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by: Mrs. Kellen Barrows

CellsandGenetics BIO122

Mrs. Kellen Barrows
GPA 3.53


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Class Notes
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kellen Barrows on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO122 at Drexel University taught by JenniferStanford in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/212320/bio122-drexel-university in Biotechnology at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Prokaryotic much simpler usually smaller Dna is not separate from the rest of the cell by nuclear membrane Also lack internal membranes Contain a cell wall No distinct compartments Lack a membrane bounded nucleus Contain ribosomes Have molecules related to actin form 2 of the cytoskeletal tubulin elements Actin like proteins form supporting fibrils near the cells surface No extensive internal support 0 Structure primarily from a cell wall Whole cell acts like a unit 0 Plasma membrane carries out many tasks like photosynthesis Bacteria Encased by a strong cell wall 0 Composed of peptidoglycan 0 Protect the cell 0 Maintains shape 0 Prevents uptake loss of water EXCEPTION mollicutes lack a cell wall 0 Antibiotics interfere with the bacterias ability to cross link the peptides to their cell wall 0 Secrete a jelly like protective capsule of polysaccharide around cell I Allows them to adhere to any surface that supports their growth Archaea Cell walls are composed of chemical compounds and inorganic components Chemical structure of archeael lips is different from that of lipids in bacteria 0 Greaterthermal stability 0 Inability to alter the degree of saturation of hydrocarbons I Cannot adapt to temp change 0 More similar to bacteria structure eukaryoyes molecular basis Prokaryotic Animal Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Genetic information Some may have flagellum Cytoskeleton like structure Ribosomes Prokaryotic Plant Cell walls Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Genetic information Ribosomes Cytoskeleton like structure Prokaryotic Archaea Single celled No nucleus Similar in size Three Main Groups Bacteria and Archaea9 Prokaryotes 9 little internal structure Eukarya eukaryotes 9 complex organized cells Eukarya 4 Kingdoms Protista all unicellular eukaryotes except yeast algae Plantae everything with cell walls of cellulose photosynthesis Animalia no ell walls ingest other organisms Fungi cell walls of chitin secrete digestive enzymes and absorb the products they release Week 11 Chapter 27 Bloodstain Victim specimen Suspects L i gtU 6 1 gt I u Karen Kabnick PhD STRATTON 105 Bio 122 Cells and Genetics Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Patterns of Inheritance Genetics More Genetics Basis of Genetics DNA From Genes to Protein Viruses Chapter 27 Viruses What is a virus Size shape structural components How viruses infect and invade Viruses as Pathogens HIV Chapter 27 Viruses What is a virus Size shape structural components How viruses infect and invade Viruses as Pathogens HIV VIRUS HIV on white blood cell i Adenovirus on doorknob Crud A What do all of these share What do you notice about these viruses Nucleic acid DNA or RNA Capsid What do all of these share What do all of these lack 1 Membrane enclosed compartments organelles 2 Cytoplasm 3 Ribosomes What is a virus 0 Nucleic Acid Genome protein vehicle capsid composed of capsomeres Obligate parasite Can reproduce ONLY after infection of appropriate host Chapter 27 Viruses What is a virus Size shape structural components How viruses infect and invade Viruses as Pathogens HIV Bacteria 15 um c u yo r Red blood cell 78 pm Megakaryocyte 70 um Red blood cell 78 um m Herpes Viruses vary in size and shape VIRUS VIRUS VIRUS Flavnvurus Pollovlrus VIRUS Adenovlrus 30 m causes quotmuenza 75 nm yellow V39HUS 100 nm HIV fever VIRUS 110nm I a 22 quot Rabies I 125 nm 39 VIRUS Herpes simplex 150 nm a VIRUS 39 PROTEIN Poxvnrus VIRUS T2 bacterlophage 39 65 nm Hemoglobin 250 nm 15 quotm Structure iversity in D 9 xs E it it iiniaziznsatx39lg gunning E tit Copyngm 9 2005 Peavsbn Edutanon nc pnnumg as may Bengamin Cnmmmgs Plant virus TMV Helic gapsjd cwgmam mammal may rm Paulina mum rm mnmuc mumuaIy Envelope 39 Capsid Animal virus Influenza Helical capsld within envelope d L Chapter 27 Viruses What is a virus Size shape structural components How viruses infect and invade Viruses as Pathogens HIV Replication DNA39 Transcription T Reverse transcription RNAM Protein Viral Genomes DNA or RNA Circular or linear Single or double stranded RNA viruses may be segmented or not Viral Genomes 0 Most RNA viruses are single stranded replicate in cytoplasm of host cell Positivestrand virus viral RNA serves as mRNA Negative strand virus genome is template for viral mRNA Retroviruses HIV employ reverse transcriptase to reverse transcribe viral RNA into DNA 0 Most DNA viruses are double stranded Replicate in nucleus of eukaryotic host cell Viral hosts Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites Host range types of organisms infected limited host range tissue tropism Viruses can remain dormant or latent for years Chicken pox can reemerge as shingles Generic Viral Replication Genome set of instructions Viral genome tricks host cell into making viruses Viruses lack their own ribosomes and enzymes for protein and nucleic acid synthesis Virus hijacks the cell s transcription and translation machineries Synthesis of viral components assembly and release of viruses Bacteria as hosts of Bacteriophage phage yright QThe McGlaerill Cum ames lnE Fenmmnn required rnr mpmaumnn or dismal Attachment vlrus attaching to cell wall Bacterial chromosome Penetration viraer A injected Into cell Integration of genome leads to prophage Release lysis of cell Propagation of prophage along with host genome Synthesis protein and nucleic acid J Cell stress Reproduction of