production processes competitors RampD Data are related to other data in many ways for example gt An order to Dell for a laptop is based on a product catalog generates production and parts orders and schedules assembly and testing gt Shipmentdelivery of the laptop decreases inventory and results in cash inflow or receivable that s recorded in the customer account and the financial statements gt Changing an order before it enters production affects production inventory ordering future cash flow and possibly incentives to employees based on sales or profits Data Integration Continued An efficient and effective information system automatically recognizes and uses the connections among data for example gtTo UNM Stephen Burd is an employee instructor faculty member vendor and student gt Despite his multiple roles descriptive data eg name and address about him should be stored only once gtCertain database updates are allowed for Burd that might not be allowed for other persons a For example it should be impossible for a student who isn t also an instructor to assign a grade in a course Database Definition Revisited Database DB Integrated collection of data and metadata gt Integration implies that relationships among data items such as names addresses course titles and grades are recognized and stored within the system gt For example a A particular paycheck was deposited to Burd s bank account a Burd enrolls in a particular course during a particular semester and receives a grade for that course a The course Burd completed satisfies one requirement of a particular degree program a Burd teaches a particular course and assigns grades to all students enrolled in that course Metadata Definition Revisited Metadata 4 Data that describes other data Some types of metadata gt Single and multiple data item value constraints for example 1 Salary must be a positive number a Allowable grades are A B C u If grade is A then points earned is 40 u If student status is suspended then currently enrolled credits must be zero gt Data naming and organization for example the data item Name is part of the Person table and is indexed alphabetically to speed alphabetic searches gt Computation of derived values eg how is grade point average computed from grades earned gt Security What users can view change or delete grades and salaries gt Location Where is a particular group of data items stored on what disk and machine If they re stored in multiple places which holds the original or master and which are the copies Review Exercise Pick a type of business or organization and 7 consider the data that it stores and uses in ordinary operations List 3 physical things about which it stores data Describe 3 relationships among those things that an integrated collection of data should store or represent Describe 3 instances of metadata that should be represented within the database DBMS Definition Revisited Database Management System DBMS Application or system software that stores and provides access to data stored in one or more databases gt Must support storage of data items relationships among data items and metadata gt Must be capable of managing multiple database for example one for production and another for accounting gt Must be flexible enough to support many kinds of data and databases many different application areas gt Must provide access to the data preferably via a variety of paths such as a Direct access for end users via interactive andor Webbased tools a Access via report generation tools a Access from application programs written in multiple languages eg Java Visual Basic and Web scripts executing locally and remotely gt Must enable concurrent access by many users and applications Key Database and DBMS Benefits Data are more easily shared across application programmers users and parts of an organization Data are managed as an organizational resource gt Costefficiency gt Security and privacy gt Data as an asset Application software is independent of many aspects of data storage especially physical ones Data quality can be enforced consistently across applications throughout the organization Many changes to the database have no effect on existing programs Data can be accessed without writing programs E E Review Exercise What s the catch What do all of the benefits on the previous page cost Trains of thought gt Friedman s free lunch rule there is no free lunch gt Fisher on genetics and adaptation highly specialized organisms are efficient in their environment but can t easily adapt to other environments gtThe golden rule she who has the gold makes the rules Database DBMS Prehistory Prehistory before 1965 Data are stored in computerized files Files contain records and records contain fields numbers characters and strings Computerized files are created for specific application programs and groups of application programs for example student grades payroll accounts payable Connections among files across application areas are weak or nonexistent for example Burd has separate student employee and vendor ID numbers with different values and formats Redundancy among files is high for example Burd s address is stored in three different files which must all be updated if he moves Database DBMS History First Era First era 19651980 CODASYL Committee defines a standard commonly called network database gt Common data type definitions gt Pointers among records represent relationships gtCommon access methods Several mainframe products are matched to the standard IMS and IDMS become the dominant DBMSs Rapid computerization of business processes fuels demand for DBMSs Most business applications use them by the early 1980s Database DBMS History Second Era Second era 1975present Relational database standard is developed in the early 1970s Commercial relational DBMS products appear in late 1970s many based on experimental software developed on UNIX running on minicomputers Relational DBMSs gradually supplant CODASYL DBMSs throughout the 1980s Database explosion continues fueled by increasing automation levels ever cheaper computers and disk storage and ever more data intensive business practices Database DBMS History Third Era Third Era 1995present Databases are ubiquitous gt PCs mainframes supercomputers business science government gt Large organizations have hundreds to tens of thousands of databases integration across DBs is the big problem gt Terabyte and petabyte databases become commonplace Data is accessed globally from inside and outside the organization supply chain integration direct customer interaction ubiquitous networks the Web and related standards make this possible Relational DBMSs change little while software evolves from structured to objectoriented tools and languages and from machinecentered applications to distributed and Webbased applications Standing at the Precipice Organizations are overwhelmed by the volume of data Data has value independent of its support for ordinary business processing eg marketing analysis for trends and new products Modern software views data and software as an integrated whole the objectoriented view but relational DBMSs treat them separately Relational DBMSs are a poor fit to modern software and applications limiting the kinds of data that can be stored and the types of applications that can be feasibly built and maintained eg genome analysis and geneticallycustomized drug design and production using a relational database The sheer volume of data stored in relational databases and the dependence of everything on those databases and their host DBMSs makes fundamnetal change almost unthinkable What is a DBMS DBMSs can be smallscale eg Microsoft Access or largescale eg Oracle For medium and largescale applications a DBMS is a large complex and expensive program Characteristics of that program include gtTightly bound to the operating system since both share responsibility for accessing disk storage network HO and control of related hardware resources gt Resourcehungry industrial strength DBMSs require industrialstrength hardware costing thousands to tens of millions of dollars gt Difficult to manage requires an army of highlytrained specialists
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