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by: Mrs. Kellen Barrows

AppliedCells,Genetics&Physiology BIO100

Marketplace > Drexel University > Biotechnology > BIO100 > AppliedCells Genetics Physiology
Mrs. Kellen Barrows
GPA 3.53


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This 64 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kellen Barrows on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO100 at Drexel University taught by MeshagaeHunte-Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/212324/bio100-drexel-university in Biotechnology at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
II Chemistry I N Everything is made of atoms a Element substnace that cannot be broken down chemicaly into any other substance i Ex Gold Aluminum b Atom a bit of matter that cannot be divided any futherwithout losing its essential properties Center of an atom is called a nucleus I Nucleus is made up of protonspositive charge and neutrons no charge 2 Number of protons make up what kind of element the atom is Around the nucleus is a cloud of electrons I Electrons negatively charged particles Atomic Mass combined mass of protons and neutrons I Electrons are so light their mass is ignored iv Atomic Number how many protons are in the nucleus c Big 4 O 65 0185 H95 N 3 Electron Shells and Ions a Electron Shell Electrons move around the nucleus in designated areas called electrons shells i ms can have as many as 7 electron shells b Electron Stability atoms are stable when their outmost electron shell is filled to capacity i Stable atoms do not react or combine with other atoms c Ions is an atom that loses or gains and electron that makes the atom that gains the electron more negative and the electron that loses the electron more positive i Ions behave very differently because of the different charges Molecules a Molecules are the grouping of atoms that are held together by bonds b Covalent Bonds strong bonds that occur when two atoms share an electron i Example simplest covalent bond is H2 I The sharing of two electrons between two atoms is called a double bond ii The nuclei come close together and the two electrons circle around the combine nuclei c Ionic Bonds are when atoms bond togetherwithout sharing an electron i One atoms transfers I or more electrons to another atom I Both atoms becomes ions ii Ionic bonds create compounds where the opposite ions attract each other d Hydrogran Bonds is formed between a H atom in one molecule to a atom in another molecule i Bond is based upon positive and negative charges I Atom is covanlently bonded to another atom and shares an electron around both the H and the other atom but not equally so the electron contributed by the H is slightly more positive then the other atom Molecules Shape give it unique characteristics a Shape determines the taste and smell Water s Properties a Cohesion i V shaped molecules give water enough strength to give water a surface tension which allow netlillte properties I Ex Jesus lizard b Large heat capacity Heat disrupts some of the H bonds in water molecules ii New H bonds are created almost as quickly as they are broken iii Because it takes so much energy to recreate and break down the bonds water doesn39t heat up as much i This allows a reduction in the heat increasing on land during warm times 2 Also allows for a increase in temperature that is given off during cold months c Low density as a solid i ce floats i This is because the Vshaped molecules do not become more tightly packed and they warm up but less tightly packed a Each Vshaped molecule bonds with 4 others making a crystaline lattice that allows for the molcules to be slightly farther apart d Good solvent i Water is a good solvent because water is polar 1 Negative charge is attracted to the positve charge of the H20 molecule and the positive charge is attracted to the negative charge pH Scale a Acids i pH measures the amount of Ht in an acidic solution 1 higher amounts of H the more acidic the solution is Any solution with a pH lower then 7 is acidic Any solution with high Ht and less OH is acidic i Corrosion to metals v Break down food in digestive track vi Tend to have a sour taste a Bases vquot Any solution with a pH higher then 7 is basic viii Any solution with higher OH and less Ht is basic ix Caustic to your skin x Found in household cleaners Bitter in taste and soapy b Pure water has a pH of 7 c pH of blood is 74 d Buffers quickly absorb extra Ht ions to keep a solution from becoming too acidic and will release Ht ions if the solution is too basic MacromoleculesCarbohydrates large molecules made up of smaller subunits a Carbohydrates contain mostly C H an b Primary fuel for running all ofcellular mchinary and form the structure of some cells xii Most of the time Carbs have the same amount of C atoms and it does H2O units 1 Best known glucose C HlZO 2 Maltose Cl2H22Cll Simple Sugars a Monosaccharides simple sugars are the simplest carbohydrates xiii Contain between 3 and 7 carbon atoms xiv When broken down the products are not carbohydrates b Most common Monosaccharides xv Glucose C HlQO xvi Fructose C HlZO xvii Galactose C HlZO c Circulating Glucose Blood Sugar xviii Fueld for cellular activity glucose can be used as an energy source 1 The cell breaks the bonds of glucose molecule and uses the energy released lt 55 E xix Temporary sTorage of glycogen i If There is Too much glucose in your blood sTeam The glucose wil be sTored in various Tissues ie liver and muscles 2 Glycogen is make when molecules link TogeTher To creaTe a large web a Glycogen is used for shorT Term energy in animals xx ConverTed To FaT 1 Can be sTored as faT which is long Term energy sTorage 0 Complex Carbs a Polysaccharides conTain more Then one sugar molecule up To 10000 xxi Examples sTarch cellulose xxii Are Timerelease sTore of energy or sTrucTural maTerial ThaT is indigesTible by animals b Disaccharide Two simple sugars are combined xxiii Examples sucrose Table sugar and lacTose sugar found in milk c Chemical Fuel xxiv STarch has 100 or more glucose molecules 1 PlanTs primary form of energy sTorage 2 Grains such as barley wheaT rye corn and rice a STarches do noT TasTe sweeT ll DigesTable Carbs Cellulose Forms planT sTrucTures xxv Passes Through The digesTive Track wiThouT being digesTed xxvi Cellulose is known as fiber 1 Fiber roughage9 scrapes The walls of The digesTive Track 2 Fiber reduces The risk of colon cancer b ChiTin Forms The ouTer skeleTon for mosT insecTs and crusTaceans l2 Lipids a Primarily made up of C H and O buT The aToms are differenT proporTions b Lipids have more more H for each C c FeaTures xxvii Have more CH bonds xxviii Are noT polar 1 Non polar have hydorphobic waTerfearing and hydrophilic waTerloving xxix Are greasy To The Touch xxx SignificanT source of energy d Types of Lipids xxxi FaTs long Term energy sTorage and insulaTion xxxii STerols regulaTe growTh and developmenT xxxiii Phospholipids form The membrane ThaT encloses The cell 13 FaTs are TasTy a FaTs have a glycerol head region and faTTy acid Tails xxxiv FaTTy acids are a long chanin of carbon molecules linked by one or Two H aToms aTTached To a C xxxv ConTain a loT more sTored energy b FaTs in mosT food we eaT are Triglycerides xxxvi Triglycerides are faTs ThaT have 3 faTTy acid linked To a glycerol molecule 1 Triglycerides ThaT are solid aT room Temp are a 2 Triglycerides ThaT are liquid aT room Tem are oil c SaTuraTed and UnsaTuraTed xxxvii UnsaTuraTed where some of The carbons are bound To only a single H i PlanT faTs are unsaTuraTed xxxviii 2 Can be monosaTuraTed has only one pair or neighboring carbon aToms or polysaTuraTed more Then one double bond 3 Are liquid aT room Temp because of The facT ThaT The faTTy acids have kinks in The hydrocarbon Tails SaTuraTed when a C aTom of The hydrocarbon chain is bonded To Two H aToms i Carries max amounT of H aToms 2 Are solid aT room Temp because of The facT ThaT The faT molecules can be lined up TogeTher Tigthy l4 CholesTrol and Phospholipids a STerols is a group ThaT regulaTe groTh and developmenT xxxix CholesTerol is an imporTanT componenT of The mosT membranes xl Cells in our liver produce almosT 90 of The circulaTing cholesTerol xli Can aTTach To blood vessel walls and cause Them To Thicllten b STeroid Hormones are esTrogran and TesTosTerone are builT sligthy differenle from cholesTorl xlii Primary molecules ThaT regulaTe The sexual developmenT maTuraTion and sperm and egg producTion i EsTrogren influences memory and mood 2 TesTosTerone sTimulaTes muscle growTh c Phospholipids are The major componenT of The membrane around The cell and conTrols The flow of chemical in and ouT of The cell xliii ConTain a phosphorus aTom and have 2 faTTy acid chains raTherThen 3 d Waxes are faTs ThaT have only one long faTTy acid chain linllted To a gycerol head xliv Waxes are very hydrophobic 1 Will noT mix wiTh waTer buT will repel waTer ProTeins chief building blocks of all life a ProTeins are made ouT of C H and O buT also include a N xlv CenTer of The amino acid 20 molecules ThaT make up proTeins is a carbon xlvi One bond aTTaches The carbon To a carboxyl group carbon bonded To Two oxygen aToms xlvii Second bond aTTached The cenTral carbon To The H aTom xlviii 3rd bond aTTached The cenTral carbon To an amino group niTrogen aTom bonded To The 3 H aToms xlix 4Th bond aTTaches To a funcTional group or side chain 1 Side chain is The unique parT of each of The 20 amino acids b STrucTural Hair fingernails feaThers horns carTilage Tendons c ProTecTive li Help figh invading microorganisms coagulaTe blood d RegulaTory lii ConTrol cell acTiviTy consTiTuTe some hormones e ConTracTile liii Allow muscles To conTracT hearT To pump sperm To swim f TransporT liv Carry molecules sch as oxygen around The body ProTeins in DieT a GrowTh b Repair c ReplacemenT d CompleTe proTeins lv Have all essenTial amino acids lvi Animal sources l 0 20 e Incomplete proteins lvii Don39t have all the essential amino acids f Complementary proteins lviii Are two incomplete proteins that when eaten together provide all the essential amino acids lix Plant sources Protein Structures a Formed by linking individual amino acids with a peptide bond lx Peptide bond amino group of one amino acid bonded to the carboxyl group of another lxi Two amino acidsjoined together form a dipeptide bond lxii Polypeptide is when several amino acids form together b Primary Structure is the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain kind of like the sequence of letters that spell out a specific word c Secondary Structure corkscrew lillte twists or pleated folds formed by H bondsbetween amino acids and the polypeptide chain lxiii Two most common patterns 1 Twist in a corlltscrewlillte shape alpha helix 2 Zipzag folding d Tertiary Structure complex 3D shape formed by multiple twists and bends in the polypeptide chain based on interactions between side chains lxiv Due to bonds such a H bonds or covalent sulfersulfer bonds e Quaternary structure two or more polypeptide chains bonded together lxv Hemoglobin is a protein molecule that carries 0 from the lungs to the cells and is made up of two alpha chains and two beta chains f Lipoproteins circulate in the bloodstream carrying fats g Glycoproteins are combinations of carbohydrates and prteins h Denaturation lxvi Denatured proteins are when an extreme enviornment heat pH disrupts protein shape and function Enzymes molecules that help initiate and accelerate the chemical reactions in our bodies a Process lxvii Each enzyme has an active site that is a perfect fit for its substrate or reactant lxviii Like a key in a lock the substrate fits in the active site The bond between the simple sugars is broken down lxix The two simpel sugars that make up the substrate are released lxx A slight alteration to the active site can disrupt the function of the enzyme lxxi Misspelled proteins incorrect amino acid sequence 1 Active site disruptions Nucleic Acids a Macromolecules that store information and made up of individual nucleotides lxxii Example Deoxyribonucleic DNA and ribonucleic acid RNA 1 Both play central roles in directing production of proteins 2 Back of both is a sugar molecule attached to a phosphate group that is attached to another sugar and another phosphate and so on a Attached to each sugar is one of the DNA bases Adenine A ThymineT GuanineG and CytosineC Information Storage a DNA holds genetic information to build organisms lxxiii DNA has two strands each a sugarphosphatesugarphosphate baclltbone with a base sticking out from each sugar molecule i The two strands wrap around each other creating a double helix a A always pairs with T and C always pairs with G 21 RNA a RNA stucture lxxiv sugar molecule in the backbone contains one extra 0 lxxv RNA has only one sugarphosphate backbone DNA has 2 lxxvi Instead of T RNA has a base called Uracil b Ribonucleic Acid RNA is a middleman molecule It takes instructions for production of a protein from DNA moves them to another part of the cell and directs the building of a protein Cells 1 Cells are the smallets unit of life that can function independently and perform all the necessary functions of life including reproducting itself a Robert Hoollte founded the term cell in the mid1600 s b Cell is a 3D sturcture lilltea fluidfilled ballon in which many of the essential chemical reactions of life take place i Nearly all cells contain DNA c Cell Theory 1 all living organisms are made up of one or more cells 2 all cells arise from other preexisting cells 2 Prokaryotic a A structurally simple type of cell i Numerous types ii Singlecelled and are invisible to the human eye b Doesn t have a nucleus i DNA is in the middle of the cell c Four Basic Structural featuers i Plasma membrane 1 encloses cell contents DNA ribosomes and cytoplasm a anything in the plasma membranel is intercellular anything outside the plasma membrane is extracellular Cystoplasm jellylike fluid that fills the inside of the cell Ribosomes granular bodie sin the cytoplasm that convert genetic information into protein structures iv DNA has circular lioops containing the genetic information d Additional Structures i Cell wall protects and gives shape to the cell ii Pili hairlillte projections that help cells attach to other surfaces iii Flagellum whiplillte projections that aids in cellular movement 3 Eulltaryotic cell a has a central control structure called a nucleus that contains the cell39s DNA b Eulltaryotes are organisms that are