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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 1 13 quot The Big Rollover is the point at which WORLDWIDE PETROLEUM PRODUCTION BEGINS TO DECLINE NThe statistical relationship between the magnitude and frequency of geologic events is INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL NWhich of the following energy resources currently provides the greatest percentage of the total energy usage in the United States OIL NThe design of engineering structures should take into consideration MAGNITUDEFREQ RELATIONSHIPS OF GEOLOGIC EVENTS POTENTIAL RISKS TO LIFE AND PROPERTY COSTS OF CONSTRUCTION In order for the world s population to stabilize at the level of 12 billion by the year 2200 the growth rate must DECREASE quotThe earth s current population is approximately 7 BILLION The increasing rate of population growth over the past 50 years is the result of 7 DECREASING MORTALITY RATES IN THE LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES Sustainabe water resources in the future will require INCREASED EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATION GREATER CROP YIELDS RESTRICTION OF GROUNDWATER WITHDRAWLS TO SUSTAINABLE LEVELS OPEC controls about how much of the world s petroleum reserves 75 NWhich of the following terms refers to the size or intensity of a geologic event MAGNITUDE Fresh water excluding glaciers and icecaps accounts for about how much of the earth s total water 1 lf the population growth rate remains at 13 per year the earth s population will reach 12 billion AROUND THE YEAR 2060 Which of the following is probably an important regulator of the earth s climate on a shortterm basis DEEP OCEANIC CURRENTS Chapter 2 16 NDescending limbs of convection cells may be present beneath OCEANIC TRENCHES quotThe magnetic field of the earth is most likely generated in the CORE NA gravity correction that reduces the surface to a slab of constant thickness above a hypothetical surface is known as the BOUGER CORRECTION NRising segments of convection cells may be present beneath MIDOCEANIC RIDGES NGravity anomalies indicate differences in DENSITY OF NEAR SURFACE ROCKS quotWhich layer of the earth has the lowest density CONTINENTAL CRUST quotDifferentiation refers to the process in which the earth BECAME CHEMICALLY SEGREGATED DUE TO MELTING AND SINKING OF IRON In order for symmetrical patterns of magnetic polarity to be produced in the vicinity of a midoceanic ridge NEW CRUST HAS TO BE PRODUCED CONTINUOUSLY AT THE RIDGE THE OCEANIC CRUST MUST MOVE AWAY FROM THE RIDGE IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS AND THE EARTH S MAGNETIC FIELD MUST PERIODICALLY REVERSE ITSELF In order to explain the transport of heat through the earth it is necessary to invoke the process of CONVECTION Paleomagnetic evidence has provided support of the ideas that NEW OCEANIC CRUST IS CREATED AT MIDOCEANIC RIDGES AND MOVES OUTWARD FROM THE RIDGES lt is possible that a rising segment of a convection cell lies beneath THE CASCADE MOUNTAINSQ THE BASIN AND RANGE PROVINCE quotGravity anomalies beneath young mountain ranges are usually NEGATIVE quotIn comparison to an ocean basin the crustal root ofa mountain range is DEEP AND OF LOWER DENSITY THAN THE SURROUNDING ROCKS One zone within the earth deforms plastically and may even be partially molten This is the ASTHEONSPHERE According to the theory of isostasy mantle rocks over long periods of time behave as VISCOUS MATERIAL NRadioactive heat production in the earth is most likely in the CONTINENTAL CRUST Chapter 3 16 NThe primary components of fertilizer are nitrogen phosphorus and potassium Which of these elements are derived from sedimentary rock deposits of shallow marine origin PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM quotPortland cement uses what rock as its basic raw material LIMESTONE quotClay minerals often cause foundation problems because they expand upon increases in water content The most expansive clay mineral is MONTMORILLONITE All crystals of a mineral will have the same CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ANGLE BETWEEN CORRESPONDING CRYSTAL FACES AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE quotThe type of chemical bond in which sodium and chloride combine to form halite is called IONIC quotGypsum is the major component of what common building material PLASTERBOARD OR SHEETROCK quotThe chemical composition of a mineral must be FIXED OR VARIABLE WITHIN FIXED LIMITS quotWhat minerals can be harmful to human health CROCIDOLITE ASBESTOS AND CRYSTALLINE OR AMORPHOUS SILICA quotSharing of electrons is possible in which type of chemical bond COVALENT quotWhich of the following chemical bonds is formed by atoms that have a strong tendency to give up or attract neutrons IONIC quotIn order to be classified as a mineral a substance must be INORGANIC NATURALLY OCCURRING AND CRYSTALLINE Ore minerals of iron include HEMATITE MAGNETITE AND PYRITE NWhich of the following mining activities can be linked with environmental problems PROCESSING OF ORE MINERALS DISPOSAL OF WASTE ROCK AND SMELTING quotMinerals can be composed of ATOMS IONS AND ISOTOPES quotWhich of the following environmental problems can be linked to human use of minerals ACID MINE DRAINAGE ACID RAIN AND SMOG Common rocks and minerals that are used in construction applications include LIMESTONE GYPSUM AND SAND AND GRAVEL Chapter 4 8 NWhich sequence of minerals is NOT written in the proper order of crystallization as predicted by Bowen s reaction series