Popular in Course
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dario Heaney I on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST285 at Drexel University taught by JonathanSeitz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/212233/hist285-drexel-university in History at Drexel University.
Reviews for TechnologyinHistoricalPerspective
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/23/15
Background What is technology What is the quothumanbuilt worldquot Technology is a hardtodefine category with many interpretations Most accepted definitions such as the one provided in HBW consider it to be humans using tools machines and knowledge to construct control and create a humanbuilt world that is one comprised of humanmade systems and artifacts including such landscapealtering constructions as buildings Engineering has historically been and continues to be the field most closely associated with technology What is the difference between technological determinism and social shaping of technology Technological determinism quottechnology comes first in a sense Technologies and artifacts are created with inherent political and social aspects that consequently mold and affect the societies that use them In contrast social shaping quotpeople come first this view believes that technology is adopted and created to fit social structures This view tends to dismiss the notion that technologies possess any inherent politics Medieval technology What were the innovations that changed medieval agriculture What were the social demographic political effects of those innovations Horse collar allowed farm workers to harness the superior strength of the horse instead of needing many oxen Wheeled heavy plow turned more ground more effectively opened up new ground to farm This could not be owned by one tenant it was instead shared among a lord s tenants 3 field crop rotation a manor would have peasants work collectively to maintain three fields one would be in season while the others lay fallow or were planted Usually one fallow one legumes one grains Legumes while other fields were fallow or planted grain for other seasons these would be spring crops peas beans lentils encouraged variety in diet and more healthy people and always ensured there was food Effects since not every farm could afford a plow and horses villages had to pool resources encouraging communal decisionmaking among peasants Also everyone s fields were grouped together each person owning at least a strip in each field so there would always be crops This grew out of the manorial system where 3 lord wealthy enough to own land would collect rents and fees from local villagers which often involved working the owner s land with some crops for themselves as part of their pay How did religion and technology interact in the medieval period How did Lynn White characterize it According to Lynn White the anthropocentrism that came inherent with Christianity resulted in an explosion of technologies that more or less exploited nature for man s benefit a consequence of the prevailing notion that mankind was meant to subdue the earth In addition manual work was seen as a sign of man s fallibility and to participate in it was to develop virtuousness and humility as evidenced in monasteries What role did technology have in monastic life The technology of architecture primarily cathedrals and abbeys flourished What is a quotsymbolic technologyquot and how does it differ from other technologies Symbolic technologies were primarily intended to indicate affluence piety or intellect Other technologies were often primarily practical designed to accommodate a particular need These were simply to display some quality or status What are the competing theories for the origin ofthe mechanical clock 1 practical necessity that they originated for monastic timekeeping This theory points to Cistercian monks waterclocks with bells as a reminder to perform various tasks However this need was not proven and the earliest clocks recorded were not monastic clocks 2 symbolic technology this theory references the ostentatious designs of the earliest clocks tracking and 39 patterns 39 C motions of the heavens They were ornate and expensive and not very good at keeping time This allows one to consider the arguments of quotpractical necessity as flowing out of the existence of clocks Once you have them then you begin ordering your days according to them What innovations came together in the form ofthe Gothic cathedral What new building techniques were used and why Flying buttresses Rib vault Stained glass windows Pointed arch Walls were not the primary support structures anymore they could accommodate larger windows What do we know about the people who designed and built the medieval cathedrals Mastor masons were wellrespected some depictions of God portrayed him as a Master Mason Workers and masons also often inscribed their names on their work Ville de Honnecourt s notebook use of geometry Technology in the early modern era and the Scienti c Revolution What is the Scientific Revolution and what role did technology play in it The scientific revolution represented a shift in the understanding of llnatural philosophy value of artisanal practices empirical methods and experimentation took the place of strictly theoretical and intangible quotphilosophyquot Practical technologies and technologies involving empirical observations such as microscopes became more prevalent What are the categories of art and science or ars and scientia and how were they valued in antiquity and the medieval period How did the categories and their perceived value change in the early modern period In antiquity and the medieval period ars arts referred to the quotpracticalquot often artisanal practices such as weaving carpentry pottery etc Scientia was more theoretical abstract and argumentative including such fields of thought as theology In the early modern period the arts became much more important and accepted as science as a shift toward empiricism began to dominate as evidenced in the work of Bacon and Paracelsus What is llempiricism Idea that conclusions should be made based on sensory observations of the world How did the emergence of new religions eg Puritanism during the Reformation affect views of technology Technology was human mandated to work was