composed of Eulltarytoic cells i All organisms we see around us are eulltarytoic organisms c Eulltaryotes Vs Prolltaryotes i Typical Eulltaryotic 1 DNA is contained in the nucleus 2 Internal structures are organized into compartments 3 Larger then prolltaryotes 10x bigger 4 Cytoplasm contains specialized structures called organelles a Organelles are contained withint heir own lipid membranes ii Typical Prokaryotic i No nucleus DNA is in the cytoplasm 2 Internatl structures are not organized into compartments 3 Much smaller fhen eulltaryofes iii Animal Cell Vs Planf cell 1 Animal and Planf has nucleus plasma membrane ribosomes mifochondria rough endoplasmic reficulum smoofh endoplasmic reficulum cyfoplasm cyfoskelefon golgi apparafus lysosomes a Nof found in planfs cenfriole b Nof found in animal chloroplasf cell wall and vacuole somefimes found in animal cells 2 Endosymbiosis Theory developed fo explain fhe presence of fwo organelles in eulltaryofes chloroplasfs in planfs and algae and mifochondria in planfs and animals a Animals firsf fhe ancesfral eulltaryofe engulfs fhe prokaryofe fhen fhe ancesfral eulltaryofe and prolltaryofe merge fhen fhe engulfed prolltaryofe evolves info an organelle such as fhe mifochondrion or a chloroplasf b Algae Plasma membrane folds in on ifself fhen inner comparfmenfs organelles are formed Plasma Membrane a Are made up of fwo layers fhaf are fileld wifh a variefy of pores molecules nad channels i Is a layer of phospholipids ii The head region is a polar region charge and fhe fail region is a charge b Funcfions i holds confenfs of cells in place ii Talltes in food and nufrienfs iii Builds and exporfs molecules iv Absorbs and displaces heaf Molecules in fhe Plasma Membrane a Profeins found in fhe membrane enable if fo carry ouf mosf of fhe gafellteeping funcfions b Profeins i Transmembrane profeins penefrafe righf fhrough fhe lipid bilayer from one side fo anofher ii Surface profeins reside on fhe inner or oufer surface of fhe membrane c 4 primary fypes of membrane profeins i Recepfor profeins bind fo exfernal chemical in order fo regulafe processes wifhin fhe cell ii Recognifion profeins provide a fingerprinf for fhe cell so fi can be recognized by ofher cells iii Transporf profeins provide a passageway for molecules fo fravel info and ouf of fhe cell iv Enzymafic profeins accelerafe infracellular and exfracellular reacfions on fhe plasma membrane d ther parfs around fhe Membrane i Carbohydrafe chains provide a fingerprinf for fhe cell so if can be recognized by ofher cells ii Cholesferol helps fhe membrane refain ifs flexibilify e Plasma membrane is also known as a fluid moasic Faulfy Membranes and Befa Blockers a Can cause issues such as cysfic fibrosis b Befa blocllters i In a sfressful sifuafion fhe adrenal glands pump ouf adrenaline ii Adrenaline binds with betareceptors on cells causing a faster heartbeat and increased blood pressure iii Betablocker chemicals bind to receptors and prevent adrenaline from binding to the cell 7 Membrane fingerprints Membrane surfaces have a fingerprint that identifies the cell i Cells with an improper fingerprint are recognized as foreign and are attacked by b O 2 the body s defenses HIV transmission I Cells within the human body have CD4 marllters HIV infects the body by binding to the CD4 markers on the cells I HIV cannot bind to the skin because the skin doesn t have CD4 markers 8 Passive Transport Is a spontaneous diffusion of molecules across a membrane i Without an input of energy ii 2 types of passive transport I Diffusion a A solute such as food coloring is dropped into a solvent water b Foodcoloring molecules move around randomly bumping into each other 0 up evenly distributed low concentration The random motion of the foodcoloring molecules causes them to end Molecules always want to move from an area of high concentration to areas of Simple Diffusion Diffusion of molecules directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane that takes palce without the assistance of molecules I oxygen and carbon dioxide because they are small and carry no charge that would cause them to be repelled by the middle layer of the membrane cane pass through the membrane in this way lt of carrier molecules v bring it to a stop 9 Osmosis Is a passive diffusion of water across a membrane by which water diffuses across a membrane in order to equalize the concentration of water inside and outside the O b cell Facilitated diffusion molecules move across the plasma membrane with the help Defects in transport proteins can reduce facilitated diffusion and could even i Direction of osmosis depends by the total amounts of solutes on either side of the membrane Chart Plant Cell Animal cell red blood cell Hypertonic Solution Solute concentrations are higher in the extracellular fluid Water diffuses out The cell membrane is permeable to the solutes so the plant cell will not shrivel Cell will shrivel because the cell membrane is not permeable to the solute of cells Hypotonic Solutions Cell membrane is Cell will swell because the Solute permeable to the solutes mmebrane is not concentrations are so the plant cell will not permeable to the solution lower in fhe swell This could make fhe red exfracellular fluid blood cell pop Wafer diffuses info fhe cell sofonic Solufion Nofhing happens fo fhe Nofhing happens fo fhe Solufe cell because fhe oufside cell because fhe oufside concenfrafions are and inside concenfrafions and inside concenfrafions balance are fhe same are fhe same Wafer movemenf is balanced i Tonicify fhe relafive concenfrafion of solufes oufside of fhe cell relafive fo fhe inside of fhe cell 10 Acfive Transporf molecules can f always move sponfaneously and efforflessly in and ouf of cells wifhouf fhe need of energy a 2 fypes of acfive fransporf i Primary 1 When acfive fransporf uses energy direcfly from ATP fo fuel fhe revolving door ii Secondary i Profeins use an indirecf mefjod of fuelding fheir acfivies rafher fhen direcfly from ATP a Transporf profein simulfaneously moves one molecule againsf ifs concenfrafion gradienf while leffing anofher flow down ifs concenfrafion gradienf b Af some poinf in anofher locafion energy from ATP was used fo pump one of fh fypes of molecules againsf fheir concenfrafion gradienf ll Endocyfosis and Exocyfosis a Bofh are used for bulk fransporf of parficles b Endocyfosis is when a molecule is jusf fo big and can39f gef info a cell by passive or acfive fransporf i 3 fypes of Endocyfosis i Phagocyfosis where large parficles are engulfed by cells 2 Pinocyfosis fhe process of cells fallting in dissolved parficles and liquid a Main difference befween pino and phago are fhe sizes of fhe vesicles or poclltef around fhe parficle 3 Recepformediafed endocyfosis cells engulf a specific fype of parficles a Example LDL binds fo recepfor profeins fhaf reside in fhe plasma membrane of liver cells The plasma membrane forms a vesicle and engulfs fhe LDL LDL is broken down info useful molecules such as esfrogen and fesfosferone c Faulfy membranes are fhe primary cause of cardiovascular disease d Exocyfosis is fhe mefhod by which cells exporf producsf for use in anofher locafion i Molecules are packaged in a vesicle wifhin fhe cell ii The vesicle fuses wifh fhe cell s plasma membrane iii Vesicle confenfs are released for use fhroughouf fhe body 12 Connecfoins befween Cells a Connecfions befween cells hold fhem in place and enable fhem fo communicafe wifh each ofher b Involves differenf fypes of profesina dn glycoprofein adhesion molecules c Three Primary Connecfions befween Animal Cells TighT JuncTions form a waTer TighT seal beTween cells Ike caulllting around a Tub i Anchors cell in place 2 ParTicularly imporTanT in The small inTesTine where digesTion occurs Demosomes AcT like Velcro and fasTen cells TogeTher 1 Are lillte spoT welds or riveTs ThaT fasTen cells TogeTher inTo sTrong sheeTs 2 Are noT waTer TighT 3 Found I much of The Tissuelining caviTies of animal bodies iii Gap JuncTions AcT like a secreT passageway and allow maTerials To pass beTween cells 1 Porse surrounded by special proTeins ThaT form open channels beTween Two cells 2 ImporTanT mechanism for cellTocell communicaTion d Cancer does noT have eiTher of These i ConTacT inhibiTion ii Tumors e PlanT Cells i Have microscopic Tubelillte channels called plasmodesmaTa i PlasmodesmaTa are Tube lillte channels connecTing The cells To each oTher and enabling communicaTion and TransporT beTween The cells 13 EulltaryoTic Nucleus The nucleus is The largesT and mosT prominenT organelle in The eukaryoTe i Has Two primary funcTions i GeneTic conTrol cenTer 2 STorehouse for herediTary informaTion b Nuclear Membrane surrounds The nucleus and seperaTes The nucleus from The cyToplasm i Has Two bilayers one on Top of anoTher c ChromaTin a mass of long Thing fibers consisTing of DNA wiTh some proTeins ThaT are aTTached so if doesn T geT Tangled d Nucleolus an area near The cenTer of The nucleus where The subuniTs of The ribosomes are assembled l4 CyToplasm and CyTosllteleTon a CyToskeleTon is The inner scaffolding of The cell which is made of proTeins i FuncTions AcTs as The inner scaffolding of The cell i 2 Provides shape and su 3 ConTrols inTracellular Traffic flow 4 Enables movemenT a Via The Cilia shorT projecTions ThaT ofTen occur in large numbers on a single cell b Flagella much longer Then cilia and occur in boTh prolltaryoTes and eukaryoTes i Are The Tails for animal sperm 15 MiTochondria are The cell s all purpose ernergy converTers a PresenT in boTh planT animal cells and prolltaryoTes b FuncTions i AcT as all purpose energy converTers ii HarvesT energy To be used for cellular funcTions c ParTs i DNA ii MdTrix The spdce wiThin The inner memebrdne where The carriers NADH and FADH2 begin The elecTron TrdnsporT chdin by carrying highenergy elecTrons To molecules embedded in The inner membrdne iii OuTTer Membrdne iv nTermembrdne v nTermembrdne Spdce The reigion beTween The inner and ouTer membrdnes d Hdve Their own DNA i From your moTher e 16 Lysosomes round membrdneenclosed dcidfilled vesicles Tth funcTion ds gdrbdge disposdls 0 They are filled wiTh 50 differenT digesTive enzymes b FuncTions i AcT ds TIOdTing gdrbdge disposdls fro The cells digesTing dnd recyling celluldr stTe producsT and consumed deeridls l7 Endopldsmic ReTiculum d This is where The producTion dnd modifiCdTion of biological molecules occurs b FuncTions i Produces and modifies molecules To be exporTed To oTher pdrTs of The orgdnism ii Bredks down Toxic chemicdls dnd celluldr byproducTs c Rough Endopldsmic ReTiculum is d ldrge series of inTerconnecTed fldTTened sdcs Tth look like 0 sTdcllt of pdncdlltes i FuncTion modifies proTeins Tth will be shipped elsewhere in The orgdnism d SmooTh Endopldsmic ReTiculum i FuncTions i SynThesizes lipids such as deTy dcids phosopholipids dnd sTeroids 2 DeToxifies molecules such as dlchohol drugs and merbolic stTe producTs 18 Golgi AppdrdTus d FuncTion processes and packages proTeins lipids and oTher molecules for exporT To oTher pdrTs of The orgdnism b The Endomembrdne s s em TrdnsporT vesicles bud from The smooTh or rough ER TrdsnporT vesicles fuses wiTh Golgi dppdrdTus dumping conTenTs inside Golgi dppdrdTus modifies molecules as They move Through iTs successive chdmbers iv Modifies molecules bud off from The Golgi dppdrdTus as d TrdsnporT vesicle v Vesicle fuses wiTh The pldsmd membrdne dumping conTenTs ouTside The cell for delivery elsewhere To The orgdnism 19 Cell Wdll 0 Provides dddiTiondl proTecTion dnd supporT for pldnT cells b FuncTions i Provides The cel wiTh sTrucTurdl sTrengTh ii Gives The cell incredsesed WdTer resisTdnce iii Provies some proTecTion from insecTs dnd oTher dnimdls Tth mighT edT pldnT pdrTs 20 Vdcuoles dre mulTipurpose sTordge sdcs for cells 0 FuncTions i sTores nuTrienTs Rerins dnd degrddes stTe producTs AccumuldTes poisonous deeridls iv Coanins pigmenTs endbling pldnTs To dTTrdcT birds and insecTs Tth help The pldnTs reproduce v Provides physical support 21 Chloroplasts is the site of photosynthesis in all plants and eukaryotic algae a Light is collected for photosynthesis on the membrane of the thylakoids within the chloroplasts i Thylakoids are numerous interconnected little flattened sacs within the chloroplasts ii Stroma is the fluid inside the chloroplasts IV Energy ll Energy a Biofuels fuels produced from plant and animal products b Fossil fuels produced by decayed remains of ancient plants and animals c All life depends on capturing energy from the sun and converting it into a useful form of energy d Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration i Photosynthesis a plants capture energy from the sun and store it in chemical bonds of sugars and other food molecules ii Cellular Respiration a Plants animals and fungi release the energy stored in the chemical bonds to fod ecules and use it as fuel 2 Kinetic Vs Potential a Energy is the capacity to do work i Kinetic is the energy of moving objects ii Potential is the capacity to do work that results from the location or position of an object a Chemical Energy is the storage of energy in chemical bonds iAlso a type of potential energy 13 Energy Conversion a Only 1 of energy released by the sun is received captured and converted by plants i Light is reflected back into space b Thermodynamics study of transformation of energy from one type to another i Laws ofThermo a Energy can never be created or destroyed it can only change one form to another b Energy conversion of energy includes the transofmration of some heat into energy iheat is almost compeltely useless to living organisms 14 ATP a None of light can be used directly from the sun to the fuelar cellular work b Must be captured into a molecule called adenosine triphosphate ATP i ATP is made up of Adenine a ribose sugar and a phosphate group 3 phosphate groups ii ADP is when a phosphate group is removed and it becomes ADP 2 phosphate groups c Energy is used for building muscle tissue repairing a wound and growing roots 5 Photosynthesis a Input sunlight water C02 9 Output oxygen and sugar b Two parts Photo and syntheiss 16 Photosynthesis and Chloroplasts a Chloroplasts are light harvesting organelles found in plant cells b The photo part is done inside the thylakoid c The synthesis is in the stroma d Chlorophyll is The special molecule found in chloroplasTs ThaT allows for The capTure of lighT l7 LighT Waves a PhoTosynThesis is poweredby lighT energy i LighT energy is a lltineTic energy made up of liTTle lighT