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by: Dario Heaney I

ThemesWorldCivilizationIII HIST163

Marketplace > Drexel University > History > HIST163 > ThemesWorldCivilizationIII
Dario Heaney I
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dario Heaney I on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST163 at Drexel University taught by JonsonMiller in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/212234/hist163-drexel-university in History at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
2quot Equot 539quot F 0quot Fquot HOW O H H Exam OneHIST 163 Nation A people with common history language and culture State a political organization that has sovereignty within fixed borders Nationstate A state that governs a nation the only legitimate form of civilization governm ent The Enlightenment belief in reason progress amp equality Were for popular sovereignty free markets free labor nationalism and democracy Reason rationality the ultimate way of knowing things Literally everything could be understood or know through reason Broadened ideas of scientific thought Reason opposed religion and tradition Everyone has the capacity for reason Each individual can come up with the answers on his or her own Progress the idea that the world is inevitably improving Society is getting better freer more equal and more prosperous Saw this as a scientific law This was a totally modern idea as people used to believe that the world stayed the same or had cycles Equality all people are essentially the same in the ways that matter Not everyone was identical but they had to decide in what ways were important to be the same Every being was born with particular rights new idea Promoted representative government Universality The belief that the world center of the universe Mechanical Cosmos Subject vs Citizen people seeing themselves as citizens changes their relationships with each other They saw themselves is participators in a state with clearly defined borders Monarchies vs Republic Monarch heredity right to rule Republic is based on popular sovereignty American Revolution 17751783 Enlightenment ideas social contract representative government all men created equal inalienable rights all inspired revolution 13 French Revolution 1789 was inspired by a combination of Enlightenment ideas along with the Am Revolution People were more connected with the nation 14 Haitian Revolution 1804 The slaves used the idea of natural rights to rebel against the French Haiti had little oversight by the French because they were distracted by Napoleon 15 Declaration of Independence 1776 See 12 This inspired the French quotDeclaration of the Rights of an and Citizen The French s version was just more radical 1 What is a nation state and how does it differ from a kingdom or other monarchy How does the relationship between citizens of a nation state differ from the relationship between subjects ofa monarchy A nation state is the combination of political organization that has sovereignty within fixed borders with a people with common history language and culture In a nation state there is the idea of equality for all The nation state emphasizes that everyone should live in a republic and all under one law The people wanted to participate in their government in their specific territory 2 What were the most powerful empires in the world at the start of the 17th C The most powerful empires were China and the Ottomans 3 What were the basic ideals of the Enlightenment How did Enlightenment philosophers view the nature of the cosmos and humanity See notes for Enlightenment ideas not sure about the cosmos 4 What was the relevance of the Enlightenment for the emergence of nation states See above questions 1 The Atlantic World The intimate relationship between countries around the Atlantic including Africa Portugal Europe and the Americas Previously the Equot 539quot F Atlantic had been a wall between Europe and AmericasAfrica The Europeans need to compete with Muslim traders Eventually the Atlantic Ocean surpassed the Indian Ocean for wealth Triangular Trade The Trade between Europeans Africa and Americas Guns and cloth went to Africa in exchange for sugar gold and slaves The Slaves from Africa went to the Americas to produce sugarmolasses The Sugarmolasses from the Americas then went to Europe Napoleonic Wars 18031815 France was the wealthiest country due to the slave trade and sugar Napoleon used that money to draft a huge army Europe was already exhausted by previous wars Napoleon s war was called the Great War because it was fought worldwide These wars were not a fight for resources but for restructuring the world He wanted to liberate Europe by overthrowing monarchies abolishing serfdom and having people be equal under one law He unified hundreds of states and reordered the borders He was distracted by guerillas in Spain when he tried to capture Russia He was then defeated French Revolution In 1789 France went bankrupt which caused discontent The King and Queen were executed which was shocking to Europe French tried to spread their revolutionary ideas throughout Europe Reign ofTerror Napoleon took over to restore order Napoleonic Empire Included most of Europe except GB Sweden Portugal and Ottomans Congress ofVienna 18141815 decided the fate of Europe and how to restore order It was mostly led by Austrian Prince Metternich He was responsible for manipulating others to get a relative peace He was not a fan of the Enlightenment prefer Catholicism and monarchies The map was redrawn 0 France was reduced to original borders United Holland Belgium and Switzerland not peaceful Drew about 40 different German states 0 Austrians took over some of Italy 0 Prussia and Russia split Poland 0 Russia took over Sweden 7 Balance of Power Reestablished monarchies This worked because the nations could balance