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by: Mrs. Kellen Barrows

CellsandGenetics BIO122

Mrs. Kellen Barrows
GPA 3.53


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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kellen Barrows on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO122 at Drexel University taught by KarenKabnick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see /class/212318/bio122-drexel-university in Biotechnology at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 1 amp 3 Know and understand themes of biology 7 What does each mean 7 Understand evidence for each explained in lecture From organizational hierarchy emerges functional properties cell tissue organ start to perform functions organ system organism Organisms interact with the environment producers consumers and decomposers a successful ecosystem recycles necessary chemicals and keeps energy moving Unity all forms of life have a cellular basis oflife and DNA common properties order regulation growth and development energy processing response to environment reproduction evolutionary adaptation Diversity three domains bacteria archaea and eukarya Evolution mediated by Natural Selection Macromolecules 7 What are macromolecules How are they constructed and degraded Proteins primary structure amino acid peptide chain Secondary structure alpha helix and beta sheets tertiary structure globular proteins quaternary structure hemoglobin Lipids triglyceride fatty acids and glycerol Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids Carbohydrates monosaccharide glucose galactose fructose Disaccharide sucrose lactose maltose Polysaccharide starch glycogen and cellulose Nucleic Acids They are constructed by dehydration and broken down by hydrolysis Chapter 4 Understand basic methods to study cells visually biochemically molecular biologically visually microscopy biochemically fraction and assays molecular genes DNA What is the significance of cell size to cell function A cell s surface area to volume ratio should be high because the cell s volume depends on the cell membrane to transport materials surface area Differences and similarities among prokaryotes and eukaryotes 7 Similarities Is enclosed in a membrane which regulates exit and entry of materials DNA encodes genetic information Ribosomes translate proteins 7 Differences prokaryotes do not have a nucleus or bound organelles Contain bacteria and archaea Bacterial cell wall is made ofpeptidoglycan prokaryotes contain circular DNA no histones use binary fission eukaryotes contain homologous chromosomes histones membrane bound organelles and mitotic spindles Understand the structure function and interrelatedness of eukaryotic organelles and structures nucleus entire endomembrane system energy organelles all cytoskeletal components nucleus contain DNA endomembrane system protein synthesis processing modification and transport sorting for proteins Secretion is the main function Contains the endoplasmic reticulum smooth and rough vesicles golgi bodies lysosomes energy organelles mitochondrion and chloroplasts cytoskeletal components microtubules centrosomes and centrioles cilia and agella intermediate filaments and microfilaments actin monomers 0 What is the ECM What comprises the ECM 0 the extracellular matrix 0 Mechanical tensile and compressive strength and elasticity 0 Protection buffering against extracellular change and retention of water 0 Organization control of cell behavior 0 A substrate for cell adhesion amp movement How do cell connect to and communicate with other cells and the ECM sealing tight junctions anchoring desmosomes adherens communication gap junctions Chapter 5 1 What are constituents of all cell membranes phospholipid bilayer phospholipids containing glycerol and fatty acids Cholesterol peripheral and integral proteins are also part of the bilayer 2 How do some proteins and amphipathic barriers move in membrane The uidity of the membrane allows proteins to move 3 What are the classes of functions ofmembrane proteins enzymes signaling cell recognition celltocell interaction attachment transport 4 How do molecules cross membranes 7 What molecules can cross membranes unaided Nonpolar and small polar molecules can diffuse through the membrane Ions pass through with facilitated diffusion 7 Passive transport osmosis tonicity diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport primary and secondary hypotonic bursts hyp ertonic shrivels sodium potassium pump sodium goes out potassium goes in ATP needed primary is with ATP and secondary is with an electrochemical gradient 5 How do membrane pinchingfusion and vesicle transport mediate movement of some structures and molecules inout around cells exocytosis and endocytosis with the endomembrane system Chapter 