pacllteTs called proTons which are Then organized inTo waves ii ShorTer The wavelengTh The more energy The lighT has b ElecTromagneTic SpecTrum is The range of The shorT high energy rays To The low energy rays c sible SpecTrum i Rnage of energy human sees as lighT ii ROYGBIV Red orange yellow green blue indigo violeT iii PigmenTs are The colors ThaT our eyes can see iv Chlorophyll Chlorophyll aabsorbs bluevioleT and red wavelengThs Chlorophyll b absorbs blue and redorange CaroTenoids absorbs blue and bluegreen wavelengThs and refelcTs yellow orange and red wavelengThs 960 18 PhoTons and ElecTrons 0 ElecTron ExciTaTion conversion of elecTromagneTic energy inTo chemical energy of a bonds beTween aToms b PhoTons of specific wavelegnThs bump elecTrons up a quanTum level inTo an exciTed sTaTe i ExciTed STaTes can eiTher a ReTurn To resTing and an unexciTed sTaTe b Can be passed on To oTher aToms c Energy Through Chlorophyll i LighT energy bumps inTo an elecTron in The chlorophyll molecuels To a higher exciTed energy level ii The exciTed elecTron has Two faTes a Some energy is Transfere dTo a neearby molecule where if exciTes anoTher elecTron b The excde elecTron is Transferred To anToher molecule iii ExciTed ElecTrons are The chief way energy moves Through cells iv Molecules ThaT gain elecTrons always have greaTer energy Then before They received Them PhoTosynThesis in deTail I PhoTosysTem waTer spliTTing a SunlighT ATP and a high energy elecTron carrier iLighT energy exciTed elecTrons in a pigmenT molecule The energy from The exciTed elecTrons is Trasnfered To a nearby molecule iiWhen Transferred energy exciTes elecTrons in The chlorophyull a molecule The primary elecTron accepTor grabs Them and send Them To The elecTron TrasnporT chain iiiTo replace elecTrons senT To The elecTron TrasnporT chain waTer molecules are spliT and oxygen and hydrogen are released as byproducTs ii The ElecTron TransporT Chain a ElecTron TransporT chain connecTs The Two phoTosysTems iEecTrons move Through The elecTron TransporT chain releasing a liTTle energy and falling To a lower energy sTaTe iiThe released energy powers proTon pumps ThaT move hydrogren ions from The sTroma and pack Them inside The Thylalltoid iiiProTons rush ouT The Thylalltoid wiTh greaT lltineTic energy which can eb used To build B b Product of l of the photo portion is ATP iii The second Photosystem a Light energy is used to transfer electrons to the primary electron acceptor Electrons are donated by water releasing oxygen and hydrogen as by products b High energy electrons are used to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid The kinetic energy from the release of these ions is used to build ATP c The NDAPHproducing photosytem is identical to the watersplitting photosystems except that electrons are donated by the electron transport chain d High energy electrons are passed to NDAP creating NADPH a high energy electron carrier e Product of the 2nd part of Photo is NADPH Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma of the leaves chloroplasts outside the thylalltoids a Enzymes are recycled b Input ATP NADPH C029 Calvin Cycle 9 Sugar c Calvin Cycle i Fixation the enzyme rubisco plucllts carbon atoms from C02 molecules in the air The carbon atoms are attached to the organic molecules The organic molecule is mollified into a small sugar called GSP using energy from ATP and NADPH Some molecules of GSP are combined to form sixcarbon sugars such as glucose or fructose Regeneration The remaining GSP molecules are used to regenerate the original organic molecule with energy from ATP C4 and CAM photosynthesis a C4 produces a C02sticllty tape enzyme i Advantage water loss is minimized in warm climates ii Disadvantages requires more energy CAM i Close stomata during hot dry dates ii At night stomata open letting C02 in iii During the day C02 gradually is released and used while stomata are closed a Advantage water loss is minimized in hot climates b Disadvantages iRequires more energy iiSlow growth Cellular Respiration Input oxygen sugar 9 outputs C02 water and ATP a Cellular Respiration First step a Glycolysis universal energyreleasing pathway i Preparatory phase glucose has additional energy which makes the molecule unstable and ripe for chemical breakdown ii Then it releases 4 ATPs and 2 NADH and water and then is left with Pyruvate 2 Krebs Cycle a Prepreation AcetylCoA Production i Each pyruvate molecules passes a highenergy electron to a NAD creating NADH ii Carbon and two oxygen atoms are released as C02 iii Coenzyme A attaches itself to the remaining molecule creating acetylCoA a Modification of the pyruvate takes place in the cells mitochondria b Krebs Cycle i A new molecule is formed a An acetylCoA molecule from gycolysis enters the cycle and binds to oxaloacetate creating a six carbon molecule HighEnergy elecTron carriers NADH dre mode and cdrbon dioxide is exhdled d The 6cdrbon molecule dondTes elecTrons To NAD credTing NADH Two cdrbon dioxide molecules are reledsed info The dTmosphere OdeOdcerTe is reformed ATP is generdTed and more highenergy elecTron carriers are formed 0 The remdining 4 cdrbon molecule is redrrdnged To form odeOdcerTe IN The process ATP is formed and elecTrons dre pdssed To NADH and FADH2 iv The pdyoff from The Kreb cycle ATP NADH FADHs 25 The Third STep Krebs Cycle 0 MiTochondrid i d FedTure l miTochondridl bdg wiThin d bdg sTrucTure Inside The miTochondrion deeridl can lie in one of Two pldces inTermembrdne spdce iiMiTochondridl derix ii 0 FedTure 2 elecTron carriers orgdnized wiThin The inner bdg nner Bdg sTudded wiTh molecules iThese molecules credTe dn elecTron TrdnsporT chdin Tth endbles ATP producTion b MiTochondridl ElecTron TrdnsporT Chdin high energy elecTrons dre pdssed from iv C carriers NADH and FADH2 To series of molecules embedded in The inner miTochondridl membrdne cdlled The elecTron TrdnsporT chdin AT edch sTep in The elecTron TrdnsporT chdin s sequence of fdll To 0 lower energy sTdTe reledsing d liTTle biT of energy AT The end of The chdin The lowerenergy elecTrons dre hdnded off To oxygen which Then combines wiTh free H ions To form wafer The energy is used To power proTon pumps which pdcllt hydrogen ions from The miTochondridl derix info The inTermembrdne s dce The proTons rush bdcllt info The miThochondridl derix wiTh gredT lltineTic energy which can be used To build ATP ProTon GrddienTs dnd PoTenTidl Energy The force of The flow of H ions fuels The dTTdchmenT of freeTIOdTing phospthe groups To ADP To produce ATP hdndoffs The elecTrons 26 Beer and Wine 0 Beer wine spiriTs are produced by celluldr respirdTion in The dbsence of oxygen b c In animals fermeanTion credTes ldcTic dcid n yedsT fermeanTion credTes eThdnol 27 CompleTe DieT 0 Cells can run on proTein dnd de as well as glucose V DNA Gene Expression and BioTechnology 2 0 DNA 0 Molecule coanins insTrucTions for The developmenT dnd funcTioning of all living orgdnisms b The insTrucTions encoded in The DNA molecule are pdssed down from pdrenT To offspring c Is 0 double helix i Is 0 nucleic dcid Tth consisTs of nucleoTides NucleoTides sugdr phospthe croup and N molecule bdse O Bdse pdirs ATCG Genes O From Genome To Gene i Genome dn orgdnisms compleTe seT of DNA In eukdryoTes This infordeion can be found in The nucleus of virTUdlly every cell 01 9 NT ii Chromosomes One or more unique pieces of DNA circular in prokaryotes linear in eurlltaryotes that together makes up an organism s genome Chromosomes vary in length and can consist of hundreds of millions of base pairs Vary from species to species a Corn has 10 unique chromosomes b Fruit flies have 4 c Dogs and chickens have 39 different chromosomes d Goldfish had 47 chromosomes iii Gene A specific sequence of DNA on average about 3000 bases long that contains the information necessary to produce all or part of a protein molecule Alternative versions of a gene is called an Allele a Any single characteristic is called a trait Not all DNA has instructions for proteins a Genome of a human is 3400 i Only 2 of DNA codes b ntrons noncoding regions of DNA i May take the form of long or short sequences that are repeated thousands of times ii May also consist of gene fragments duplicate versions of gene and pseudo genes Overview of Genes a Genotype all of the genes contained in an organism b Phenotype all physical manifestation of the instructions c Happens in two stages i Transcription a copy of the gene39s base sequence is made ii Translation that copy is used to direct the production of protein d In eulltaryotes RNA copies the base pair sequence Transcription a Recognize and Bind i Once RNA polymerase recognizes a promoter site it binds to one strand of the DNA and begins reading the gene39s message b Transcribe i As the DNA strand is processed through the RNA polymerase the RNA polymerase builds a singlestrand copy of the gene called the mRNA transcript f DNA has T an Ais added to the mRNA f DNA has a A a U is added to mRNA f DNA has a G then a C is added to mRNA c Terminate i When the RNA polymerase encounters a code signaling the end of the gene it stops transcription and releases the mRNA transcript d Capping and Editing i Before the mRNA transcript can be translated into a protein a cap and tail are often added for protection and to promote recognition and noncoding sections are removed Translation a Several ingredients much be present in the cytoplasm in order for translation to occur i Free amino acids ii Ribosomal units Transfer RNAtRNA Molecules translate the mRNA code linllting specific bases on the mRNA with specific amino acids that will be used to build a protein O N Attachment sites consist of a 3base sequence that matches up with the 3base sequence on the mRNA transcript b The steps i Recognize and Initiate Protein building The start sequence of the mRNA transcript signified by the bases A U and G is recognized by a corresponding tRNA molecule and the two ribosomal subunits The attachment site of the tRNA molecule binds to the mRNA as a ribosomal subunits assemble around them ii Elongate As ribosome moves along the strand of mRNA each new aminoacidcarrying tRNA molecule binds to the next three bases on the mRNA transcript After the ribosomes attaches the growing protein chain to the new amino acid the tRNA molecule detaches from the mRNA and floats away iii Terminate Once the ribosome encounters the threebase stop sequence protein assembly is complete Translation ends and both the protein and the mRNA molecule are released from the ribosome Mutations a Alterations in the sequence of bases in DNA i Lead to changes in the structural and function of the proteins produced ii Can have a range of effects b Point Mutations where one nucleotide base pair in the DNA is replaced with another or a base pair is deleted or inserted c Chromosomal Aberrations changes to the overall organization of the genes on a chromosome d Main Causes i Spontaneous arise by an accident of long strands of DNA duplicating themselves ii Radiationinduced mutations disrupts the atomic structure iii Chemicalinduced mutations cigarette smoke and stuff can react with atoms in DNA molecules Mutations a Mutation to Illness i A mutated gene codes for nonfunction protein commonly an enzyme ii The nonfunctioning enzyme can t catalyze the reaction as it normally would iii The molecule it would have reacted with accumulates iv The accumulating chemical sickness or death Biotechnology a What biotech does i Producing medicines to treat diseases ii Curing diseases iii Preventing disease from occurring in the first place b 5 Steps of Biotechnology i Chop up the DNA from a donor species that exhibits the trait of interest Restriction Enzyme a The gene of interest is located on a section of DNA from the donor species b Restriction enzymes that target a particular basepair sequence on either side of the of the gene are introduced c The restriction enzymes bind to their target base pair sequence and cut the strand of DNA d The gene of DNA of interest has now been separated from the donor DNA ii Amplify the small amount of DNA into more useful quantities Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR N 0 39gt win 00 N 0 A solution containing an isolated segment of DNA is heated separating the double a stranded DNA into two single strands b The enzyme DNA polymerase is added along with a large number of free nucleotides and the solution containing the segment is cooled c DNA polymerase adds complementary bases to each single strand d The result is two identical copies of the original segment of DNA Insert the different DNA pieces into bacterial cells Inserting DNA by Using Plasmids A target segment of source DNA is isolated using restriction enzymes Using the a same restriction enzyme a single cut is made in a bacterial plasmid b Because the same restriction enzyme was used to isolate the segment of DNA and cut the plasmid the two share complementary base pairs and fit together perfectly c The plasmid now including the gene of interest is inserted back into the bacterial cell Genes on the plasmid can be expressed in the bacterial cell and we are replicated whenever the cell divides iv Grow separate bacterial colonies each containing different inserted pieces of donor DNA To create a gene library a large amount of DNA is chopped up using restriction enzymes Each piece is inserted into a plasmid that Is then introduced into a bacterial cell The bacteria are allowed to divide repeatedly each producing a clone of the foreign DNA fragment it carries Together all of the different bacterial cells contain all of the different fragments of the original DNA v Identify the bacterial colonies that have received the DNA containing the gene of interest To locate a gene of interest among the millions of clones in a gene library the bacteria are washed with a chemical that breaks down the DNAlt making it singlestranded A radioactive probe is then washed over the singlestranded DNA The probe is a short length of DNA that contains a sequence of base pairs complementary to the gene of interest The DNA probe binds to the complementary basepair sequence found in the gene of interest and glows with radioactivity allowing the gene to be easily identified Treatment a Cure diseases b Treating diseases i Diabetes Gene therapies a Stem cells have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body Biotech in terms of food a Almost everyone in the US eats genetically modified foods without knowing it Biotech and DNA a DNA is a universal