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by: Mrs. Kellen Barrows

MicrobiologyforHealthProfessionals BIO226

Marketplace > Drexel University > Biotechnology > BIO226 > MicrobiologyforHealthProfessionals
Mrs. Kellen Barrows
GPA 3.53


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kellen Barrows on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO226 at Drexel University taught by LauraDuwel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/212316/bio226-drexel-university in Biotechnology at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Protozoan Disease trichomiasis metronidozol Fungal amphoterican B Viral cyclovir quotin ammation of the heart valves malaise fever subcutaneous nodules at joints this is the causative agent 9 rheumatic fever strep pyogenes antibiotics bacterial only Don t treat a virus with an antibiotic Characteristic of scarlet fever strawberry tongue Causative agent of Q fever coxiella burnetti Necrotizing fasciitis is a highly desctructiveskin eating bacteria strep pyogenes Strep pyogenes is the go to for a really bad skin infection Cryptococcus neoformans yeast fungal meningitis Pneumococcal mengitis strep pneumo H in uenza gram rod N meningitides gram cocci most urgent treatment for tetanus antibodies Bartonella Henselae cat scratch fever Causative agent for stomach ulcers helicobacter pylori organism associated with formation of ghon complexes mycobacterium tuberculosis Cuasative agent of chanchroid haemophilus ducrei Breakbone fever or Dengue fever tse tse ymosquito BBB makes encephalitis and meningitis hard to treat TB like symptoms southern California Coccidoides California cocci Missippi ohio river histo Caves blasto Bio 226 Microbiology for Health Professionals Exam II Review Chapter 12 9 Fungi Algae Protozoa amp Helminths The Fungi What are the de ning characteristics of fungi o Eukaryotic o Aerobic or facultative anaerobe yeasts o Chemoheterotrophic absorptive 0 Most are decomposers 0 Can be unicellular yeast or multicellular 0 Have both sexual and asexual reproduction spores 0 Cell walls 9 glucan mannans or chitin 0 Cell membranes 9 sterols Nutritional Adaptations of fungi o Prefer acidic environment pHNS o Aerobic or facultative anaerobe 0 Need very low moisture nitrogen o Resistant to osmotic pressure 9 can grow in high salt or sugar 0 Can degrade complex CHO that most bacteria cannot use Fungal morphology o Thallus body 9 hyphae filaments 9 mass of hyphae is a mycelium I Vegetative hyphae 9 obtain nutrients o Sepatate vs coencytic hyphae I Aerial hyphae 9 reproduction o Yeasts unicellular 9 pseudohyphae chain of buds Life Cycle of Fungi o Dimorphic 9 37 C yeastlike or 25 C moldlike 0 Both Sexual and Asexual Reproduction 9 spores Fungal Spores are for reproduction o Asexual spores be able to recognize description andor picture I Sporangiospore formed within a sac I Conidiospore tufts of CHAINS I Arthrospore fragmentation I Blastoconidium budding I Chlamydospore enlargement within hypahe 0 Sexual spores be able to recognize description and or picture I Zygospore fusion of haploid cells produce one zygospore looks like lt0gt I Ascospore formed in ascus sac I Basidiospore formed externally on basidium 0 Sexual reproduction occurs in 3 phases form recombiants rarely used since it is costly I Plasmogamy 9 Haploid donor nucleus penetrates cytoplasm of recipient cell Karyogamy 9 and nuclei fuse diploid Meiosis 9 diploid nucleus produces haploid nuclei sexual spores o Differentiate bw anamorphs and teleomorphs o Anamorphs 9 produce asexual spores only 0 Teleomorphs 9 produce both sexual and asexual spores o Fungal Phyla Teleomorphs o Zygomycota 9 conjugation fungi I Coencytic hyphae zygospores sexual and sporangiospores asexual I Rhizopus and Mucor 9 opportunistic pathogens 0 Ascomycota 9 sac fungi I Septate hyphae ascopspores sexual and conidiopsores asexual I Aspergillus and Histoplasma 9 systemic I Microsporum and Trichophyton 9 cutaneous o Basidiomycota 9 club fungi very diverse I Septate hyphae basidiospores sexual and conidiospores asexual I Amanita mushroom 9 neurotoxin and anticancer chemical I Cryptococcus neoformans 