6 1 What is free energy How is it definedcalculated Portion of system s energy that can do work Gibb s free energy G Gpmduct Greactant 2 What does it mean for a reaction to be spontaneous or nonspontaneous What types of processes are spontaneous A spontaneous reaction does not need energy to start the reaction Exergonic reactions like cellular respiration are spontaneous Those are also catabolic reactions Nonspontaneous requires energy so it would not occur randomly Endergonic reactions such as photosynthesis are nonspontaneous 3 What are the requirements for reactions to occur Energy coupling from exergonic to an endergonic reaction can occur with a movement of solute from a higher to lower concentration or ATP hydrolysis breakdown of phosphate group 4 What is the difference between equilibrium and steady state Equilibrium does not require energy Forward and backward reactions remain constant Steady state requires a constant input of energy What are the types of cellular work Be able to describe them chemical work transport work mechanical work 6 What are energy sources for cellular work ATP 7 What are enzymes and what are they for Enzymes are proteins that catalyze reactions and lower the activation energy 8 How do enzymes perform their roles There are many enzymes that perform different functions and are named based on what they catalyze 9 What are the factors that affect enzyme rates 0quot temp erature enzyme inhibitors and activators coenzymes organic while cofactors are inorganic regulation Chapter 7 How does energy ow in ecosystems Energy ows from the sun to producers to consumers to decomposers to an inorganic nutrient pool and back What is OxidationReduction What starting molecules are oxidized and reduced in cellular respiration What are electron shuttles of cellular respiration Oxidation is when an electron is lost and reduction is when an electron is gained Glucose is being oxidized and oxygen is being reduced Carbon dioxide is the reducing agent and water is the oxidizing agent NAD and FADH are electron shuttles Understand the path of glucose to C02 During glycolysis glucose is broken down into two pyruvates Then in the conversion of acetyl CoA and Krebs cycle the carbons from the pyruvates are converted into CD What are the two ways the cell can make ATP during aerobic cellular respiration Understand how energy is transferred in both methods to produce ATP How does the H gradient form How is it used to produce ATP What is the role ofmolecular oxygen in cellular respiration How does the energy level of the electron change as it migrates through the entire process Direct enzymatic phosphorylation of ADP and electron transport coupled to oxidative phosphorylation are ways that cells can make ATP Enzymatic phosphorylation takes away a phosphate group releasing energy An electron transport creates a proton gradient that releases energy A proton gradient is created when NADH and FADHz drops electrons down the chain and pumps H across a membrane while oxygen attracts electrons Oxygen is the last electron acceptor The in ux of hydrogen ions allows a phosphate group to be added to ADP a process called chemiosmosis Higher energy electrons are collected by electron shuttles and released in the ETC What is the role of fermentation How do different types of cells undergo fermentation The role of fermentation is to produce energy without oxygen This however only produces a little ATP Fermentation disregards the rest of cellular respiration except glycolysis Once NAD is converted into NADH producing pyruvate NADH is converted back into NAD and produces lactic acid and goes back in a circle This is for human cells For microorganisms ethyl alcohol is produced What is anaerobic respiration How does it differ from fermentation Aerobic respiration goes through all of the steps of cellular respiration but in the end during the electron transport chain oxygen is not the last electron acceptor Fermentation only goes through glycolysis Chapter 8 Understand the role of photosynthesis in biosphere Photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy It produces sugars in the process giving nutrients to heterotrophs What are the various types of organisms with various forms ofnutrition energy carbon source Photoautotroph and chemoautotroph What is the structure of C3 plant leaves including chloroplast structure and photosynthetic pigments All of carbon fixation and photosynthesis happens in mesophyll cells just on the surface of the leaf How do Photosystems I and II capture light energy with pigments A photosystem is a molecular assembly consisting of several hundred pigment molecules and associated proteins Photosystems are an adaptation involved in the absorption oflight energy and the production of highenergy electrons in photosynthesis