their power against each other to prevent war Also there were no states to fight over to expand They wanted to prevent war at al costs because they were extremely expensive and could possibly change the cultureideology in dramatic ways 9 Concert of Europe the state system that was created to balance power These states wanted to prevent revolution at all costs If a country experienced rebellion it had the responsibility to stop it If the country couldn t other states in the Concert could get involved This was successful in stopping major wars and kept relative peace until WWI The states could then spend their money on other things industrialization They could then also fight with other parts of the world Asia amp Middle East Industrial Revolution 17701850 SEE QUESTIONS 4 amp 5 H O O Bourgeoisie Middle class professionals with money to spend and nothing to spend it on H H Textiles Developed machines that used waterpower and later steam to spin cotton into thread This was the basis of GB s industrialization as they became one ofthe largest cloth producers worldwide 2quot How did the start and end of the Atlantic slave trade transform western Africa and West African states The slave trade was fundamental to the quotAtlantic World and greatly expanded the economy in certain African kingdoms Slavery was profitable to both the Europeans and the Africans After most countries banned importing slaves from W Africa the slave trade plummeted making African economies susceptible to collapse During this time about 15 million left Africa because of the slave trade Africa then promoted quotlegitimatequot commerce with Europe Europe wanted resources such as palm oil peanuts and gold This gave rise to a new generation of successful West African merchants N What factors contributed to the independence of the former colonies in the Americas The loss of former colonies began with the independence of the US The US became an example ofa successful republic Europe was very far away from these colonies so they were primarily ruled by the local elite As more generations were born in the colonies they had increased loyalty to the colony not the motherland The elites began to resent the motherland and wanted more powercontrol of the colony Revolts also happened because the countries were occupied by the Napoleonic Wars and they couldn t bother worrying about the Americas During this time the colonies grew autonomy and they did not want the motherlands to gain back power What were the causes of the French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon to power A What was new and terrifying to other European powers about Napoleon s empire Causes of the French Revolution Economic hardships the people were starving an ineffective leader Enlightenment ideas of reason equality etc American in uence and resentment of absolutism Europe was terrified by the idea of creating a constitution that gave individuals more rights The monarchs were frightened by the idea of equality of all people 4 How did the Congress ofVienna change Europe after the Napoleonic Wars What was the significance of this for nation states The Congress tried to return Europe to back the way it was before Napoleon with a few exceptions They combined some territories See above This encouraged nationalism 5 What factors contributed to Britain industrializing first What industry drove British industrialization GB had a large middle class with money bourgeoisie an advanced banking system and nothing to spend their money on GB also had lots of resources including iron for railroads coal and steel They had the best location for resources in the world since they all were near each other They also had a large food supply from the agricultural revolution that occurred earlier They had very efficient farming and imported food from places like Ireland potatoes Lastly GB had a lar5ge free workforce AS the population had grown there was not more land for them to use The unemployed then moved to the cities and went to the factories because they had nothing else to do Textiles drove British industrialization 6 In what ways did industrialization transform societies How did British expansion in India support industrialization Industrialization created the greatest changes in human life since the development of agriculture It transformed land transportation it was the first change in land transport in 7000 years It was also the first time that communication was separate from transportation telegraph Next it created urbanization Before industrialization 95 of people lived in rural areas Lastly it created interdependence between people Before the Industrial Revolution people were only dependent on a small village After millions of people were involved in eating even a simple meal People depended on the entire country and Ireland 2quot Restoration 2 Ideology includes Romanticism socialism liberalism and nationalism Pretty much and quotismquot counts Prophecy STUPID Liberalism ideas from the Enlightenment Socialism varied form of Romanticism 90quot Karl Marx Wanted to learn about unseen forces underneath society He was against conformity and oppression He supported rebels against authority Was a lead thinker of Romanticism Nationalism the desire for sovereignty for a specific cultureethnicity Challenged the quotOld Order 8 Romanticism A revolt against reason and the Enlightenment Validated emotion and spirituality Exalted history and rebellion against the older generation All about freedom of expression Looked to the past emphasizing culture not the monarch in place 9 Passion vs Reason Romanticism vs Enlightenment 10 Nationalist 1820s revolts Spain Revolt Actually liberal Opposition to Napoleon helped to spur nationalism Ferdinand VII was reinstated by the Congress ofVienna He was HATED because he rid Napoleon s constitution created major censorship and