identifier b DNA fingerprint is created by counting the number of times that a repetitive sequence of base pairs occurs on an individuals chromosomes Regions of repetitive basepairs sequences are called Variable Number of Tandem Repeats DNA Mapping a The Human Genome Project b Building earths family tree create a phylogenetic tree grouping organisms in a hierarchical system l9 Cloning d IsoldTe on egg cell from one sheep and d mdmmdry cell from dnoTher Remove The nucleus from The egg cell Fuse The mdmmdry cell including iTs nucleus wiTh The egg cell ndeTe cell division Grow The embryo in The culTure TrdnspldnT The embryo inTo The womb of d surronge moTher sheep T Surronge moTher sheep gives birTh To cloned sheep VI Chromosomes and Cell Division 1 Immoerl Cells 0 Telomeres i Is 0 proTecTive cdp dT The end of DNA ii Every Time 0 cell divides The Telomere geTs d liTTle biT shorTer b ProlltdryoTes do bindry fission c EulltdryoTes hdve miTosis dnd meiosis 2 Chromosomes d EulltdryoTes hdve linedr chromosomes wiThin The nucleus b ProlltdryoTes have 0 single circuldr chromosome dTTdched To The cell membrdne 3 Bindry Fission 0 Process beings wiTh Replichion The cell DNA dupliCdTes iTself b Then The cell elonnges and begins To pinch in 2 c DdughTer cells are credTed i The origindl cell is cdlled The pdrenT cell The new cells are cdlled ddughTer cells d Bindry fission is considered dseXUdl reproducTion i AseXUOI reproducTion is when There is DNA from 0 single pdreanl cell 4 EulltdryoTe Cell Cycle 0 Types of Cells i Sodeic cells forming The body of The orgdnism ii ReproducTive cells The sex cells or gdmeTes b nTerphdse 9906 Gap 1 i The cell s primdry growTh phdse Normdl celluldr TuncTions mdking proTeins geTTing rid of stTe eTc leltes pldce ii DNA SynThesis i The cell begins prepdrdTion for division Every chromosome credTes dn eXOCT dupliche of iTselT in 0 process cdlled repliCdTion iii p 2 1 Second period of growTh dnd prepdrdTion for cell division c M Phdse i MiTosis i The cell s nucleus dupliCdTes Then divides d CyTolltinesi s i The cell Then dupliCdTes forming Two sepdrdTe cells 5 Replichion d ATTer cell division The DNA is dupliCdTed b Process i Unwinding i The coiled doublesTrdnded DNA molecule unwinds dnd sepdrdTes inTo Two sTrdnds ii Rebuilding i Edch of The single sTrdnds becomes 0 double sTrdnd dgdin as on enzyme connecTs The dppropridTe complemeanry bdse To The exposed bdse 9 O MiTosis i Purpose To enable cells To generaTe new geneTically idenTical cells 1 Reasons a GrowTh b ReplacemenT i ApopTosis is cell suicide ii CerTain cells are TargeTed for apopTosis ii The number of somaTic cells ThaT musT be replaced every day by miTosis is huge i Rafe of miTosis varies dramaTically Overview of MiTosis a nTerphase i Chromosomes are replicaTed during The DNA synThesis porTion of inTerphase b MiTosis Chromosomes condense Chromosomes line up in The middle of The cell Each chromosome is pulled aparT from iTs duplicaTe New membranes form around each compleTe seT of chromosomes and The cell divides i ParenT cells 9 daughTer cells 4STep Process a Prophase i Nuclear membrane breaks down ii SisTer chromaTids replicaTed chromosomes condense iii Spindle forms b MeTaphase i SisTer chromaTids line up aT The cenTer of The cell c Anaphase d The sisTer chromaTid pairs are pulled aparT by The spindle fibers One full seT of chromosomes goes To one side of The cell and anoTher idenTical seT goes To The oTher e Telophase i The chromosomes begin To uncoil as The nuclear membrane is reassembled around Them f CyTolltinesis CTyoplasm and organelles duplicaTe and are divided inTo approximaTely equal parTs The cell spliTs in Two Cancer a Are cells where division is ouT of conTrol b Can lead To Tumors c Second leading COD in The US d Tumor growTh i UnregulaTed cell division e They don39T sTop dividing i iii iv Meiosis a Sexual reproducTion is required To make sex cells b Diploid cell Two copies of each chromosomes c Haploid cell have one copy of each chromosome i Egg and sperm d Reduces The amounT of geneTic maTerial in gameTes e If produces The gameTes ThaT differ from one anoTher wiTh respecT To The combinaTions of alleles They carry Sperm and Egg a Meiosis occurs in The gonads b Homologous pairs or homologues i The maternal and paternal copies of a chromosome c Sister chromatids i Each strand and its identical duplicate held together at the centromere d Meiosis happens twice i Homologues are separated ii Each of the new cells divides again separating the sister chromatids into two even newer cells e Meiosis Division 1 Prophase l i Replicated chromosomes condense 2 Spindle is formed 3 Homologous pairs of sister chromatids come together and cross over 4 Nuclear membrane disintegrates Metaphase I i Homologues move toward the center of the cell and line up iii Anaphase I i Homologues separate and are pulled to opposite poles Sister chromatids going to each side are a mix of maternal and paternal genetic material iv Telophase and Cytolltinesis 1 Sister chromatids arrive at the cell poles and the nuclear membrane reassembles around them 2 The cell pinches in two daughter cells 3 Chromosomes may unwind slightly f Meiosis Division 2 Prophase II T Chromosomes in daughter cells condense Metaphase II 1 Sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell iii Anaphase II 1 Sister chromatid pairs are pulled apart by the spindle fibers toward opposite poles iv Telophase II and Cytolltinesis i The 2 daughter cells pinch into four haploid cell daughter cells 2 The nuclear membrane reassembles around the chromosomes g Outcome four haploid daughter cells each with just one set of chromosomes that contain a combination of unique traits 12 Male and Female gametes are produced differently a Female Gamete i Diploid female cell 9 replication 9 Meiosis 9 genetic material is divided evently but nearly all of the cytoplasm goes to just one of the cells so there is no 2hd divide of the smaller cell ii Second cell dies immediately 13 Crossing Over a Maternal and Paternal 9 crossing over between sister chromatids of the homologous chromosomes 9 Homologous chromosomes after the exchange of enetic material 9 chromatids with recombined DNA 14 Costs and Benefits ofSexual Reproduction a Advantages i Crossing Over crossing over during meiosis produces a mixture of maternal and paternal genetic material on each chromatid Reassortment of Homologues The homologues and sister chromatids distributed to each daughter cell during meiosis are a random mix of maternal and paternal genetic material Alleles come from 2 parents Each parent donates his or her own set of genetic material b Disadvantage of Sexual i Takes a long time c Advantages of Asexual i It is fast and easy ii In isolated habits or when trying to establish a new population easy and fast iii Is also efficient d Disadvantages i More closely related offspring ii Genome is the same as the parents iii Offspring will not be prepared for a change in the environment Sex Chromosomes a Females XX b Males XY i Babies have XX 9 female child ii Babies have XY male child Sex Determined in other species a Turtles depend on the temperature at which the egg is incubated b Ants bees wasps sex is determined by chromosome sets it posses c Birds the mother determines the sex similarly to humans Down Syndrome a Karyotypes reveal an individual s entire chromosome set i Down syndrome an extra chromosome at2l b Can find out via i Aminocentesis l Takes a sample of the fluid around the baby 2 Can be done up to 4 months into the pregnancy ii Chorionic Villus Sampling CVS 1 Tissue is removed from the placenta 2 Can be done between weeks 10 and 12 c Nondisjuction the unequal distribution of chromosomes during meiosis i Error of cell division that creates a gamete with zero or two copies of a chromosome rather then a single copy 1 Can happen in Meiosis or sister chromatids can fail to separate during Meiosis Too Many orToo few chromosomes a TurnerSyndrome X i Offspring only has one X 1 Characteristics a Short height b Web of skin between neck and shoulders c Undeveloped ovaries often sterile d Some learning difficulties b KlinefelterSyndromeXXY i Offspring XXY 1 Characteristics a Underdeveloped testes b Lower testosterone levels usually infertile n O I oo c DevelopmenT of female feaTures d Long limbs and sligthy Taller Than average ii XYY males 1 CharacTerisTics a Taller Then average b ModeraTe To severe acne c nTelligence may be sligthy lower Then average c XXX Females MeTa females i Offspring XXX 1 CharacTerisTics a May be sTerile b No obvious physical or menTal problems VI Mendelian InheriTance T Family Resemblance a Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 individual b Each human gameTe has one copy of each chromosome c Child inheriTs one seT of chromosomes from each parenTs and has 2 copies of each gene 2 Some TraiTs are conTrolled by a single gene a Example Fish odor b HerediTy The passing of characTerisTics from parenT To offspring Through Their genes c TraiTs ThaT are deTermined by a single gene are called singlegene TraiTs 3 Mendel a There was a misTallten idea ThaT a Tiny premade baby was in every sperm cell b True breeding describes a populaTion of organisms in which for a given TraiT The offspring of crosses of individuals always show The same TraiT i Example The offspring of pea planTs ThaT are Truebreeding would always have round peas 4 DominanT and Recessive a DominanTR an allele ThaT masllts The phenoTypic effecT of The recessive r allele b Process i Mendel crossed Truebreeding purple flower planTs wiTh Truebreeding whiTe flower planTs ii Then Mendel crossed Two of The purple flower offspring iii MosT offspring have purple flowers buT some have whiTe flowers c Mendel39s Law ofSegregaTion i Only one of The Two alleles for a gene is puT info a gameTe AT ferTilizaTion offspring receive from each parenT one allele for each gene 1 Homozygous recessive rr 2HeTerozygous Rr 3HeTerozygous rR 4Homozygous dominanT RR d 3 of Mendel s Ideas i Each parenT puTs inTo every sperm or egg iT makes a single seT of insTrucTions for building The TraiT ii Offspring receive Two copies of The insTrucTions for any TraiT iii The TraiT observed in an individual depends on The Two copies of The gene iT inheriTs from iTs parenTs PhenoType and GenoType a PhenoType The ouTward appearance of an individual b GenoType is The organisms geneTic composT ion c PunneTT Square 01 ICrossi Ia Ia I A I Ad I Ad I A Ad Ad d Offspring are all Aa e 2hd cross I Cross2 I A I a I A AA Ad I a I Ad I ad I f A homozygous dominanf AA g 24 heferozygous Aa h A homozygous recessive aa 6 Probabilify a Role in genefics i Consequence of segregafion ii Ferfilizafion is a chance evenf b Probabilifies i Any gamefe produced by a heferozygous for a frail has a 50 chance of carrying fhe dominanf allele and a 50 chance of carrying fhe recessive allele ii If a male is Aa and a female is aa whaf is fhe probabilify fhe child is aa 1 Mofher 100x fafher 50 50 iii TaySachs iBofh parenfs are heferozygous 2 5 x 5 25 chance child will have faysachs 7 Tesf Cross a Helps fo figure ouf which alleles an individual carries i Could be MM or Mn N iv 2hd offspring Mm 24 pigmenfed mm 24 whife 8 Pedigrees a Is a fype of family free fhaf can help fo answer quesfions abouf a genefic disease b Traifs fhaf are confrolled by sex chromosomes are called sexlinked fraifs i Recessive sexlinked fraifs appear more frequenfly in males fhen females ii Dominanf sexlinked fraifs appear more frequenfly in females fhen males c An individual who carries one allele for a recessive fraif buf do nof exhibif fhe fraif buf fhe offspring does is called a carrier 9 Incomplefe dominance and Codominance a Incomplefe dominance is where a heferozygofe appears fo be infermediafe befween fwo homozygofes b Codominance is where fhe heferozygofe displays characferisfics of bofh homozygofes 10 Blood Type a Mulfiple allelism when a single gene has more fhan fwo alleles i Each individual sfill carries only 2 alleles b nherifance A B and O alleles i A and B are complefely dominanf fo 0 ii A and B are codominanf fo each ofher iii Can be A B AB and O c Genotypes AA AO BB B0 AB and 00 d Phenotypes 4 different types A B AB and 0 e Donating Blood Blood type Can donate to Can receive from Type A Type AB Type A Has A antigens Type A Type O Produces antibodies that attack B antigens Type B Type B Type B Has B antigens Type AB Type O Produces antibodies that attack A antigens Type AB Type AB Type A Has A and B antigens Type B Produces neither A nor Type AB B antibodies Type O Universal recipient Type 0 Type A Type O Has neither A nor B Type B antigens Type AB Produces antibodies Type O that attack A and B Universal donor ll Multigene traits i Poygenic traits a trait that is influenced by many different genes ii Additive effects describes what happens when the effects of alleles from multiple genes contribute to the ultimate phenotype l2 Pleiotropy a Is when one trait influences multiple unrelated traits b Example Heterozygote sicklecell trait i An allele that causes cells to sickle has 2 effects i It disrupts red blood cell s oxygen 2 It causes red blood cells to be inhospitable to malarial parasite a A person who is heterozygous for sickle cell is also immune to malaria c SPY gene i Is the Sexdetermining Region on the Y chromosome 1 Causes fetal gonads to develop as testes shortly after fertilization 2 Following the gonads secretion of testosterone other development changes also occur 13 Sexlinked traits in males and females a Sex linked trait is carried on the X chromosome b Women carry 2 X chromosomes while men carry an X and Y chromosome i To be color blind 1 male much inherit r from his mother 2 Female much inherit r from both parents ii To have normal vision 1 Males much inherit R from mother 2 Female must inherit R from either mother or father 14 Environment Effects a Identical twins are not identical i One smoked the other didn39t etc b Drinking diet soda could be deadly if you have phenylketonuria PKU c Siamese cats and some rabbits i Have genes that produce light fur at warmer temperatures and dark fur at colder temperatures 1 Le such as tail nose ears and feet 15 Mendel39s Law of Independent Assortment a States that one trait does not influence the inheritance of another trait i Le a dimpled chin has nothing to do with whether or not the person can be albino 16 Genes are sometimes on the same chromosome a Genes on the same chromosome are sometimes inherited together b Linkedgenes genes on the same chromosome