Understand the roles functions methods of the Light and Dark Reactions Role oflight reaction light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of the energycarrying molecules ATP and NADPH Outputs are NADPH H 02 and ATP Role of dark reaction Calvin Cycle convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose These reactions occur in the stroma the uidfilled area ofa chloroplast outside of the thylakoid membranes Output 3carbon sugar G3 P What is photorespiration Why is photorespiration in C3 plant problematic How have C4 and CAM plants evolved to avoid problem Consumes oxygen and does not produce ATP or sugars No outputs are created in C3 plants with photorespiration With C4 and CAM plants they devise ways to avoid photorespiration spatially and temporally respectively Be able to compare and contrast the roles inputs and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration Photosynthesis produces sugars and oxygen from C02 solar energy and water Cellular Respiration produces water heat and C02 from sugars and oxygen Chapter 9 Understand the different types of cell signaling Contact Dependent Autocrine signaling Paracrine signaling synaptic signaling is an example Endocrine signaling bloodstream Understand the generalized process of signal transduction Signal sent Receptorligand binding Transduction amplification via 2 1 messengers kinase cascade Cellular response change in protein activity gene expression Removal of signal What are the main types of transmembrane receptors and how do they each transduce signals Channellinked receptorsligand is used to open up a channel to let materials to enter the cell Enzymatic receptorskinases and phosphatases kinase cascade RTK GProtein coupled receptorsLigand binds 9heterotrimeric G protein binds GTP 9 effector protein activated 9 second messenger system activated What are the main types of intracellular receptors and how do they transduce signals Steroid Hormone Receptors Thyroid Hormone Receptors Nitric Oxide Signaling What are the various methods of signal inactivation How and when is each used Internalization of receptor Dephosphorylation phosphatase Hydrolysis of GTP 9 GDP Destruction of 2M1 messengers cAMP cGMP phosphodiesterase Ca resequestration 919935quot How can the same ligand signal generate different responses How can different signals generate the same response RTKreceives a message from a ligand and dimerizes Once it dimerizes it autophosphorylates and activates a small protein to create a cascade Rasactivated by RTK from GDP to GTP to start a cascade G proteincontains alpha beta and gamma proteins and coupled receptor from one ligandactivated and alpha protein along with GTP activates another protein IP3product of the separation of PIP2 PIP2protein that ends up being separated into 1P3 and DAG DAGproduct of separation of PIP2 G protein coupled receptors are activated when a ligand hits an active site The alpha particle goes to bind to adenylyl cyclase Adenylyl cyclase takes two phosphate groups making cyclic AMP That causes more amplification Chapter 10 0 What are key structures of chromosomes especially as they related to mitosis The centromere is the middle structure of the chromosome that holds two chromatids together The centromere is attached to the kinetochores during prometaphase What are the stages of the cell cycle What happens in each stage What is the structure of DNA at different stages G1 G2 growth Synthesis and Mitosis Haploidy Diploidy Haploid is one set of chromosomes while diploid has two Compare and contrast bacterial fission with eukaryotic cell cycle and mitosis Singular chromosome duplicates in bacterial fission asexual reproduction Binary fission does not include spindle formation or sister chromatids Their DNA is singular and circular Binary fission does not include the G phases and S phase How is the cell cycle controlled What role do cyclinsCDKs play How is their activity controlled Cyclin CDK and MPF activity control the cell cycle Cyclin and CDK controls the MPF activity What functions are monitored at each checkpoint G1 growth factors nutrients sufficient cell size G2 DNA copied correctly M chromosomes aligned correctly and attached to a spindle Spindle chromosomes attached at metaphase plate What internal and external factors are required for cell cycle progression Internal DNA Damage G2M checkpoint Incomplete replication G2M checkpoint Chromosomes are misaligned Mitoticspindle checkpoint External Growth Factors G1G0 checkpoint Cell Density Anchorage What role do cohesins play in mitosis What role does their degradation play Cohesins hold sister chromatids together and give rise to spindle attachment on a chromosome How does cytokinesis differ in animal and plant cells Animals go through a cleavage furrow and plant cells have