9 systemic soil bird feces new pathogenic capsule o Anamorphs 9 asexual spores only I Penicillium 9 penicillin conidiospores I Sporothrix 9 subcutaneous mycosis soil I Stachybotrys 9 water damage in buildings fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in infants I Coccidiodes soil and Pneumocystis NF 9 pneumonia 0 Pneumocystis formerly classified as protozoa I Candida albicans 9 yeast infections 0 Types of fungal diseases 9 o systemic deep in body 0 cutaneous surface of skin hair nails 0 subcutaneous beneath the skin 0 superficial localized ex hair shafts 0 Many fungi are opportunistic pathogens 0 Economic Effects of Fungi 0 Used in the production of many food products bread wine beer 0 Used for biological control of pests 0 Common spoilage of fruits grains and vegetables 0 Many fungi cause diseases in plants What are Lichens o Symbiotic combination of alga or cyanobacterium fungus Alga 9 via photosynthesis provides CHO for the fungus fungus provides holdfast Colonize very harsh low nutrient environments Secrete organic acids that chemically weather rocks Extremely slowgrowing Highly susceptible to air pollution The Algae Eukaryotic Unicellualr lamentous or multicellular thallic Most are photoautotrophs Most live in aquatic environments 9 primary producers in aquatic food chains Planktonic algae produce most of the oxygen in the Earth s atmosphere Sexual or asexual reproduction Selected Phyla of Algae o Phaeophyta 9 Brown algae kelp 0 Can be very large 50 m in length 0 Harvested for algin from its cell wall9 used as food thickener o Laminaria vaginal dilation o Rhodophyta 9 red algae o Branched and multicellular o Grow deeper in the ocean than other algae because their red pigments can absorb the blue light that penetrates to deeper levels 0 Harvested for agar and ca1rageenan 9 gelatinous thickeners o Toxic to humans exposed through eating sh that eats this 0 Chlorophyta 9 green algae 0 Have cellulose and chlorophyll a and b and store starch glucose polymer 0 Gave rise to plants Bacillariophyta 9 diatoms o Unicellular 0 Have pectin and silica cell walls that t together like a petri dish or hatbox o Fossilized diatoms form petroleum oil 0 Produce domoic acid 9 neurotoxin o Dino agellata 9 dino agellates bottom slides Unicellular algae referred to as plankton Symbionts w marine animals pm of cellulose Store starch Produce neurotoxin 9 saxitoxins I Paralytic shell sh poisoning Blooms 9 associated with red tide Ciguatera 9 occurs when toxincontaining dino agellates pass up the foodchain and is concentrated in larger sh 9 humans P sterz39a 9 possible estuary associated syndrome PEAS 00 0000 O The Protozoa rst animal 0 Unicellualr eukaryotic chemoheterotrophs 0 Food acquisition 9 absorptive and ingestion 0 Found in soil and water and as normal microbiota in animals 0 2000 species 9 relatively few cause disease Characteristics of Protozoa o vegetative feeding growing form 9 trophozoite o asexual reproduction by fission budding or schizogeny multiple ssion 0 sexual reproduction is by conjugation 0 Many produce cysts for protection during adverse conditions apicomplexa oocyst 0 Have complex cells that may include a pellicle cytostome and anal pore Medically Important Phyla of Protozoa o Formerly Mastigophora 9 locomotion by agella o Archaezoa 9 lack mitochondria and have agella I Trichomonas vaginalis STD no cyst stage transferred I Giardia lamblia intestinal parasite o Euglenozoa 9 lack sexual reproduction and have agella hemo agellates I Trypanosoma sleeping sickness swims around rbc I Naegleria found in water people swim in 9 menigoencephalitis I Leishmania visceral cutaneous and mucocutaneous disease 0 Rhizopoda formerly Sarcodina 9 amoebas move by pseudopodia o Entamoeba histolytica intestinal parasite o Acanthmoeba 9 freeliving infects cornea blindness o Balamuthia 7 1990 brain abscesses called granulomatous amoebic encephalitis o Ciliophora 9 move by cilia o Balantidium coli is the only human pathogen in this group 0 trophozoites in large intestine make proteasesdestroy host cell 0 Formerly Sporozoa 9 no locomotion in adult stage 0 Microsporidia 9 lack mitochondria