maybe even right next to each other i Linllted genes homologous chromosomes during crossover linllted genes stay together i If the genes are far apart on the chromosome or on different chromosomes then the inheritance of one does not influence the inheritance of the other XXI Circulation and Respiration i Circulatory System what is it and why do we need it a Functions Transport 1 The circulatory system transports oxygen nutrients waste products immune system cells and hormones in the blood throughout the body Temperature Regulation 1 The circulatory system helps to maintain body temperature within the optimum range for metabolic functioning Protection 1 The circulatory system contains a variety of cells and chemicals that contribute to the individual s defenses against infection by pathogens 2 Types of Circulatory Systems a Circulatory systems aren t always needed i Example jellyfish and other cnidarians do not have a circulatory system ii Obtain oxygen and nutrients and eliminate waste through diffusion T Cells have easy access to oxygen and other nutrients because the cell is located closer to the external surface of the body or the gastrovascular cavity b Open Circulatory System i No clear distinction between circulating fluids and interstitial fluid ii Heartls pump the fluid mixture called hemolymph throughout the extracellular spaces inside the body iii Occurs in insects and mollusllts c Closed Circulatory system Always contain circulating fluid in vessels Blood is contained in vessels and separate from its interstitial fluid Muscular heart propels blood through vessels to tissues throughout the body iv Occurs in all vertebrates v Parts 1 Heart generates force a Receiving chamber atrium b Pumping chamber ventricle 2 Vessels transport blood throughout the body d Capillary Network i Arteries vessels that carry blood away from the heart and to the capillaries 0 39gt ii Capillaries Tiny porous vessels ThaT bring blood close To Tissue enabling The diffusion of gases nuTrienTs and oTher molecules inTo and ouT of The Tissue iii Veins vessels ThaT carry blood away from The capillaries back Toward The hearT Types of Closed SysTems a Closed CirculaTory SysTem Fish i Fishes have a Twochambered hearT wiTh a single circuiT of blood 1 Blood enTers The aTrium The collecTing chamber and is pumped inTo The venTricle 2 Blood flows Through The capillary beds of The bills where iT picks up oxygen 3 Blood Then Travels To The Tissues of The body delivering oxygen rich blood and Then bringing The oxygenpoor blood back To The hearT b Closed CirculaTory SysTem Amphibians i Amphibians have a Threechambered hearT wiTh Two circuiTs of flow 1 Pulmonary CircuiT a Blood is pumped To The lungs where iT picks up oxygen 2 SysTemic CircuiT a Blood is pumped To The Tissues of The body where iT delivers oxygen 3 Blood is collecTed from The lungs and The resT of The body in The lefT and righT aTria and Then flows inTo a single venTricle c Closed CirculaTory SysTems Mammals and Birds i Have a four chambered hearT wiTh Two circuiTs of flow 1 Pulmonary circuiT blood is pumped from The hearT To The lungs where iT picks up oxygen 2 SysTemic circuiT blood is pumped To The Tissues of The body where iT delivers oxygen ii Blood coming from The lungs collecTs in The lefT aTrium and passes To The lefT venTricle and goes To The resT of The bo y iii Then passes Through The sysTemic sysTem and collecTs in The righT aTrium again HearT and CirculaTory SysTem a Human circulaTory sysTem is composed of a fisTsized hearT and an inTricaTe sysTem of blood vessels ThaT TransporT respiraTory gases nuTrienTs and wasTe producTs Through The body b The circulaTory sysTem has Two loops The pulmonary and The sysTemic circuiT c Flow of Blood DeoxygenaTed blood from The organs and Tissues enTers The righT aTrium The blood arriving from The lower half of The body enTers Through The inferior vena cava and blood arriving from The head and arms enTers Through The superior vena cava MosT of The blood passes Through The righT aTrium inTo The righT venTricle A conTracTion pushes The remainder of The blood in The righT aTrium down and inTo The righT venTricle The conTracTion conTinues pumping The blood ouT of The venTricle Through The pulmonary arTery This large arTery immediaTely forks sending half of The blood To The lefT lung and half To The righT lung iv Pass Through The pulmonary capillaries in The lungs The blood picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide v The oxygenaTed blood Then reTurns To The hearT arriving in The lefT aTrium via The lefT and righT pulmonary veins vi MosT of The blood passes Through The leTT aTrium and inTo The lefT venTricle A conTracTion pushes The remaining blood from The lefT aTrium To The lefT venTricle viI As The conTracTions conTinues The blood is pumped up and ouT of The venTricle Through The largesT arTery in The body The aorTa AfTer making a sharp Turn The 01 9 aorTa spliTs sending some blood To The capillaries of The arm and head and The remainder To The capillaries of The Trunk and legs DepleTed of oxygen afTer passing Through The capillary beds of The head Trunk and legs The blood Trickles in veins back To The hearT and collecTs in The righT aTrium via The venae cavae d HearT sounds by The closing of The hearT valves i The lub is The aTriovenTricular values slam shuT prevenTing blood from flowing back info The aTria ii The dub is The semilunar values slam shuT prevenTing blood from flowing back info The venTricles e DirecTing Blood Flow can be direcTed Toward or away from specific regions of The body i Precapillary sphincTers reduce The blood flow To hands or feeT in cold weaTher ii Muscle conTracTions and valves conTracTions of muscles surrounding The veins push blood Toward The hearT Valves wiThin The veins keep blood on course by prevenTing if from moving backward ElecTrical AcTiviTy a The hearT has iTs own pacemaker Thus if can conTracT wiThouT exTernal nervous sTimulaTion i The regular and rhyThmic conTracTions are iniTiaTed by The sinoaTrialSA node b HearT ConTracTion i SinoaTrial node fires and The conTracTion spread To boTh aTria ii Wave of conTracTion passes down cenTer of hearT and bounces back u causing The venTricles To conTracT iii VenTricles relax and The process begins again ConsTiTuenTs of Blood a ComponenTs of blood are blood and red blood cells b Types of Blood Cells Red blood cells eryThrocyTes i TransporT oxygen from The lungs To The resT of The body 2 Flexible disks conTaining few organelles 3 Packed full of hemoglobin a Hemoglobin is an oxygencarrying proTein molecule WhiTe Blood Cells leukocyTes i DesTroy paThogens and foreign organisms in The bloodsTream and inTersTiTial fluid a PaThogens s disease causing foreign organisms circulaTing in The blood sTream 2 There are several Types of whiTe blood cells ThaT differ in Their meThods of fighTing disease and responding To foreign maTerials a 5 Types of whiTe blood cells NeuTrophils lymphocyTes ii MonocyTes iv Eosinophils Basophils viii v PlaTeleTs 1 Slow blood loss by iniTiaTing The consTricTion of blood vessels and The formaTion of a cloT 2 Composed of small pieces of cyToplasm 3 ConTain no organelles 7 Blood Pressure O b 8 Ca a b I 9 b C Blood pressure measures The sTrain on The walls of The arTeries when The venTricles are conTracTing sysTolic pressure and when The venTricles are relaxed diasTolic pressure SysTolic pressure is normal range beTween 9O mmHG and 120 mmHG DiasTolic pressure is normal range beTween 60 and 90 mmHG Pumping faTher disTances and againsT graviTy requires more pressure To be generaTed by The hearT rdiovascular disease HearT aTTacllts resulTs from narrowing of The coronary arTeries ThaT obsTrucTs blood flow To The hearT muscle CholesTerol i CholesTerol is a dieTary requiremenT buT Too much causes diseases i The Type or densiTy of cholesTerol consumed is imporTanT LymphaTic SysTem a Runs close To The circulaTory sysTem ThroughouT The body and plays a supporTing role in The process of circulaTion FuncTions i Recycling The lymphaTic sysTem recycles fluid and proTeins ThaT diffuse from The blood capillaries during circulaTion bacllt info The bloodsTream FighTing Illness as lymph circulaTes Through The body whiTebloodcell pacllted lymph nodes remove dangerous maTerials including bacTeria cancer cells and viruses from The body ReTrieving NuTrienTs liTTle projecTions ThaT exTend info The small inTesTine absorb lipids from The digesTive TracT and shuTTle Them To The bloodsTream Failure of The lymphaTic sysTem resulTs in fluid accumulaTion in lower exTremiTies i Ex ElephanTiasis ll Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide O b Gas exchange in Animals i RespiraTory gases are exchanged beTween The exTernal environmenT and The organism39s circulaTory sysTem RespiraTory gases are exchanged beTween The circulaTory sysTem and The cells involved in cellular respiraTion MeThods of Gas Exchange DirecT Diffusion 1 Gas exchange occurs beTween cells and The environmenTs 2 Occurs in singlecell organisms and small organisms wiTh low meTabolic demands ProTruding RespiraTory Sacs i Balloonlike sacs ThaT increase surface area for gas exchange 2 Occur in sea sTars and oTher echinoderms wiTh low meTabolic demands Gills i ElaboraTe exTensions of The body ThaT exchange significanT amounTs of gases dissolved in waTer 2 Occur in fishes and many marine inverTebraTes such as lobsTer and clams iv Tracheae i NeTwork of branching Tubes connecTed To Tiny openings on The body called spiracles Occur in mosT TerresTrial insecTs v Lungs i nTerna organs wiTh highly branched moisT surfaces 2 Occur in mosT land verTebraTes l2 CounTer CurrenT Mechanism a Gas exchange in fishes falltes place in fhe gills complex sfrucfures adapfed fo exfracf oxygen from wafer generally consisfing of four gill arches on each side of fhe head i Gill Arch carfilaginous sfrucfure fhaf provides supporf for fhe filamenfs a Filamenfs fhreadlillte sfrucfures composed of hundreds of lamellae fhaf spread ouf and creafe as much surface area as possible i Lamellae disklike sfrucfures sfacllted along fhe filamenfs fhaf confain fhe capillaries where gas exchange falltes place b Counfer Currenf Exchange i Blood and wafer flow in opposife direcfions a Wafer always has slighfly more oxygen fhen blood so a confinuous concenfrafion gradienf is mainfained exfracfing as much oxygen as possible b Blood and wafer flow in fhe same direcfions i If blood were fo flow in fhe same direcfion as wafer if could only become 50 more safurafed wifh oxygen because fhere is no longer a concenfrafion gradienf fo enable more diffusion of oxygen 13 Respirafory sysfem ferresfrial verfebrafes a Humans have fidal flow which decreases nef oxygen concenfrafion b Funcfions i Acquires fhe oxygen necessary for glycolysis and cellular respirafion ii Removes carbon dioxide a wasfe producf of cell funcfions c Maximizing gas exchange i Alveoli have a large surface area and a shorf diffusion disfance bofh of which increase fhe rafe of gas exchange 15 Venfilafion a Inhalafion requires acfive confracfion of muscle fo liff fhe ribs i Expirafion af resf is passive due fo lung elasficify l7 Hemoglobin a Is a fangled mass of four polypepfide chains wifh four molecules of iron fhaf creafe four seafs fo which oxygen can affach i Kind of like a shuffle bus fhaf picks up oxygen and moves if fo fhe fissues Myoglobin a Is a hemoglobinlike molecule wifhin muscle fissue If can hold a single oxygen molecule which if releases only under exfremelylow oxygen condifions generally during exerfion wifh fhe muscle need if mosf i Darllt meaf has higher amounfs myoglobin which indicafes fhaf if is more mefabolically acfive fhe lighf meaf ii Sfores oxygen in hard working muscles XXII Nufrifion and Digesfion 1 Food digesfion food is physically and chemically broken down info nufrienfs and wasfe a Nufrienfs are subsfances fhaf are used for energy raw maferials and mainfenance of fhe body sysfems b Wasfe unusable maferial fhaf is eliminafed affer passing fhrough fhe digesfive sysfems 2 Organisms have differenf Diefs a Carnivores animals fhaf eaf only ofher animals b Herbivores animals fhaf eaf only planfs c Omnivores animals fhaf eaf bofh planfs and animals 3 Calories a Food energy is measured in lltilocalories which is 1000 calories 00 9 b Basal Metabolic Rate BMR the minimal energy expenditure of an organism at rest c Actual daily energy expenditure the basal metabolic rate plus the energy required for all activity Water a Water constitutes between 6065 of body weight in mammals b Essential nutrient and plays an important role in both the intracellular and extracellular fluids including blood iWater transports nutrients and waste materials iiTalltes part in chemical reactions iiiServes as a solvent for vitamins and minerals amino acids and sugars ivLubricates manyjoints the spinal cord and the eyes vHelps regulate body temp c Needs about 23 liters of water per day Proteins a Function i Once proteins are broken down the amino acids are used as the raw materials to build new complex proteins such as hemoglobin and muscle lCellularworllterslll ii Sources 1 Animals a Egg whites shrimp tuna poultry and meat 2Plants a Grains and vegetables such as beans iiiStorage iAmino acids are usually stored for less than half a day before being reassembled into proteins throughout the body 2Can be converted to fat and stored in fat cells b Complete proteins proteins that contain all eight essential amino acids c Incomplete proteins proteins that do not contain all eight essential amino acids Carbohydrates a Function i Carbohydrates provide energy to fuel movement growth and all cellular activity in the body b Source i Fruits vegetables and grains c Storage i Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscle cells as glycogen for about a day before being broken down to provide energy ii Can be converted to fat and stored in fat cells d Sugars are the primary input for ATP production e Types of Carbs i Simple Sugars l Glucose fructose 2 Glycolysis reactions release energy rapidly Digestible Complex Sugars 1 Simple sugars bonded together such as sucrose table sugar or starch 2 Bonds between simple sugars must be broken before the energyreleasing reactions of glycolysis occur iii Fiber 1 Complex carbs that forms structural parts of plants 2 Indigestible in humans but has a significant role in digestion 7 Lipids q FuncTion i Fqu provide 0 dense source of energy Tth con be efficienle sTore in The body qnd did in keeping The body qum b Sources i