a cell plate How can the cell fail to be controlled properly What does this lead to Do not require growth factors No densitydependent inhibition Anchorage independent Ignore DNA damage G2M checkpoint Enter M pass G2M checkpoint with incompletely replicated DNA Bypass Mspindle checkpoint with misaligned chromosomes How do oncogenes and mutant tumor suppressor genes promote cancer development Understand p53 and ras is the context of cancer progression Protooncogenes turn into oncogenes when mutated Protooncogenes promote cell growth Oncogenes promote cell growth continuously For example Ras protein mutated would be an oncogene An example of tumor suppressor genes is p53 Chapter 11 0 What are the two main types of reproduction Which type is evolutionarily advantageous and why Sexual and asexual reproduction sexual reproduction is more evolutionarily advantageous because it yields to genetic variation 0 Why is a different method of cell division required to create gametes for sexual reproduction What are the key differences in the products ofmeiosis and mitosis Cell division required to create gametes is meiosis in which the resulting cells are haploid This type of cell division is called meiosis where the cell undergoes division twice 0 What are the stages ofmeiosis I and II Compare and contrast meiosis I and II to mitosis The stages ofmeiosis I and II consist of prophase metaphase anaphase and telophase During meiosis I however homologous chromosomes are split while in meiosis II sister chromatids are split like in mitosis 0 In what ways does meiosis facilitate genetic variation in gametes and in offspring During meiosis a process called crossing over can occur during prophase I Also independent assortment of chromatids allows genetic variation to occur 0 What types of errors can occur in meiosis Can these meiotic products be a gamete in a viable offspring When Always What can result The types of errors that can occur in meiosis are nondisjunction and chromosomal abnormalities such as deletion inversion reciprocal translocation and duplication Nondisjunction can produce gametes with aneuploidy either monosomy or trisomy Most however do not survive 13 15 18 severe defects die within a few months to year 21 and 22 can survive to adulthood Chapter 12 0 Compare and contrast inheritance and genetics Genetics is the detailed version ofinheritance which is the phenotypic stuff 0 Know and understand the various terms of genetics see list of terms on Genetics Problem Set 0 Know how to approach and solve monohybrid dihybrid trihybridMendelian genetics problem Understand the various steps in generating and interpreting punnett squares to solve both nonhuman and human problems 0 How would you perform a testcross and when is it used Cross the unknown genotype with a recessive genotype to create the F1 generation and cross the F1 generation with each other and observe the phenotypes 0 How do monogenic human diseases compare and contrast to monohybrid Mendelian Genetics Monogenic human diseases are controlled by one gene 0 Know and understand complete incomplete and codominance polygenic inheritance pleiotropy epistasis Chapter 13 0 What is the basis of seX determination in mammals birds grasshoppers honeybees Drosophila Mammals XX and XY BirdsZW and 22 Grasshoppers XX and X0 Honeybees Diploids and Haploids Drosophilia the ratio ofX chromosomes and autosome sets 0 How does seX determination affect and modify inheritance patterns of characters determined by genes on seX chromosomes Males only have one X chromosome so ifX chromosome carries a certain trait they most likely will get it 0 When following two characters how does independent assortment of genes differ from linked genes How does linkage affect inheritance patterns Independent assortment is the exact opposite of linked genes Linked genes do not provide recombinance Independent assortment gives rise to greater genetic variation 0 Understand the relationship between distance of two genes on a given chromosome and the likelihood of recombination between those genes in Meiosis I How does this relate to recombination frequency Understand how to calculate recombination frequency 0 The distance between two genes on a given chromosome can give rise to the chances of the genes being separated from crossing over The distance between genes is proportional to frequency of recombination events 0 How does recombination frequency relate to gene mapping 1 recombination 1 map unit mu 0 What are human gene maps What do they represent Gene maps represent the distance between genes Chapter 14 What is the relationship between chromosome gene and protein Chromosomes contain genes which contain proteins 0 What is the structure of DNA What are the moieties that together comprise a DNA nucleotide an RNA nucleotide