and microtubules I Microsporidium 9 cause chronic diarrhea in AIDS patients 0 Apicomplexa 7 have apical organelles for penetrating host tissue and cells I Obligate intracellular parasites with complex life cycles I Plasmodium 9 malaria infects RBC slide 10 o Fever and chills as merozoites rupture from RBC 0 Humanintermediate host and Anopheles mosquito definitive host 0 Vaccination is the most effective control I Toxoplasma gondii 9 congenital infections in utero cat feces I Babesia 9 malarialike disease in US 0 Tickbome Ixodes I Cyclospora 9 newly recognized intestinal parasite o Epidemic of waterborne diarrhea I Cryptosporidium 9 newly recognized intestinal parasite 0 Major cause of death in AIDS patients Cl resistant inside small intestine cells The Helminths parasitic worms Multicellular animals with tissues and organs a few are parasites to humans Anatomy and life cycles of parasitic helminthes are modified for parasitism The adult stage is found in the definitive host Each larval stage of a parasitic helminth requires an intermediate host Helminth can be monoecious or dioecious 0 Some are hermaphroditic 7 having both male and female sex organs Medically important Helminths o Tramsmission of helminthic diseases is usually by the gastrointestinal route 0 Parasitic helminthes often have greatly reduced systems compared to other freeliving helminthes for o Digestive system 0 Nervous system 0 Locomotion Reproductive system is usually proli c and specialized Phylum Platyhelminths are atworms o Digestive system is incomplete some may lack digestive system one opening for entry of food ad exit of wastes 0 Class Trematodes ukes 0 Class Cestodes tapeworms o Trematodes are at and leafshaped with ventral and oral suckers 0 Can also absorb food through its pellicle 0 Eggs 9 miracidia freeswimming 9 1st intermediate host 9 rediae develop in ISI intermediate host 9 become cercariae 9 bore out of lSt host and penetrate 2quotd intermediate host 9 encyst as metacercariae in 2quotd intermediate host 9 ingested by de nite host 9 metacercariae develop into adults in de nitive host 0 Paragonimus westermani lung uke 0 Human is de nitive host 0 ISI intermediate host is snail 9 2quotd intermediate host cray sh 0 Ways to break chain of infection of humans 0 Advise people not to defecate in the water 0 Eliminate the snail host 0 Cook cray sh thoroughly before eating 0 Schistosomia spp blood uke 0 Human is de nitive host 0 Only one intermediate host snail o Freeswimming cercariae penetrate through human skin 9 blood 9 develop into mature adults 0 Cestodes tapeworms 9 consist of a scoleX head and proglottids o Intestinal parasites 7 feed off of intestinal contents proglottids contain male and female reproductive organs 0 Larvae encyst in muscle as cysticerci Often engested as encysted form in intermediate host by human Humans are the de nitive host for Taenia spp rom beef and pork and Diphyllobothrium latum sh tapeworm 0 Best prevention 9 properly cooked beef pork or sh 0 T saginata beef T solium pork 0 Humans are the intermediate host for the dog tapewrom 7 Echinococcus granulosus 0 Form hydatid cysts in tissue usually lung liver and brain 00 Nematodes roundworms 9 cylindrical and tapered at ends 0 Have a complete digestive system 0 Do not have the succession of larval stages found in atworms o Nematodes that infect humans with their EGGS o Enterobius vermicularis pinworrn o Ascaris lumbricoides common intestinal roundworm 9 lives off of semi digested food I Eggs hatch in intestine 9 lungs and 9 migrate to intestine o Nematodes that infect humans with their LARVAE o Hookworms Necator and Ancylostoma 9 larvae from soil 0 Tricinella spiralis 9 encysted larvae ingested from poorly cooked pork or game animals 0 Anisakines Wrigley worms 9 larvae from infected fish or squid Arthrpods as Vectors o Jointlegged animals with exoskeletons in the Phylum Arthropoda 0 Insecta 6 legs 9 lice mosquitoes eas I Mosquitoes 9 Malaria and encephalitis West Nile Virus 0 Arachnida 8 legs 9 spiders mites and ticks I Ticks 9 Lyme s Disease and Rocky Mt Spotted Fever


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