BuTTer cheese oils eggs qnd meqT c STorqge i Fqu qre sTored in qu cells ThroughouT The body d Types of Lipds i Sunqued Fqu i FdTTy qcids hqve sTrqighT Tqils qnd con be pqcllted TogeTher Tigthy 2 Tend To be solid of room Tempequure 3 More likely To be sTored qs quT in The body ii Unquuqued qus i FdTTy qcids hqve lltinllted Tqils qnd cqnnoT be pqcllted Tigthy TogeTher 2 Tend To liquid of room Temp 3 Less lilltely To be sTored qs qu in The body 8 ViTqmins qnd minerdls d Are orgdnic compounds Tth qre essenTiql nuTrienTs required by The body in smqll dmounTs for normql growTh qnd hquTh b Minerqls qre chemicdl elemenTs Tth qre required in The dieT in smqll dmounTs 9 DigesTive Process q ngesTion i Food is quen info The body ii Begins in The mouTh qs TeeTh Teqr qnd grind food while mucus lubriCqTe food for qullowing i ngesTion moves from The mouTh To The esophqgus q The Tongue shqpe The food info 0 bqll qnd pushes iT To The chllt of The mouTh b A flqp of Tissue is moved over The enTrqnce of The Trqcheq when you qullow c AfTer qullowing ques of smooTh muscle conTrchions cqlled periqulsis propel food down The esophqgus qnd info The sTochh b DigesTion I Lqrge pieces of food qre dismanIed by physiquly qnd chemicqlly breqllting Them down inTo qbsorbqble molecules i In The sTochh q Acid qnd enzymes begin proTein digesTion b ConTrchions qnd The qddiTion of WqTer creqTe 0 liquid cqlled chime 2 In The smqll inTesTine q Bile from The liver qnd gqllblqdder breqllt qpqu lqrge lipid dropleTs b Enzymes from The pqncreqs qccomplish mosT chemicdl digesTion c AbsorpTion i Energyrich food molecules qre qulten info The cells of The body where They con be used for energy qnd building queriqls ii Moves The nuTrienTs from your guT To your cell i qull inTesTine hqs mqny folds9 in The folds There qre villi finger lillte projecTions Tth line The smqll inTesTine qnd wiTh in The villi qre The microvilli Threqdlike projecTions Tth line cells in The villi iii Process 1 NuTrienTs qre TrqnsporTed info The cells lining The villi 2 Nufrienfs diffuse ouf of fhe cell and info fhe infersfifial fluid bafhing fhe cells 3 Nufrienfs are picked up by fhe capillaries and move info fhe bloodsfream where fhey can be delivered fo fhe organs and fissues fhaf need fhem d Eliminafion i The final remaining parfs of fhe consumed foods mosfly indigesfible maferials are discarded as wasfe producfs and much wafer reabsorpfion occurs 1 Colon and large infesfine reabsorb wafer and prepares fhe fecal maferial for passing ouf fhe anus Diefary fiber cellulose is essenfial fo smoofh pass fhrough fhe colon 15 Healf y Dief a Avoiding subsfances fhaf have negafive healfh effecfs on fhe body 17 Fad Diefs a Do nof work b Weighf loss can be accomplished fhrough pills surgery buf fhe safesf and mosf effecfive way is dief moniforing and exercise c Issues wifh fad diefs They focus on reducing weighf waferweighf rafher fhen body faf They reduce muscle mass fhe besf fissue fo burn faf They reduce body weighf rapidly fhey frigger several defenses fo preserve fhe body s energy reserves iv Don f focus on fhe energy side of fhe equafion 18 Diabefes a Problems regulafing blood glucose levels can arise from eifher insulin scarcify or ineffecfiveness b Diabefes Mellifus sweef urine i Type 1 pancreas doesn f secrefe enough insulin in response fo an increase in blood sugar c Bofh fype l and fype 2 insulin injecfions are a freafmenf mefhod Chapfer 23 Nervous Sysfem i Nervous Sysfem a Nefworllt of cells fhaf collecfs informafion abouf fhe exfernal environmenfs processes fhe informafion and sends signals fo effecfors b Funcfions i Receives inpuf from fhe surrounding world ii Process fhe informafion iii nifiafes responses fo fhe environmenf when necessary 2 Neurons a Are fhe building blocks of all fhe nervous sysfem i The peripheral nervous sysfem receive sfimuli from environmenf and send signals fo effecfors ii The cenfral nervous sysfem processes b Nerves are comprised of neurons bundled fogefherwifh connecfive fissue i The sfrucfures connecf us fo our world by enabling us fo sense lighf sound fouch fasfe and smell c The Neuron i Type of cell specialized for carrying elecfrical signals 1 Dendrifes sense and respond fo sfimulafion from oufside fhe cell and send fhaf informafion foward fhe cell body 2 Cell body confains fhe nucleus and ofher cellular machinery 3 Axon long tubelike projection that extends from the cell body and transmits signals to other cells 4 Glial cells support cells that protect insulate and nourish the neuron ii Neurons come in 3 types 1 Sensory 2 Motor 3 Interneurons iii Overview 1 A sensory neuron on your hand sense an irriation and send a signail to convey this information to your spinal cord 2 In the spinal cord the signal is sent through an interneuron to your brain The signal is interrupted and a response is determined and then sent through another interneuron back down your spinal cord to a motor neuron 3 The signail is sent through the motor neuron to a muscle swatting at the mosquito iv Reflexes some signals bypass the central nervous system and travel directly from sensory neurosn to the spinal cord where they connect directly with motor neurons 3 Dendrites Receive external stimuli through i Motor neurons and interneurons generally connect with and receive signals from other neurons ii Senseory neuron dendrites are modified to respond to a specific stimulus such as a touch or sound light or chemical 4 Action potential a The cell body signals from al of the dendrites of the neuron converge b The cell body then integrates them c the sum of total signals coming is positive then the neuron initiates action potential an electrical signal that travels down its axon 5 Myelin sheaths a Axons are insulated by a fatty coating called the myelin sheath preventing action potential from weakening as it travels down the axon b Lack of myelin is seen when babies try to start walking i At the time myelin hasn39t completely formed around heir axons and their motor control isn39t very good 6 Synapse a The end of an axon is always right next to another neuron or a muscle cel or a gland i The point where they meet is called the synapse Sacs called vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft The neurotransmitter diffuses to nearby receptor sites The neurotransmitter attaches to postsynaptic receptors Gates open in the postsynaptic cell membrane Neurotransmitter is relased fro the postsynaptic cell receptors Neurotransmitter is recycled or broken down b Call Screening for your brain i Inhibit activity and effectly block information from being passed along 1 This option is not just useful but the nervous systems capacity to control which signals get through 7 Types of Neurotransmitters a Acetylcholine 001 07 00 9 i Released by moTor neurons aT The poinT where The synapse wiTh muscle cells ii When enough aceTylcholine binds To a muscle cell The muscle conTracT l Curare works by blocking The recepTors ThaT aceTylcholine binds To a Once iT goes inTo an animals sysTem causes deaTh by asphyxiaTion i Impossible for The skeleTal muscles To conTracT b GluTamaTe i ExciTaTory ii Involved in learning and memory c Dopamine i niTiaTing and coordinaTing movemenT ii One of body s chief happiness neuroTransmiTTers d SeroTonin i FuncTions as an inhibiTory neuroTransmiTTer ii AffecTs appeTiTe sleep anxieTy and mood and produces feelings of conTenTmenT and saTiaTion wiTh released Drugs work by mimicking The neuroTransmiTTers a Cocaine b Prozac and ZolofT c Morphine and heroin d NicoTine e Caffeine more caffeine is consumed every day Than any oTher beverage oTher Then waTer Caffeine acTiviTy in The brain leads To a build up of a cellularwasTe producT known as adenosine ThaT binds To recepTors on nearby cells As more adnonsine recepTors become filled wiTh adenosine The neurons in our brain become less likely To fire We perceive This as Tiredness ngesTed caffeine circulaTes To The brain and binds To recepTors inTended for adenosine iv Adenosine recepTors bound To caffeine do noT reduce our neurons abiliTy To fire and we feel alerT Alcohol a Is a greaT neuroTransmiTTer impersonaTor fooling aT leasT 4 differenT recepTor molecules By blocking recepTor for gluTamaTe alcohol slow sour reacTion Times and slurs our speech AcTing like cocaine buT much weaker alcohol blocks dopamine reupTake Resembling morphine and heroin in This respecT are a greale reduced magniTude alcohol spurs our body To produce a iTTe opiaTe like high iv Alcohol modifies and increases The efficiency of our seroTonin recepTors increasing The conTenTmenT aTh accompanies seroTonin relsae aT synapses in The brain 1 ModeraTe alcohol consumpTion is pleasanT and doesn T have healTh risks 2 For some alcohol can lead To abuse and alcoholism a Long Term effecTs can cause Types of cancer increase The risk of liver disease and increasing The likelihood of harm To The feTus during pregnancy CH 2 Chem 10152011 91300 PM Element substance that cannot be broken down into any other elements Atom o Nucleus protons and neutrons o Electrons in outer rings negative charged Atomic Mass of Atom combined weight of all protons and neutrons Atomic Number of Element corresponds to how many protons it has Shells of atoms o 1St holds 2 electrons o 2nd eight electrons 0 ext ext Ion a negatively or positively charged Atom based on its out ring of electrons Molecules groups of atoms held together through bonds Covalent Bonds strong bonds formed when atoms share electrons o Double bond ex when 2 oxygen atoms share 2 electrons in outer shell Ionic Bond when an atom gives off or takes an electron from another positive or negative atom o This forms Compounds where 2 opposite charged attract each other Hydrogen Bonds bond multi atom molecules together There are 2 hydrogen atoms and are weaker than all other bonds o Creates a Positive and negative side of the molecule Sweet tastes depends on shape of molecules and how they fit together Cohesion connection of molecules through hydrogen bonds aows trees to suck water up the negative side and positive side of the H20 molecules allows for stickiness H ions is the acidity of water or the pH level OH ions has more of these ions and is considered a base Carbohydrates contain mostly carbon hydrogen and oxygen o Monosaccharide simple sugars 37 carbon items 0 Glucose fuel for cell activity stored temp as glycogen conversion to fats Complex Carbohydrates Polysaccharides contain more than one sugar unit or building block o Disaccharide 2 simple sugar s joined together o Complex carbohydrate more than 2 simple sugars joined together o Starch hundreds of glucose molecules joined together in line Cellulose and Chitin carbs that are not digestable by humans give plants their structure Lipids group of macromolecules made from carbon hydrogen and oxygen o Have more hydrogen molecules than carbs do in turn store much more energy with CH bonds o Are non polar and stay away from water NonPolar Molecules tend to be hydrophobic or water fearing Hydrophilic water loving and form bonds readily with water Fats o Glycerol the head region of the fat o Fatty Acids the tale regions of the fats o Triglycerides which are fats having three fatty acids linked ot the glycerol molecule Fats cont o Saturated fats each carbon atom in bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms that fat molecule carries the max hydrogen atoms and is saturated o Unsaturated fats some of the carbons are bound to only a single hydrogen o Trans Fats made via adding hydrogen to unsaturated fats creates unusual orientation of hydrogen atoms can raise cholesterol in the body Sterol also lipids that are used as hormones that regulate processes o Cholesterol testosterone estrogen Cholesterol component of most cell membranes Phospholipids part of cell membrane controls flow of things in and out o Similar to fats they have a phosphorus atom and 2 fatty acid chains though Waxes resemble fats but only have one long chain fatty acid linked to the glycerol head of the molecule This chain is very non polar and therefore waxes are hydrophobic Proteins chief building block of all life o Enzymes types of proteins that assist every chemical reaction that occurs o Contain same carbon hydrogen and oxygen as carbs and lipids but also contain nitrogen Amino acids there are 20 different kind depending how they are joined on a string depends on type of protein created o Center is carbon with four covalent bonds one bond attaches to carboxyl group wich is carbon bonded to two oxygen Second bond attaches central carbon atom to 1 hydrgon atom Third bond attaches carbon to an amino group which is nigtgoen antom bonded to three hydrogen atoms central carbon attached to hydrogen atom carboxyl group and amino group c There is a side chain involved as well that determines what kind of amino acid it is And if it non or polar o Our bodies can make certain amino acids but not all so we need to eat some Protein Formation linked together amino acids via peptide bonds o Peptide bond amino group where one amino acid is bonded to carboxyl group of another amino acid o Dipeptid 2 amino acids joined together o Polypeptid many acids joined together Primary structure sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain Tertiary Structure when proteins fold into unique three dimension shape Quaternary structure 2 or more polypeptide chains are held together by bonds between amino acids in diff chains Denaturation when proteins loose their shape such as frying egg whites Enzymes have an area that is an active site this is where substrates can attach and create a reaction Nucleic Acids macromolecules that store info and are made of units called nucleotides o Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA 0 2 strands of sugar molecules with bases sticking off 0 2 strands joined and twisting is call double helix 0 Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine o Ribonucleic acids RNA 0 Sugar strand has extra atom of oxygen 0 Single stranded not double like DNA 0 Has Adenine Guanine Cytosine and Uracil CH 3 Cells 10152011 91300 PM Cell smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all the necessary functions independently o All living orgs are made up of one or more cells o All cells arise from other pre existing cells o Cell theory is the above and believed to be true by a biologists Eukaryotic Cell has a nucleus which contains DNA Prokaryotic Cell does not have nucleus DNA resides just in the middle of the cell Parts of Prokaryotic Cell o Plasma membrane