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by: Dr. Alia Schultz

Neuroscience NEUR410

Dr. Alia Schultz
GPA 3.76


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Alia Schultz on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NEUR410 at Drexel University taught by JosephRubertone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/212308/neur410-drexel-university in Neuroscience at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Neuroscience Exam 2 42914 Medulla oblongata Lowest part of brain stem CN 912 0 CN 9 glossopharyngeal I Mixed nerve I Sensory and motor components I Motor goes to stylopharyngeous muscle 0 Comes from styloid process This muscle is involved with swallowing This muscle elevates the pharynx so we can swallow easier Epiglottis doesn t actually close bowel shaped triangular Swallowing helps to raise thyroid and help the food slide off epiglottis o Dysphagia difficulty swallowing 0 CN 10 I Vagus Mixed Motor sensory para Innervates pharyngeal constrictor muscles 0 Superior middle and inferior o CN11 Spinal accessory Upper 4 cervical segments is where it mostly originates from spinal cord but it enters through foramen magnum Upper traps and sternocleidomastoids 0 CN 12 I Hypoglossal nerve Innervates the muscles of the tongue Inferior olive relay nucleus to cerebellum figure 113 Cerebellum is cut away so we can see the dorsal view 0 Middle cerebellar peduncle largest one I Corticospinal 4th ventricle 0 That space we see on Slide 2 dorsal view Closed medulla vs open medulla 0 Closed 4th ventricle isn t associated with it caudal 0 Open 4th ventricle open rostral Ascending and descending systems figure 115 0 Corticospinal descending I Origin cortex precentral gyrus primary motor I Descends through corona radiate 9 internal capsule 9peduncles of midbrain 9 pontine nuclei 9 pyramidal decussation I Pontine nuclei the holes in the graylooking tract 0 They project the motor program through the middle cerebellar peduncle o Posterior column medial lemniscal I Ascending I Synapse on nuclei in caudal medulla internal arcuate fibers 9 cerebellum 0 ALS I Ascending o Trigeminial nuclear complex I Motor and sensory neurons I Sensory for the face 0 One of them take the place ofALS 0 Pain crude touch temp I Trigeminal chief sensory nucleus 0 Same role as dorsal column system 0 Involved in 2 point discrimination I Mesencephalic nucleus of 5 o Involved with proprioception 0 Plays role of conscious and unconscious cerebellar projections 0 Transverse sections 0 Caudal close medulla I No 4th ventricle I You still see central canal in that pic I Pyramidal decussation o In this pic right 9 left 0 This lets you know that it s caudal and not rostral o Spinal trigeminal nucleus I Descends down into upper cervical spinal cord I Pain temp crude touch I Receive from CN 5 7 9 10 o Gracile fasciculus I Carrying info from proprioceptors I Carries info from lower extremity I Gracile nucleus 0 Cuneate fasciculus I Carry from upper I Cuneate nucleus 0 ALS I Closely associated with rubrospinal I Hypoglossal nucleus I Dorsal motor vagal nucleus 0 Dorsal and ventral spino cerebellar dorsal is above ventral Closed medullar at sensory decussation 0 000 O Sensory systems that decussate ALS and dorsal column I Headless man medial lemniscus Internal arcuate fibers Medial lemniscus Tectobulbospinal tract I Comes from tectum o 4 colliculi together tectum o 2 superior 2 inferior 0 Visual and auditory tracking I Gotta move your head for the colliculi I This tract goes from tectum to neck to move it Medial long fasculus I On top of tectobulbospinal I Carrying Medial vestibulo spinal fibers vestibule colic re ex I Bilateral Hypoglossal nucleus and nerve I The dotted line on figure 118 I Inferior alternating hemiplegia don t gotta know 0 Ipsilateral loss from CN 12 but 2 systems have contralateral loss 7 Dorsal motor vagal nucleus I Lateral and rostral to hypoglossal I Para sympathetic o Innervate smooth muscle and viscera in thoracic cavity as well as abdominal cavity I Vagus nerve thoracic and ab cavity up to transverse colon Solitary nucleus and tract I Nucleus solitarus I Caudal aspect has afferents from viscera I Rostral aspect has gustatory function 0 Gustation taste 0 Taste receptors go to rostral part of this nucleus Accessory cuneate I Cuneocerebellar tract I Upper extremity Inferior olive I Relay nucleus to cerebellum Nucleus ambiguous I Contains axons from CN 9 and 10 I Motor Neurons send their axons I Stylopharyngeal muscles