man s goal and proof of salvation according to Calvinist teaching sought to recover from Edenic Fall by making machines quotsecond creationquot promoted practical scientific knowledge and tech How did methods change in the Scientific Revolution and how did the relative value of empiricalpractical knowledge and theoretical knowledge shift during this era The value of empiricalpractical knowledge vastly increased Experimentation and empiricism ruled How are Paracelsus Johann Glauber and Francis Bacon good examples of the new model for the interaction of theoretical and empiricalpractical knowledge Paracelsus Glauber and Bacon all emphasized learning from artisans and not underestimating the knowledge of the world that could be achieved by observation What new places for scientific work emerged in the early modern period and why How did the structures rules and practices of the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Sciences reflect the political context from which they emerged National institutions emerged both for intangible and tangible reasons one for reputation works both ways the scientists get patronage the aristocracy get Royal Society in Britain Royal Academy of Sciences in France France s reigning ideology absolute monarchy The RAS was populated by handpicked experts in field and was partly intended for looking good scientists were very much controlled by the king as was the country England s constintutional monarchy a place where Kings could commit treason and be executed gave free reign to its scientists its royal was just a title How did expectations for what benefits science could yield change in the early modern period How were those changing expectations reflected in the literature of the time Optimism was high Bacon s New Atlantis represented a particular height of optimism science could be used to construct utopian society What did the scienti ctechnological community gain and lose in the new relationship between science and the state Lost some autonomy particularly where it was controlled in France Got state funding European expansion How did Europeans judge the level of technological sophistication of Native Americans and vice versa The Wood and Kalm pieces indicate that Europeans saw Native Americans as inferior in technology while admitting some ingenious inventions there was an overall condescension to the Native Americans For their part the Native Americans were quick to adapt European technology to their own needs identifying that the faster flintlock musket for instance was better adapted to their much more covert tactics What blind spots did each group have What affected their interpretations ofwhat they saw Their prevailing cultural biases often blinded them to the ways that their opponents thought Particularly for Europeans slower to adapt to new land resisted adaptation stuck to rules of war they had learned from Europe sense of cultural superiority Native Americans similarly did not immediately adapt to the allout warfare that the Europeans used Their wars were more ritualized Aztecs What did Europeans and Native Americans exchange in the socalled quotColumbian Exchangequot especially in terms of technology both material and immaterial technologies Plants animals and diseases Europeans adopted the skulking way of warquot colonists used it later in American Revolutionary War The Industrial Revolution What was the process of industrialization What changed during the Industrial Revolution in general and in specific industries like textiles and iron The mechanization of labor from primarily human to largely mechanized labor from inanimate power sources agricultural sector contracted while manufacturing exploded Workers moved from small farms to factories rise of quotworking class products were made on larger scale and cost less to manufacture What possible explanations have historians proposed to explain why Britain was an early leader in industrialization The explosion in Britain s transportation system opening up interaction between innovators and freeing up time colonization opened up markets for obtaining raw materials and selling finished goods at different places a secure protective patent law system and marginal groups seeking success in areas other than politics hence innovation and prestige What factors might explain why Britain turned to coal as a primary fuel Wood shortage Ability to use coal to make coke to make iron Lots of coal mines Technology allowed them to burn coal without making coke How did factories differ from the systems of manufacturing common during the preindustrial era Brought many together to work machines whereas most products were made in homes and by individuals in the past What was the new industrial quotworking classquot and how were its members living and working differently from workers before the Industrial Revolution Bourgeois vs proletariat urbanization compelled more people to work for factories They are selling time and labor instead of actual products A wethey sort of mentality between communities and factory owners opened up They tended not to own their own tools instead working with How did people s working lives change during industrialization How did people react to these changes People clung closely to what was traditional and familiar in the wake of industrialization They tended to compartmentalize their work lives and their home lives How did men and women experience the Industrial Revolution differently Why did they experience it differently Men had the ability to vote had a political say Men also had historically done more of the artisanal work and had more saleable skills had more leverage with employers more savvy Women were exploited more more menial tasks They had much more work to do especially in terms of taking care of the family fulfilling traditional gender roles What did some at least women like and dislike about factory life More free time on the farm chores and duties extended into evenings Presumably more leisure time opened up for various pursuits Community existed in closer proximity DISLIKED harsh working contracts did not specify what they were quotropingquot them into and not letting them free from it Particularly early working age separating children from working with relatives and certain crafts Strict schedules rules and expectations Less autonomy