encompasses the cell and is called the cell membrane o Cytoplasm jelly like fluid that fills inside of cell c Ribosomes granular bodies where proteins are made many scattered throughout the cytoplasm Cell Walls that protect and give shape to cell Flagellum long thin whip like projection that rotates and propels the cell Pili thin hair like projections that help prokaryotes attach to surfaces Eukaryotic Cell Differences o Organelles special compartments with functioning parts inside them Plasma Membranes o Payer of lipid molecues packed together 0 Made of phospholipids have a head and 2 long tails head reagoin is known to be polar tails a non polar and have no electrical charge they keep water in and out phospholipid Bilayer Types of Protiens involved in Cells o Receptor bind chemicals in the cells external environment for example receptors for adrenaline in the heart cells o Recognition gives finger print for immune system to know what the body is o Transport allow large or strongly charge molecules to pass membrane Enzymatic accelerate chemical reactions on membrane surface Other stuff Short Branched carb chains attached to form cells fingerprint Cholesterol in the membrane that allows flexibility Passive Transport Diffusion solute particle is dissolved in a solvent and moves from high solute concentration to lower concentration 0 Molecules move down their concentration gradient Osmosis passive transport of water through membrane 0 Hypertonic more solutes outside cell then inside water moves outside the cell and cell shrinks o Hypotonic lower solute outside the cell water moves into the cell and cell grows o Isotonic solute amount is same in and outside the cell 0 Active Transport Must use energy to enter in and out of a cell Primary active transport use of ATP to move thing against their concentration gradient Secondary active transport transport proteins simultaneously moves one molecule against a concentration gradient while letting another flow down its concentration gradient EndoCytosis 3 types Cells engulf large particles with their plasma membrane phagocytosis process in which large particle are engulfed pinocytosis process of cells taking in dissolved particles and liquids Vesicles are smaller in this one rather than phago ReceptorMediated Endocytosis receptors on outside of cell sense something then the cell wraps around the molecule and takes it in Excoytois movement of molecules outside of the cell uses for communication often Tight Junction water tight seals around cells and hold them together as well Desmosomes spot like weld that fasten cells tofether into sheets allow fluid to pass through though Gap Junctions pores surrounded by special proteins that form open channels between cells Like passageways secret ones Plasmadesmata connect cells to one another and allow communication between them The Nucleus o Nuclear membrane surrounds the nucleus and seperates it from the cytoplasm consists of 2 bilayers one on top of the other o Chromatin mass of long thin fibers of DNA this is inside the Nucleus o Nucleolus are near center where subunit of ribosomes are assembled Cytoplasm o Cytoskeleton inner scaffolding 3 purposes shape movement controls traffic 0 Cilia short projections that beat to help movement on outside of a cell 0 Flagella longer than Cillia like a tail that helps cells move along sperm Mitochondria o In all cell plant and animal o Intermembrane space outside region o Matrix inside the plastic bag Lysosomes round membrane inclosed aid filled vesicles that function as a garbage disposal 50 diff digestive enzymes and high acid content Endoplasmic reticulum Endomembrane system spread around the cell with many compartments almost 1 fifth of the cell lipids are produced here Rough ER c0vered with ribosomes job is to fold and pakage proteins to be shipped elsewhere in the organism looks like sack of pancakes Smooth ER looks like branches synthesizes lipids like fatty acids also processes stimulants and other drugs in the body Golgi Apparatus farther from the nucleus processes molecules synthesized in the cell mostly proteins and lipids Site for carb synthisis Not connected to the ER is a flattened sack of membranes Plant Cell Structures Eukaryotic Cells Cell Wall Protects the cell form invaders Nearly 100 times ticher than a plasma membrane Helps with evaporation of water outside of the cell Central Vacuole large empty looking shape inside a plant cell takes up 50 to 90 of cell 0 Stores Nutrients 0 Waste Managemen pigments that give flowers colors 0 Predator Deterrence 0 Sex repro 0 Physical support pressure inside called turgor pressure allows stems and things to be rigid Chloroplast site of photosynthesis 4050 per cell Creates sun to energy and byproduct is oxygen Oval flatish objects 0 2 membranes like mitochondria inner one is called stroma o Thylakoids are little sacks inside the collect the light Ch 4 Energy 10152011 91300 PM Kinetic Energy the energy of moving objects Potential Energy stored energy with the capacity to do work that results form objects location or position o Chemical Energy form of potential energy strolled in bonds Thermodynamics changing potential energy to kinetic energy o First law of thermodynamics energy can never be created nor destroyed only changed form one form to another o Second law of thermodynamics When one form is changed to another there is always heat that is let off It is not totally efficient ever Adenosine triphosphate ATP temporary storage for energy inside all living things 3 components of ATP molecule o Center small sugar and attached to it a molecule called adenine o Attached to this is 3 neg charged phosphate molecules o Because there are 3 neg charged phosphates and they are held together there is a lot of unstable energy stored When they break of they release energy c When ATP breaks a phosphate off it then attaches to ADP to create another ATP molecule PhotoSynthesis o Input sun water carbon dioxide o Output oxygen sugar Light Energy o Photons energy packets of light that are organized into waves 0 Shorter wave length the more energy the wave carries o Electromagnetic spectrum the different types of waves lengths and energy levels o Pigments light absorbing molecules the ones in the eyes can differentiate and absorb many different wavelengths Different type of Plant Pigments o Chlorophyll a blue and violet and red waves o Chlorophyll b absorbes blue red orange 0 Carotenoids absorb blue violet and blue green waves Fates of heightened electron after wave absorption by photosynthesis o 1 Returns to rest energy is released transferred to nearby molecule 0 2 Excited electron itself is passed to another molecule one of the main ways energy moves through cells Photosynthesis in Detail 0 Light goes to the pigment molecule 0 Transferred to the chlorophyll molecule 0 Electron acceptor grabs them and sends to transport chain 0 To replace the sent electrons water molecules are split which releases oxygen and hydrogen SUMMARY OF quotPHOTOquot REACTION COMPONENTS NADPHFRODUCING 2nd ELECTRON o wusssnmmc m ammo m VS I EM Light energy is used to transfer electrons to the primary electron acceptor Electrons are donated by water releasing oxygen and hydrogen as b products Follow the electrons Figure 41 9 What Is LifeHl Guide to Biniogy e 2010wH Freeman and Company TRANSPORT CHAIN hydrogen ions into the thylakoid The 39 39 f um the release of these ions is used to build ATP PMO TOSVSTEM The NADPHproducing photosystem is identi cal to the water splitting photosystem are donated by the electron transport a Thylakoid TRANSPORT CHAIN Highenergy electrons are passed to NADP creating NADPH a high energy electron arrier AREA ENLARGED ABOVE C3 PHOTOSYNTHESIS C4 PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAM PHOTOSYNT Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide 9 l O CALVIN UPTAKE N39 ht Day CVCLE Stomata Day Sromata g gt v Carbon dioxide open slightly open CALVIN CYCLE Day ADVANTAGES ADVA NTAGES ADVANTAGES energy ef cient water loss is minimized water loss is minimiz in warm climatres in hot climatres DISADVANTAG ES water lost to evapora DISADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES tion in hot climates requires more energy requires more energy u slow growth Cellular Respiration Glycolosis splitting of sugar is first step and all organisms do it to break down food 0 Yields 2 pyruvates energy must be spend to get to this stage Krebs Cycle before this can happen pyruvats need to be transformed into acetylCoA Summary Glycolysis six carbon starting point glucose is turned into pyruvate Prep for Krebs two carbon atoms are released 2 pyruvate molecules are modified to enter the Krebs Cycle each lose a carbon atom in form of 2 molecules of carbon dioxcide Krebs Cycle last 4 carbons are realeased 4 go into Krebs in form of acetyl CoA For each turn of cycle 2 carbon dioxcide are set go Last 2 carbon are released into atmosphere in the last turn of the cycle THE MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN P39SL 39 5 I J from the carriers NADH and FADHZ to a series of molecules embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane called the electron transport chain At each step in the electron transport chain s sequence of handaffs the electrons fall to a lower energy state releasing a little bit of energy At the end of the chain the lowerenergy electrons are handed off to oxygen which then combines with free H ions to form water The energy is used to power proton pumps which pack hydrogen ions from the mito chondrial matrix into the intermembrane space The protons rush back into the mitochondrial matrix with great kinetic energy which can be used to build ATP Figure 433 Whatls Life7A Guide to Biology 2 2010 w H Freeman and Company ENERGY FROM FATS CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEINS Carbohydrates rotens 8 Glycolysis productlon Carbon compound V used in the Electron production of transport chain tissue or excreted as waste Figure 438 whurls Life7A Guide 0 Biology 201owHFreeman and Company Element a substance that cannot be broken down chemically into any other substance Atom a bit of matter that cannot be subdivided any further without losing essential properties Atomic number the number of protons found in the atom s nucleus Atomic mass combined mass of the atom s protons and neutrons Covalent bond Strongest the element shares atoms onic bond one element gives and the other receives Hydrogen bond negative 9 positive FFFiFFF Properties of water 0 Cohesion when water molecules evaporate it carries other molecules with it upwards Water gets from roots of trees to leaves 0 High heat capacity the sun heats water energy That energy is used for breaking and rebonding molecules breaking and rebuilding hydrogen bonds 0 Density as a solid hydrogen bonding makes the bonds farther apart at a solid making it less dense crystalline lattice 0 Good solvent when NaCl is put in water it is broken down into Na and Cl and they attach to either positive or negative hydrogen atoms THE pH SCALE 4 Acids fluids that have a greater proportion of H ions to OH ions 0 H ions are very reactive 0 Strong acids are corrosive to metals 0 Acids break down food in your digestive tract 0 Tastes sour 4amp Bases fluids that have a greater proportion of OH ions to H ions 0 OH ions bind with H ions neutralizing acids 0 Strong bases are caustic to your skin 0 Bases can be found in many household cleaners o Bases are general bitter in taste and soapy i 4 classes or compounds required for living organisms o Carbohydrates the primary fuel source for cellular mechanisms I Simple sugars are the most effective source of energy I Common monosaccharides o Glucose fructose Galactose I Disaccharides o Sucrose Lactose I Polysaccharides o Cellulose 0 Starch I More than 100 glucose molecules joined together I Barley wheat rye corn and rice I Glycogen llanimal starch o Lipids I Fats longterm energy storage and isulation I Sterols regulate growth and development I Phospholipids form the membranes that enclose the cell 0 Proteins 0 Nucleic acids Saturated fats each carbon in the hydrogen chain is bound to two hydrogen atoms Unsaturated fats at least one carbon in the hydrocarbon chain is bound to just one hydrogen HM Cholesterol 0 Important component of cell membranes in animals 0 Can attach to vessel walls and cause them to thicken which may lead to high blood pressure stroke and heart attack il Steroid hormones o Regulate sexual development maturation and sex cell production 0 Estrogen influences memory and mood o Testosterone stimulates muscle growth Phospholipids the major component of the cell membrane we Amino acids 0 20 different kinds 0 Strung together to make proteins PEPTIDE BONDS ll Primary structure the sequence of amino acids flu Secondary structure 0 Hydrogen bonding between amino acids 0 The two most common patterns I Corkscrew twist I Zigzag folding 4 Tertiary structure 0 Folding and bending of the secondary structure 0 Due to bonds such as hydrogen bonds or covalent sulfursulfur bonds 1 Quaternary Structure 0 When 2 or more polypeptide chains are held together by bonds between the amino acids on the different chains 4L Enzymes proteins that initiate and speed up chemical reactions break things down separate by fitting the into llpuzzle pieces 0 llmisspelled proteins are broken puzzle pieces and that makes it so that the compounds can t be broken down i 4 Nucleic acids macromolecules that store information 0 DNA 0 RNA DNA holds the genetic information to build an organism o The information in a molecule of DNA is determined by its sequence of bases I Adenine Thymine amp Guanine Cytosine RNA STRUCTURE all There are three important structural differences between RNA and DNA 0 1 The sugar molecule in the backbone contains an extra oxygen 0 2 RNA has only one sugarphosphate backbone while DNA has two 0 3 Instead of thymine RNA has a similar base called uracil RNA FUNCTION El CELLS C F RNA acts as a middleman molecule It takes instructions for production of a protein from DNA move them to another part of the cell and directs the building of a protein Cell the smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all of the necessary functions of life including reproducing itself 0 Robert Hooke a British scientist mid 1600s 0 3D structure like a fluid filled balloon 0 Nearly all contain DNA Cell theory 0 1 All living organisms are made up of one or more cells 0 2 All cells arise from other preexisting cells Eukaryotic cell