New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Mrs. Kellen Barrows

PhysiologyandEcology BIO126

Marketplace > Drexel University > Biotechnology > BIO126 > PhysiologyandEcology
Mrs. Kellen Barrows
GPA 3.53


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biotechnology

This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kellen Barrows on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO126 at Drexel University taught by CecilieGoodrich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/212323/bio126-drexel-university in Biotechnology at Drexel University.


Reviews for PhysiologyandEcology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/15
Animal form and function Special functions depend on special structures General relationships Animals have similar issues to solve a may have similar mechanisms convergence 1 may have different mechanisms Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism Physiology is the study of the functions an organism performs Physical laws and the environment constrain animal size and shape Physical laws and the need to exchange materials with the environment place limits on the range of animal forms Effective diffusion distances 1 size I a special distribution system a folding increases area for surface exchange I LE 40 3 Gastrovascular cav y Diffusion Diffusion a Single cell b Two cell layers Copyright 2005 Pearson Education Inc Publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings All rights reserved LE 40 4 External environment CO2 02 Respiratory sys e E1 O In A microscopic view of the lung reveals that it is much more spongelike than balloonlike This construction provides an expansive wet surface for gas exchange with the environment SEM The lining ofthe small intestine a digestive Excrftory organ is elaborated with fingerlike 5V5 em projections that expand the surface area for nutrient absorption crosssection SEM Inside a kidney is a mass of microscopic tubules that exchange chemicals with blood flowing through a web of tiny vessels called capillaries SEM Unabsorbed Metabolic waste matter feces 39 products urIne Copyright 2005 Pearson Education inc Publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings All rights reserved Levels of structure cells 9 tissues 9 organs Classical tissues epithelium connective tissue muscle I nerve Features of Epithelium Cells tightly attached to each other Little intercellular space Epithelia coverline inner and outer surfaces Epithelia often regulate movement of molecules diffusion or active transport or secretion Epithelia usually regenerate well LE 4051 EPITHELIAL TISSUE Columnar epithelia which have cells with relatively large cytoplasmic volumes are often u u quot or 39 L r 39 u important function A 39 39 Simple fgl trlrifgr columnar epithelium eplthEIIUm V 5 Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Stratified Slmple squamous SQPamous epithelia eplthella Basement membrane Copyright 3 u lung 1 Connective Tissues vary Usually lots of intercellular space exceptions Often forms mcellular fibers a collagen a elastic Many have different textures a bone hard 1 cartilate flexible a blood plasma liquid LE 4052 Chondrocytes Chondro Collagenous Loose ber connective Elastic tssue ber 418 Cartilage Adipose tissue 1 Fm droplets Nuclei I ibrous connectIVe tssue 150 Pm Blood quot v Red blood cells White blood cell in u Yi Hugu Copyright Muscle Cells are capable of active contraction Contractile force generated by a system of filaments may or may not be visible May be intrinsic or may require nerve stim Types a skeletal a cardiac a smooth LE 4053 MUSCLE TISSUE Skeletal muscle Nucleus Intercalated 50 H disk Smouth muscle H Nucleus Muscle bers 39 3950 pm Copyrighl 39 Inr 39 H39Wa 12 Nerve Active cells that connect a with one another a with muscle a with gland cells May be very long or quite short local Organs combinations of tissues special functions depending on the types of tissues and their arrangement LE 40 6 Submucosa a matrix of connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves 39 39 v l r Mucosa an epithelial u 39 layer that lines the 39 l lumen I gt f 39 I I I I 0 quot Serosa a thin layer of connective and epithelial tissue external to the muscularis 02 mm Copyright 3 1 z A II Homeostasis Claude Bernard regulation of the internal environment within narrow limits Walter B Cannon homeostasis a relatively precise regulation a has a set point optimal level of function 1 environmental change 9 response in opposite direction negative feedback 1 set points can be changed especially in stress Negative feedback opposes change from set point response is opposite to initial change homeostatic may be somewhat imperfect overshoots and undershoots still regulated LE 4011 Response No heat produced Heater turned R m off temperature decreases a Set point Set oi nt cold p Copyrighl lnr 39M A 18 Thermoregulation required for optimal function of enzymes and many other functions coordinates a wide variety of functions frequently utilizes behavior Ectotherms and Endotherms Ectotherms include most invertebrates fishes amphibians and nonbird reptiles a low metabolic rate a gain heat from outside ecto Endotherms include birds and mammals use metabolism to regulate their temperature endo I In general ectotherms tolerate greater variation in internal temperature than endotherms Both types tend to use behaviors to assist in thermoregulation 20 LE 4012 Largemouth bass ecto th erm Copyright 5 1 E n 21 Endothermy is more energetically expensive than ectothermy a Endotherms use behavior preferentially 1 Later may use physiological means of regulation This buffers the animal s internal temperatures against external fluctuations It also enables the animal to maintain a high level of aerobic metabolism 22 25 Figure 10 A male lion runs the risk of heat stress in exchange for having a long dark mane Un able to sweat lions must dissipate heat through panting and radiation mechanisms that are inadequate when the mercury climbs Remote thermography of a trio of lions top shows that the surface temperature of the standing male is higher more yellow than those of the two re clining females more orange This temperature difference between sexes does not exist among lions in Tsavo National Park a hotter and more humid area where males have slight manes suggesting that the mane is linked to the buildup of heat A higher body temperature has nega tive consequences including an increased incidence of defomted sperm not surprisingly dark maned males show fewer normal sperm than light maned males from the same region Even the metabolic heat generated by the digestion of a big meal can become taxing at the edge of the lion s climatic range 28 LE 4021 Thermostat in Sweat glands secrete sweat tha evaporates activates cooling a cooling the body mechanisms Blood vessels quot in 39 x n dIlate c aries ll wrth warm blood skin surface 39Body temperature inPE9 95 the shutsn warming ch i quot an sms Blood vessels in skin constrict diverting blood from s in to deeper tissues 39 g heat oss from skin su ace Skeletal muscles rapidl warming contract causing shivering mBChanlsmS whic generates eat Copyrighl 39 lnc 39 g 29 i Hibernation Some species hibernate or become torpid to save energy In harsh environments even with a food store it would be difficult to survive some seasons ex winter Hibernation results in a net saving of metabolic energy 30 LE 40 22 Additional metabolism that would be Acma39 necessary to stay active in winter metabolism Arousals Outside temperature temperature Copyright 2005 Pearson Education Incl Publishing as Pearson Beniamin Cummings All rights reserved 31


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.