see Figure 453 SODIC PLAGIOCLASECALCIC PLAGIOCLASE quotA volcanic mountain composed of both lava and pyroclastic material would be classified as a COMPOSITE VOLCANO quotIf a specimen of granite were slowly heated which mineral would melt first see Figure 453 Bowen39s Reaction Series QUARTZ quotThe most abundant gas released by volcanic eruptions is WATER VAPOR quotIn Bowen s reaction series see Figure 453 as a magma gradually cools CALCIUMRICH PLAGIOCLASE REACTS CONTINUOUSLY WITH THE MAGMA TO BECOME MORE SODIUM RICH quotLava flows constitute the most severe type of hazard at which of the following volcanoes KILAUEA quotComposite volcanoes are often composed of ANDESTIC LAVAS quotWhich of the following volcanic hazards can be expected to affect areas at the greatest distance from the vent LAHARS Chapter 5 20 quotThe most common cementing materials in sedimentary rocks are SILICA AND CALCIUM CARBONATE quotA sedimentary rock formed in an environment with abundant organic matter and with no free oxygen would be which color BLACK quotSedimentary rocks that originated as deposits near the center of a large lake should have PARALLEL BEDDING quotA diagram showing the subsurface distribution of rocks along a line is called a CROSS SECTION quotEvaporite deposits are considered to be possible sites for highlevel radioactive waste disposal because of their LOW STRENGTH LOW PERMEABILITY AND LOW WATER CONTENT quotA road is being built through an area containing sedimentary rocks of various types Which of the following rock types would require the lowest slope angle where the cuts are made SHALE quotShades of gray or green in ironbearing rocks are caused by FERROUS IRON quotWhich of the following sedimentary environments would produce the more wellsorted sedimentary rocks BEACH quotThe most important factor influencing the characteristics of a sedimentary rock is THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT Most shells of marine organisms are composed of SILICAQ CALCITE quotCross bedding is not characteristic of TURBIDITY CURRENT DEPOSITS quotA reddish color in a sedimentary rock usually indicates OXIDIZING CONDITIONS quotWhich of the following minerals is often found in evaporite deposits GYPSUM quotConglomerate differs from breccia in that THE PARTICLES IN CONGLOMERATE ARE ROUNDED quotChemical precipitation in the pores between sediment particles occurs during CEMENTATION quotThe physical and chemical processes involved in conversion of a sediment to a sedimentary rock are known as LITHIFICATION quotThe most important factor in the deposition of evaporite minerals in a marine basin is RESTRICTED CIRCULATION quotPreservation of organic matter in sedimentary rocks is most successful in the absence of OXYGEN NWhich of the following sedimentary structures indicates sediment transport by density currents turbidity currents owing down the continental slopes GRADED BEDDING MaXimum compaction can be achieved with CLAY Chapter 6 7 quotSlate is a rock that was probably produced by metamorphism of SHALE quotFoliation can be described as PARALLEL ALIGNMENT OF MINERAL GRAINS quotThe most important component of metamorphic processes is HEAT quotA zone of altered rocks around an intruded magma is called a MEI39AMORPHIC AUREOLE quotIn order for metamorphism to occur rocks must NONE OF THE ABOVE MELT PARTIALLY MELT BE SUBJECTED TO EXTREMELY HIGH PRESSURE quotMetamorphic rocks can be produced from IGNEOUS ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS quotMetamorphism of limestone produces MARBLE Chapter 9 20 Which of the following is NOT a salt weathering mechanism SWELLING OF CLAY MINERALS quotCarbon dioxide in the soil zone is produced by DECOMPOSITION OF ORGANIC MATTER Overland flow of runoff is responsible for GULLY EROSION RILL EROSION m SHEET EROSION quotAn example of landuse change which results in lower sediment yield to streams is COMPLETION OF CONSTRUCTION IN A NEWLY URBANIZED AREA quotWeathering depths in rocks subjected to similar climates are HIGHLY VARIABLE quotSediment yield to streams is greatest during which type of land use in a drainage basin CONSTRUCTION quotIn humid tropical climates many rocks weather to a material rich in IRON AND ALUMINUM OXIDES quotConversion of pyrite to limonite is an example of OXIDATION quotMaterial produced by mechanical weathering that accumulates at slope bases is called TALUS quotPiping is associated with ARID CLIMATES CLAYEY SEDIMENTS AND BADLAND TOPOGRAPHY quotWhich compound below would NOT contribute to salt weathering SILICON DIOXIDE quotThe products of feldspar weathering by hydrolysis DO NOT include QUAR39IZ quotPick the answer that lists land uses in order from low sediment yield to high sediment yield FOREST GRAZING CROPPING CONSTRUCTION quotThe chemical breakdown of plagioclase is an example of HYDROLYSIS quotDiversions can be used for PREVENTION OF WATER MOVEMENT OVER ARES CLEARED FOR CONSTRUCTION quotWeathering of feldspars by hydrolysis produces CLAY MINERALS DISSOLVED CATIONS AND DISSOLVED SILICA The mechanical weathering process that occurs because of pressure release is EXFOLIATION Erosion of overlying rock exposing previously buried rock can contribute to a process called EXFOLIATION quotWhich of the following is NOT classified as a physical weathering process NONE OF THE ABOVE EXFOLIATION FREEZE AND THAW SALT WEATH ERING quotWhich of the following minerals is most stable in weathering environments ORTHOCLASE quotIn the soil zone carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid by reaction with WATER