Iysogenic bacteria Induction prophage exits the bacterial chromosome viral genes are expressed Assembly involves spontaneous assembly of capsid and enzyme to insert DNA Lytic cycle Virus lyses infected host cell Virulent lytic phages Lysogenic cycle Virus does not immediately kill infected cell Virus nucleic acid integrates into host cell genome prophage Integration allows a virus to be replicated along with host DNA as host divides Temperate lysogenic phage Chapter 27 Viruses What is a virus Size shape structural components How viruses infect and invade Viruses as Pathogens HIV TABLE 271 Disease Chicken pox Hepatitis BiiViral Herpes Mononucleosis Smallpox AIDS Polio Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Pathogen Varicellazoster virus Hepadnavirus Herpes simplex virus Epstein Barr virus Variola virus 9 HIV Enterovirus Doublestranded DNA Doublestranded DNA Doublestranded DNA Doublestranded DNA Singlestranded RNA two copies Singlestranded RNA VectorEpidemiology Spread through contact with infected individuals No cure Rarely fatal Vaccine approved in us in early 1995 May exhibit latency leading to shingles Highiy39 39 39 contact with infected body uids Approximately 1 of U5 population infected Vaccine available No cure Can be fatal Blisters spread primarily through skinto skin contact with cold soresblisters Very prevalent worldwide No cure Exhibits latency the disease can be dormant for several years Spread through contact with infected saliva May last several weeks common in young adults No cure Rarely fatal l KIIIH ure39 Irm 39 1977 A worldwide u n l u p n l vaccination campaign wiped outthe disease completely Destroys immune defenses resulting in death by opportunistic infection or cancer Forthe year 2007 WHO estimated that 332 million people are living with AIDS with an estimated 41 million new HIV infections and an estimated 28 million deaths Acute viral infection of the CNS that can lead to paralysis and is often fatal Prior to the development of Salk39s vaccine in 1954 60000 people a year contracted the disease in the us alone Copyright The McGrawHill Lompanles inc unuoawu required for or display Disease Pathogen Genome VectorEpidemiology Yellowfever Flavivirus Single stranded RNA Spread from individual to individual by mosquito bites a notable cause ofdeath during the construction of the Panama Canal If untreated this disease has a peak mortality rate of 60 Ebola Filoviruses Singlestranded RNA Acute hemorrhagic fever virus attacks connective tissue leading to massive hemorrhaging and death Peak mortality is 5090 if untreated Outbreaks con ned to local regions of central Africa in uenza In uenza viruses Single stranded RNA Historically a major killer 20 50 million died during 18 months in 19181919 eight segments wild Asian ducks chickens and pigs are major reservoirs The ducks are not affected by the u virus which shuf es its antigen genes while multiplying within them leading to new u strains Vaccines are available Measles Paramyxoviruses Singlestranded RNA Extremely contagious through contact with infected individuals Vaccine available Usually contracted in childhood when it is not serious more dangerous to adults SARS Coronavirus Single stranded RNA Acute respiratory infection an emerging disease can be fatal especially in the elderly Commonly infected animals include bats foxes skunks and raccoons Domestic animals can be infected Rabies Rhabdovirus Singlestranded RNA An acute 39 r39 39 I quot 39 nancmitrnrl hv the bite nf an inferred animal Fatal if untreated Commonly infected animals include bats foxes skunks and raccoons Domestic animals can be infected Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS AIDS was first reported in the US in 1981 Clinical symptoms usually appear after 8 10 year latent period HIV targets CD4 cells mainly helper T cells Some people are resistant to HIV infection HIV a retrovirus iden eal Reverse strands transeriptase f H RNA two idemical Qquot s rands a nu nan 33 1quot vHOST CELL Reverse transcriptase HIV a a Z o e er e transcriptase Viral RNA wvwa RNADNA IVij hybrid DNA WW NUCLEUS HM WFmvirus Chromosomal 4quot DNA Mg RNAgenome for the AMAM A Ava next viral quot1R generation A Z Kahuna a quotgoo no a A 4 U V 3 W b as m f 1 awsm Sr J a H We cmuwmaota MW gummy m WWW FEku 5mm mums EnIry mm Ihe sen T4 CD4 ceHs are major target EnIry mm Ihe sen T4 004 ceHs are major target Provirus WW max NUCLEUS inrus Chromosomal DN I A W RNAgenome Membrane of W white blood cell 025 pm HIV entering a cell New HIV leaving a cell Cuuyvlgnl moms Pearson Educallon m publlsmng as Pearson Esmamm Cummmgs H IV Infection Cycle Attachment Virus only attacks CD4 cells Viral gp120 attaches to CD4 protein on macrophages and CD4 cells CCR5 CCRZ CXCR4 coreceptor affects likelihood of entry Viral envelope fuses with plasma membrane releasing nucleocapsid in cytoplasm Replication Reverse transcriptase converts viral RNA to double stranded DNA incorporated into host genome Assembly Making many copies of virus Release New viruses exit by budding AIDS treatments FDA lists 32 antiretroviral drugs used in AIDS therapy Targets 4 aspects of HIV life cycle viral entry genome replication integration of viral DNA maturation of HIV proteins Copyright The McGrawHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Translation 3 Protease inhibitors 7quot Integrase inhibitors R eVe transhriptase Reverse transcriptase i inhibitors NRTI NNRTI qr GD4t ceil Fusion inhibitors 39 quot Some antiviral drugs block replication AZT thymidine analog Chapter 27 Viruses What is a virus Size shape structural components How viruses infect and invade Viruses as Pathogens HIV Bio 122 Cells and Genetics Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Patterns of Inheritance Genetics More Genetics Basis of Genetics DNA From Genes to Protein Viruses Bloadstain Vx im specimen Suspects l L i


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