tried to bring back the Inquisition People had felt freer under Napoleon The people rebelled in order to limit the power of the monarch and create a constitution France invaded Spain and crushed the revolt Ferdinand went on a huge killing rampage and jailed others Greece 1820 They revolted against the Ottoman Empire because they were Christians and the Ottomans were Muslims The Greeks wanted their own state At first the other Europeans felt ambivalent because they promised to crush rebellion but that hated the Ottomans Popular support went to the Greeks as they were seen as romantic heroes Byron and Greece was the birth of the modern nation The Europeans created a naval blockade and defeated the Ottomans easily Greece inspired other groups to revolt German nationals wanted a unified state failed and the Austrian empire want to break off as well 11 Liberal 1830s revolts French Revolt 1830 CoV reinstated Charles th0 imposed censorship and limited the voting After legislation gave him the symbolic quotno confidence vote he dissolved ittwice A revolt occurred and he and his grandson abducted creating constitutional monarchy It was a great success as property rights and voting rights increased along with no censorship Belgium slightly nationalist was combined with the Netherlands It established a constitutional monarchy as well Other countries created reforms in order to avoid revolt This strengthened liberalism in conjunction with monarchy The actual revolts were generally carried out by the lower classes However it was the middle class that actually received the benefits without the work The lower class was often left out 12 Socialist 1840s Revolts 1848 Revolts occurred everywhere except GB and Russia They led to collapse or almost collapse everywhere continentalscale revolution This overwhelmingly failed and all governmentsmonarchies were reinstated Liberals compromised with monarchies because of their fear of the lower class Why 18487 Major spread ofindustrialization amp people were starving due to failed harvests in 1847 Consequences Many liberal reforms Nationalists left unsatisfied legitimate liberalism monarchs recognized it France established a NATION STATE YAY and Europe is getting ready for nation states 13 Ottoman Empire The birth of the Ottoman Empire grew out of Christian Byzantine Empire Greek The Europeans always saw the Ottomans as a huge threat In 1798 France sent Napoleon to conquer Egypt and he failed In 1820 the Greeks revolted See above Until WWI the Ottomans lost territories piece by piece They approached this lose by adopting European changes They mimicked the Europeans armies and emphasized guns and canons They attempted to industrialize with teXtile failed They also made political reforms This worked to some eXtent until WWI 4 Dynasty Duh HH U39l Opium War 1840 Chinese became reliant on British Opium The increased prices created social and financial instability China realized the strength of European power and tried to confront them GB defeat Chinese navy on the coast due to more advanced shops and weapons They made trade agreements that open China up to western in uence H Ch Taiping Rebellion Prophet Hong had a vision about returning to the past and denouncing Confucius He combined traditional ideas with strange Christian ones Blamed the Qing dynasty for problems not the Europeans Led rebels to capture Nanjing He wanted to restore justice and harmony but failed due to the combination of gentry militia and foreign mercenaries What did the Qing do to hold on to power They tried to isolate themselves and strengthen traditions Kept Europeans only on the coast This sort ofworked until the Qing dynasty collapsed in the 20th century 17 Mughal Empire It covered India Pakistan and Bangladesh at the peak of the empire At this time Europeans only had posts on the coasts This changed in the 1700s at GB took over areas ofIndia and gained allies It wanted to replace America for cotton IN the Indian Revolt of 1857 the Mughal Empire was wiped out only eXisted in name 1 Peoples on all the continents reexamined their pasts in order to remake their futures in the 19th century What were the commonalities and differences in how this was done by different peoples Consider the new ideologies of Europe the roles ofprophets and efforts to return to some ideal past Through Romanticism Europe turned away from its reasondriven Enlightenment thinkers Many European nations fought for liberal ideas and a few of them succeeded The Ottoman Empire realized that it need to adapt to survive and left many old traditions behind China returned to tradition and isolated itself from everywhere else India fought for its survival and lost to the rise of the west 2 How did the populations and sense of membership in the traditional European and Asian empires differ from that of the new nation states What problems did the new ideas create for the old empires Most of the people wanted to return to tradition of either culture or religion The had strong empires and little desire for liberalism They faced the strong in uence of Europe Europe wanted trade resources or markets for itself and want to spread Enlightenment and industrialization to other places 3 How did the quotConcert of Europe Respond to the revolts of the 1820s 30s and 40s in Europe Why did it act as it did The revolts in the 1820s1830s were primarily crushed by either the country itself or another nation Spain Revolt A few were successful at combining monarchies with constitutions In 1840 there was revolt everywhere so the countries had to take care of themselves It was too widespread 4 In what differing ways did the Ottoman Qing and Mughal Empires respond to the growth is the western powers in the 19th century Why were they able or why did they respond as they did SEE DEFINTIONS


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