The structure ofDNA is a double helix nucleotides histones uniform diameter purines and pyrimidines 0 When in the cell cycle is DNA copied DNA is copied in the Synthesis phase 0 How is DNA is copied Understand the following terms bidirectional semiconservative leading and lagging strands Okasaki fragments What are the talents and inadequacies of DNA polymerase How is each inadequacy overcome DNA helicase unzips the genes single strand binding proteins keep the two sides apart topoisomerase keeps the two from supercoiling DNA primase adds RNA primer 3 5 is the leading strand and 5 3 is a lagging strand which creates Okasaki fragments It is joined together by DNA ligase DNA polymerase quotreadsquot an intact DNA strand as a template and uses it to synthesize the new strand 0 Know function of enzymes on slide 101 Key DNA Synthesis EnzymesProteins DNA llelicaseunzips genes SSBkeeps two sides ofDNA apart Topoisomerase DNA gyrase prevents supercoiling DNA Primasepolymerization of short ribonucleic acid RNA primers on the template DNA DNA Polymerase polymerase 3main replication enzyme polymerase 1 acts on the lagging strand to remove primers and replace them with DNA polymerase 2repair processes DNA Ligase synthesis of okazaki fragments 0 Is DNA replication perfect Do we want DNA replication to be perfect How do some errors get fixed NO We want it perfect Photorepair excision repair and others such as error prone and error free 0 What role does PCR play in the TPA genotyping project How does PCR work Polymerase Chain Reaction replicates DNA rapidly PCR amplifies the effects Alu has on the TPA gene Chapter 15 0 What is the meaning of gene expressionquot What are the two main processes for protein production from DNA The genes are expressed through translation of the codons into proteins that perform actions that they re coded for Transcription and translation of DNA produce proteins 0 What are the subunits ofproteins How do they differ from one another What is the structure of proteins How do different proteins manage to do most of the work in cells The subunits ofproteins are amino acids They differ from each other with the R group or side group The structure ofproteins are separated in four different levels primary secondary tertiary and quaternary 0 What is the process of transcription How is transcription controlled How are transcription and replication similar How are they different How do prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription differ How is a eukaryotic transcript processed and prepared for translation Understand introns and exons The process of transcription takes DNA from the nucleus and creates an RNA template to travel outside of the nucleus Transcription is controlled by initiation in a promoter region as well as transcription factors Replication is the duplication of twostrands of DNA Transcription is the formation of single identical RNA from the twostranded DNA 0 What is the process of translation What components are needed for translation How does this process actually quottranslatequot the information in DNA into protein How do proteins get targeted to the correction location in a membrane or not inside the cytoplasm or not The process of translation converts RNA codons into proteins The components needed for translation are mRNA tRNA and ribosomes The mRNA is run through a ribosome and complementary tRNA pieces that contain amino acids connect thus connecting the amino acids into a peptide bond 0 How do maintained changes in DNA affect protein structure Each codon re ects a certain protein though there is a wobble effect 0 How does base pairing enable replication transcription translation and maintenance of mutations It leads to everything Chapter 27 0 What is a virus Is it alive How does a virus differ from a virion What structural components are common to all viruses No a virus is not alive Nucleic acid genome protein vesicle capsid composed of capsomeres A virion is a virus particle They DO NOT contain membrane bound organelles cytoplasm and ribosomes 0 What general strategies to viruses use to invade and replicate Lytic or lysogenic cycles lytic cycles lyse the cell while lysogenic cycles allow the viral DNA to replicate itself within the cell and then lyses 0 How do viruses differ in size Shape Genomes Structural components Viruses are microscopic helical polyhedral enveloped and binal shaped Viruses have either DNA or RNA 0 Do all viruses have envelopes What is the source of the viral envelope Nonenveloped viruses can last longer 0 How do viruses infectenter hosts How do they replicate How do they eXit host cells How is hosttissue tropism determined 0 What are approaches being used to prevent successful Viral replication and pathogenesis


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