Week 4 Notes
Week 4 Notes Anthro 105
Popular in Principles of Biological Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Altmann on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 105 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Sept 21 2015 Primate Bodies cont What makes a primate a primate cont o Primate brains Relative brain size Based on body weight Compared to other animals Primate Phylogeny Defining Species 0 Two levels of Evolution Microevolution natural selection at the level of the individual 9 changes in a population s biological traits Macroevolution how new species and taxa are created through adaptive radiation Adaptive radiation the process by which organisms diversify into new forms Often accompanied by the opening of new ecological niches o Distinguishing species Behavior and morphology 9 this type of classification is subjective and therefore can lead to ambiguity Biological Species Concept a species is a group of organisms that interbreed and are reproductively isolated Reproductive isolation members of a given species don t mate successfully for example a donkey and horse can mate but their offspring is a mule which is sterile with members of another species Taxonomy and Systematics 0 Carolus Linnaeus Naming system for all living organisms International language Genus and species 9 Humans Homo sapiens Gorilla Gorilla gorilla and Boa Constrictor Boa constrictor 0 Writing species names 1 Always Genus followed by species name 2 Genus starts with Uppercase letter 3 species starts with lowercase letter 4 Written in italics unless written by hand and then underlined 9 Homo sapiens m sapiens o Linnaean Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Humans Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Homo sapiens Chimpanzees Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae Pan troglodytes Primate Phylogeny Phylogeny Describing the evolutionary history of a group of organisms using a family tree An account of the relatedness of different groups of species Determine Which anatomies unite different groups A map of our evolutionary history Phylogenetics Now supported by genetic eVidence 6 Primate families Lemurs Lorises Tarsiers Ceboids Cercopithecoids Hominoids 6 Primate Families Lemurs ONLY found on Madagascar Approximately 100 different species huge diversity for such a small area Formerly connected to both Africa and India broke off 150 mya The Mouse Lemur is the world s smallest primate Aye aye is a lemur that uses its long and skinny middle finger to find and capture its prey by tapping on hollow trees Both are examples of specific and unique adaptations for specific ecological niches Sept 23 2015 Primate Phylogeny 6 Primate Families cont Lorises Locations India Sri Lanka South East Asia 9 tropical and woodland forests Highly arboreal 9 slow quadrupeds Nocturnal big eyes and ears Varied diet some are complete insectivores Also include the Galagos bush babies in Africa which are also nocturnal and arboreal but are also clingersleapers Tarsiers South East Asia Arboreal 9 Clingerleaper Nocturnal big ears and eyes Insectivorous Approximately 15 species Ceboids AKA New World Monkeys South and Central America Varied diets and locomotion HUGE family 9 high amount of diversity Cercopithecoids AKA Old World Monkeys Africa Asia and Indonesia Varied diets and locomotion Another huge family meaning more diversity Complex social systems unique in each species Example Geladas live in groups of hundreds and have a sophisticated form of verbal communication with each other Hominoids SE Asia and India Gibbons and Orangutans Africa Chimpanzees Bonobos and Gorillas and Global Humans Great Apes Primate Phylogeny Strepsirhines Haplorhines Platyrrhines Catarrhines Lemurs Lorises Tarsiers Ceboids Cercopithecoids Hominoids 50 mya 55 mya 0 Strepsirhines Includes Lemurs and Lorises Rely more on olfaction 9 longer snouts and wetnose rhinarium Postorbital bar In the brain the olfactory bulb responsible for smell is larger and the occipital lobe responsible for Vision is smaller Tooth comb 9 incisors that project forward for eating as well as grooming Common ancestor 55mya split off from Haplorhines o Haplorhines Includes Tarsiers Ceboids Cercopithecoids Hominoids Rely more on Vision 9 postorbital closure for further protection of the eyes Shorter snout and drynose no rhinarium In the brain the olfactory bulb responsible for smell is smaller and the occipital lobe responsible for Vision is larger Share a more recent common ancestor 50mya o Prosimians Includes Lemurs Lorises and Tarsiers Strepsirhines Tarsiers due to anatomical similarities Smallbodied and less folds indicating less complexity Smallbrained o Anthropoids Includes Ceboids Cercopithecoids and Hominoids Haplorhines Tarsiers due to anatomical differences Largebodied and more folds indicating more complexity more volume Smallbrained o Platyrrhines Includes Ceboids New World Monkeys Location South and Central America Flat nose and Wide septum Dental Formula 2132 or 2133 Some of a prehensile tail grasping tail Catarrhines Includes Cercopithecoids and Hominoids Old World Monkeys and Apes Location Africa and Asia Flared nose and narrow septum Dental Formula 2123 Sexual dimorphism the males and females are morphologically different from one another in a species Cercopithecoids AKA Old World Monkeys Vestigial tail very small Big brains Bilophodant molars 9 4 high cusps and 2 ridges Hominoids AKA Apes No tail BIGGER brains Y5 molars 9 5 low cusps and a yshape
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