and pharyngeal constrictors Caudal open medulla fig 1110 0 Obex opening into the 4th ventricle o On either side of obex is a collection of sensory neurons that monitor the constituents in the CSF Obex gateway to spinal canal Monitors the CSF Common toxic of CSF alcohol Impulses from area postrema 9 reticular formation emetic center I Emesis vomiting response to imbalance of CSF I Activates a number of nuclei that allows you to throw up I Protective response 0 Drink too much alcohol 9 hurl emetic response 0 Mid olivary level 0 Medialvestibularnucleus I Medial vestibular spinal tract 0 Inferior vestibular nucleus I Know its location 0 Restiform body I AKA Inferior cerebellar peduncle I Spino cerebellar goes through it o Rostral medullary level 0 Choired plexus of 4th ventricle 0 Lateral foramina of Luschka o Inferior salivatory nucleus I Saliva I Projecting efferents from CN 9 0 Going to the parotid gland I CN 9 motor general somatic 9 skeletal muscle 0 General visceral efferent 9 salivary nucleus I Nucleus collection of fibers going in same direction 0 Dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei I Nucleus in CNS receives afferent from auditory part of CN 8 o Pontomedullaryjunction 0 Where the medulla joins with the pons o Inferior cerebellar peduncle has arrows through it o Caudal portion of facial nucleus fig 1114 0 Central tegmental tract I Basal nuclei 9 cerebellum 0 Functional columns 0 Contains both motor and sensory nuclei 0 Column themselves contain nuclei that have similar functions 0 Motor are medial I Sending their axons out of CNS efferent fibers 0 Sensory lateral 0 They form the basis of any neuro exam we ll be trained to do 0 Efferents medial to sulcus limitans o GSE general somatic efferent OOOO o GVE These fibers go out to skeletal muscle Most medial column Hypoglossal nucleus CN 12 Innervates tongue Abducens nucleus Next nucleus Innervates Lateral rectus muscle of the eye Moving gaze laterally abducting CN 6 Trochlear nucleus In midbrain These axons go through CN 4 Innervates superior oblique muscle of eye Trochlear means pulley Tendon on the back of eyeball Gaze goes down and out Oculomotor nucleus Most rostral of these Innervates all the extrinsic muscles of the eye with the exception oflateral rectus and superior oblique general visceral efferent Motor fibers tha are going to smooth muscle and viscera and glands More lateral system Dorsal motor vagal nucleus CN 10 Thoracic and ab up to transverse colon Inferior salivatory nucleus CN 9 supply parotid gland Superior salivatory nucleus More rostral To the submanidibular and sublingual and lacrimal glands CN 7 Lacrimal gland 0 Superior medial part of eyelid Always being innervated Keeps the eye ball moist Every time you blink the eyelid takes the lacrimal uid and brings it across eyeball I Dorsal lateral 9 ventral medial Being dragged to medial canthus part of eye It s also a cleansing agent I Sandman scaring kids at night Pit lacrimal lake I The opening of the nasolacrimal duct 000 O I This duct takes all the tears and drops into a huge evaporation center which is the nose 0 Since it s parasym emotion affects it I Increase tears 9 over ow lacrimal lake 9 produce tears too much lacrimal uid Edinger Westphal nucleus 0 Goes to intrinsic muscle of eye 0 Sphincter pupillae I Causes constriction of the pupil o Parasympathetic 0 Also to ciliary muscle GVE parasympathetic o In the brain stem and sacral cord S24 o Craniosacral division parasympathetic all nuclei under GVE o Thoracolumbar division sympathetic T1L23 o SVE special visceral efferent Based on embryonic development Innervates muscles that are branchiomeric in origin Branchiomeric arches as embryo 9 muscles of face Ambiguous nucles 0 CN 9 10 and 11 o CN9 stylopharyngeus 0 CN 10 pharyngeal constrictor o Muscles of larynx and soft palate as well 0 CN 11 sternocleidomastoid and traps 0 Only a little bit Facial nucleus 0 CN 7 muscles of facial expression 0 People s expression let you know whether it s lower or upper motor lesion Trigeminal motor nucleus 0 CN 5 muscles mastication o Afferents sensory lateral to sulcus limitans o SVA Special taste Rostral Nucleus solitarious gustatory Taste CN 7 9 10 CN 7 chorda tympani anterior 23 tongue CN9 posterior 13 tongue CN 10 epiglottis 0 Also has taste buds on it 0 They re innervated by CN 10 0 Wine taste twirl get the esters owing smell it take small sip and swish in mouth to activate all 3 nerves


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