complex 0 Has central control structure called nucleus which contains the cell s DNA Prokaryotic cell simple but many types 0 Does not have nucleus its DNA simply resides in the middle of the cell 4 Structures in all prokaryotes o 1 Plasma membrane enclosed contents DNA ribosomes and cytoplasm o 2 Cytoplasm jellylike fluid inside cell 0 3 Ribosomes granular bodies in the cytoplasm that convert genetic information into protein structure 0 4 DNA one or more circular loops containing genetic information Additional Structures 0 Cell wall protects and gives shape to the cell 0 Pili hairlike projections that help cells attach to other surfaces 0 Flagellum whiplike projections that aids in cellular movement ll Endosymbiosis Theory developed to explain the presence of two organelles in eukaryotes chloroplasts in plant algae and mitochondria in plant and animal cells 4amp Plasma membrane quotgatekeepersquot of the cell 0 Holds contents of cell in place Takes in food and nutrients O o Builds and exports molecules 0 Absorbs and dissipates heat A 4 primary types of membrane proteins 0 1 Receptor proteins binds to external chemicals in order to regulate processes within the cell 0 2 Recognition proteins provide a quotfingerprintquot for the cell so it can be recognized by other cells 0 3 Transport proteins provide a passageway for molecules to travel into and out of the cell 0 4 Enzymatic proteins and reactions on the plasma membrane 4L In addition 2 other molecules are found in plasma membrane 0 Short branched carbohydrate chains 0 Cholesterol 1 HIV Transmission 0 Cannot be transmitted through casual contact the virus cannot bind to skin cells because they do not have DC4 markers 2 Types of active transport 0 1 Osmosis the passive diffusion of water across a membrane 0 2 Diffusion food coloring into water I Simple diffusion molecules pass directly through the plasma membrane without the assistance of another molecule Facilitated diffusion molecules move across the plasma membrane with the help of a carrier molecule 4 Tonicity the relative concentration of solutes outside of the cell relative to inside the cell 0 Hypertonic solution I Solute concentrations are higher in the extracellular fluid I Water diffuses out of cells 0 Hypotonic solution I Solute concentrations are lower in the extracellular fluid I Water diffuses into cells 0 Isotonic solution I Solute concentrations are balanced I Water movement is balanced i Active transport cells use energy to move small molecules 0 Primary uses energy directly from ATP I Massive amounts of H getting pumped in your stomach to digest food 0 Secondary I An indirect method many transporter proteins use for feuling their activities I No ATP is used directly 4amp Endocytosis and Exocytosis are used for bulk transportation 4amp 3 Types of Endocytosis o 1 Phagocytosis a type of endocytosis by which cells engulf large particles 0 2 Pinocytosis the process of cells taking in dissolved particles and liquid 0 3 Receptor mediated endocytosis is Faulty cell membranes are a primary cause of cardiovascular disease 4 Exocytosis the method by which cells export products for use in another location 0 1 Molecules are packaged in a vesicle within the cell 0 2 The vesicle fuses with the cell s plasma membrane 0 3 Vesicle contents are released for use throughout the body 4 3 Primary connections between animal cells 0 1 Tightjunctions form watertight seal between cells Important in small intestines o 2 Desmosomes act like Velcro and fasten cells together Not watertight o 3 Gap junctions act like secret passageways and allow materials to pass between cells Important for celltocell communication 5L Plasmodesmata tubelike channels connecting the cells to each other and enabling communication and transport between them ENERGY flu 2 Key processes of getting energy 0 Photosynthesis plants capture energy from the sun and store it in the chemical bonds of sugars and other food molecules 0 Cellular respiration plants animals and fungi release the energy stored in the chemical bonds of food molecules and use it as feul 4 What is energy 0 The capacity to do work I Work moving matter against an opposing force 0 Kinetic energy of moving objects 0 Potential a capacity to do work that results from the location or position of an object 0 Chemical FOOD 4L Thermodynamics the study of transformation of energy from one type to another 0 First Law of Thermodynamics I Energy can never be created or destroyed I It can only change from one form to another 0 Second Law I Every conversion of energy includes the transformation of some energy into heat I Heat is almost completely useless to living organisms 4 How do cells directly fuel their chemical reactions 0 m of the light energy 0 First it must be captured in the bonds of a molecule called adenosine triphosphate ATP 4amp ATP Molecules 0 Cells cannot use light energy directly to do work 0 First the energy has to be converted into chemical energy in ATP molecules 0 Pop off the third phosphate group I ATP 9 ADP Phosphate group energy release 0 Release a little burst of energy 0 Use this energy to drive chemical reactions necessary for cellular functioning I Building muscle tissue I Repairing a wound I Growing roots PHOTOSYNTHESIS ilk Takes place in chloroplasts o Thylakoid location of quotphotoquot reaction where light energy is converted into chemical energy 0 Stroma location of quotsynthesisquot reaction where chemical energy is synthesized into sugar ll Light energy 0 A type of kinetic energy 0 Made up of little energy packets called photons 0 Different photons carry different amounts of energy carried as waves 0 Length of the wave amount of energy photon contains L Electromagnetic Spectrum 0 Range of energy that is organized into waves of different lengths o Shorter the wavelength the higher the energy 5E Visible Spectrum 0 Range of energy humans see as light 0 ROY G EN 0 Pigments molecules that absorb light 0 Chlorophyll plant pigment o Absorbs certain wavelengths of energy photons from the sun 0 Absorbed energy excites electrons 1 Plant pigments 0 Plant pigments can only absorb specific wavelengths of energy 0 Therefore plants produce server types of pigments o Chlorophyll a o Chlorophyll b o Carotenoids 9L Photons cause electrons in chlorophyll to enter an excited state Electrons excitation 0 Conversion of electromagnetic energy into chemical energy of bonds between atoms 0 Photons of specific wavelengths bump electrons up a quantum level into an excited state El 2 Potential fates of excited electrons o 1 Electron returns to resting unexcited state 0 2 Excited electrons are passed to other atoms 4 The quotphotoquot Part 0 Sunlight 0 ATP 0 A highenergy electron carrier THE PHOTOSYSTEM 4 Watersplitting o 1 Light energy excited electrons in a chlorophyll molecule The energy from the excited electrons is transferred to nearby chlorophyll molecules 0 2 When transferred energy excited electrons in the chlorophyll a molecule the primary electrons acceptor grabs them and sends them to the electron transport chain 0 3 To replace electrons set to the electron transport chain water molecules are split and oxygen and hydrogen are released as byproducts flu The ElectronTransport Chain 0 1 Electrons move through the electron transport chai releasing a little energy and falling to a lower energy sate o 2 The released energy powers proton pumps that move hydrogen ions from the stroma and pack them inside the thylakoid o 3 Protons rush out of the thylakoid with great kinetic energy which can be used to build ATP 5E NADPH producing photosystem o Identical to the watersplitting photosystem except that electrons are donated by the electron transport chain 9 2quotd Electron Transport Chain 0 Highenergy electrons are passed to NADP creating ADPH a highenergy electron carrier PRODUCTS FROM THE quotPHOTOquot PORTION a ATP NADPH i llSYNTHESIS THE CALVIN CYCLE 0 Series of chemical reactions 0 Occurs in stroma o Enzymes are recycled 9 The Calvin Cycle 0 1 Fixation the enzymes rubisco plucks carbon atoms from C02 molecules in the air The carbon atoms are attached to an organic molecule 0 2 Sugar creation the organic molecule is modified into a small sugar called GSP using energy from ATP and NADPH Some molecules of GSP are combined to form sixcarbon sugars such as glucose or fructose o 3 Regeneration the remaining GSP molecules are used to regenerate the original organic molecule with energy from ATP Stomata pores for gas exchange How to get CO2 when stomata are shut C4 Photosynthesis 0 C4 plants produce ultimate llCO2 sticky tape enzyme 1 0 C4 synthesis adds an extra set of steps 5E CAM Photosynthesis 0 Close stomata during hot dry days 0 At night stoma open CO2 let in and temporarily bound to a holding molecule 0 During day CO2 gradually released and used while stomata are closed 5L Cellular respiration converts food molecules into ATP a universal source of energy for living organisms 1 ATP molecules 0 Cellular currency 0 Currency exchange this time from food molecules into ATP by cellular respiration I Threestep process I Biggest ATP quotpayoffquot 90 occurs during the electrontransport chain are Cellular Resipiration o Requires lfuel and 2 oxygen 0 Potential energy stored in chemical bonds of sugar protein and fat molecules 0 Break bonds to release the highenergy electrons captured in ATP 0 Oxygen is electron magnet 4L A human example Eat food Digest food Absorb nutrient molecules into bloodstream Deliver nutrient molecules to the cells 0000 At this point our cells can begin to extract some of the energy I Stored in the bonds of the food molecules The First Step of cellular respiration is Mn i Glycosis the universal energyreleasing pathway 0 Three of the ten steps yield energy Quickly harnessed to make ATP 0 Highenergy electrons are transferred to NADH 4 Net result 0 Each glucose molecule broken down into two molecules of pyruvate 0 ATP molecules produced 0 NADH molecules store highenergy electrons 2quotd step Krebs Cycle Krebs Cycle extracts energy from sugar FFF The prepatory phase to the Krebs Cycle AcetylCoA produced 0 1 Each pyruvate molecule passes a highenergy electron to NAD creating NADH o 2 A carbon and two oxygen atos are released as carbon dioxide 0 Coenzyme A attaches itself to the remaining molecule creating acetylCoA The Krebs Cycle 0 1 A new molecule is formed I An acetylCoA molecule from glycosis enters the cycle and binds to oxaloacetate creating a sixcarbon molecule 0 2 Highenergy electron carriers NADH are made and carbon dioxide is exhaled I The sixcarbon molecule donates electrons to NAD creating NADH Two carbon dioxide molecules are released into the atmosphere 0 3 Oxaloacetate is reformed ATP energy is generated and more highenergy electron carriers are formed I The remaining fourcarbon molecule is rearranged to form oxaloacetate in the process ATP is formed and electrons are passed to NADH and FADH2 3rd step ATP is built in the electron transport chain 3 Mitochondria o 2 key features of mitochondria are essential to their ability to harness energy from molecules I Feature 1 mitochondrial quotbagwithinabagquot structure Inside the mitochondrion material can lie in one of two places 0 Intermembrane space 0 Mitochondrial matrix I Feature 2 electron carriers organized with the inner quotbagquot 0 These molecules created an electron transport chain that enables ATP production 4amp DNA Molecules contain instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms it 2 important features 0 Contains instructions on how to create a body and control its growth and development 0 The instructions encoded in the DNA molecules are passed down from parent to offspring HM whatka in TRANSC 4 F DoubleHelix 0 Nucleic acid 0 Nucleotides 0 Sugars phosphate bases 0 Base pairs ATCandG Genome an organism s complete set of DNA 0 In eukaryotes information can be foud in the nucleus Chromosomes 0 One or more unique pieces of DNA 0 Circular in prokaryotes linear in eukaryotes 0 Make up organism s genomes Gene a specific sequence of DNA 0 On average 3000 bases long 0 Contains information necessary to produce all or part of a protein molecule Alleles alternate versions of a gene that code for the same trait Not all DNA contains instructions for making proteins ntrons noncoding regions of DNA 0 May take form of short or long sequences that are repeated thousands of times 0 May also consist of gene fragments duplicate versions of genes and pseudogenes Genotype all of the genes contained in an organism Phenotype the physical manifestation of the instructions How genes work Transcription the sequence for a gene is copied form DNA to a middlemolecule called mRNA Translation the sequence for a gene now encoded in mRNA is used to direct the production of a protein Example Grandma s cookbook 9 copying cookie recipe to index card 9 index card with recipe 9 combining the baking ingredients 9 chocolate chip cookies RIPTION Recognize and bind 0 Once RNA polymerase recognizes a promoter site it binds to one strand of the DNA and begins reading the gene s message Transcribe 0 As the DNA strand is processed through the RNA polymerase the RNA polymerase builds a singlestrand cop of the gene called the mRNA transcript Terminated 0 When the RNA polymerase encounters a code signaling the end of the gene it stops transcription and releases the mRNA transcript i Capping and Editing 0 Before the mRNA transcript can be translated into a protein a cap and tail are often added for protection and to promote recognition and noncoding sections are removed 4 Transfer RNA tRNA translate the mRNA code linking specific bases on the mRNA with specific amino acids that will be used to build a protein The ingredients that must be present in cytoplasm for translation to occur are 0 Free amino acides o Ribosomal unit 0 tRNA TRANSLATION 1 Recognize and Initiate Protein Building 0 The llstart sequence of the mRNA transcript signified by the bases A U and G is recognized by a corresponding tRNA molecule and the two ribosomal subunits The attachment side of the tRNA molecule binds to the mRNA as the ribosomal subunits assemble around them i 2 Elongate 0 As the ribosome moves along the strand of mRNA each new aminoacidcarrying tRNA molecule binds to the next three bases of the mRNA transcript After the ribosome attaches the growing protein chain to the new amino acid the tRNA molecule detaches from the mRNA and floats away 4i 3 Terminate 0 Once the ribosome encounters the threebase llstop sequence protein assembly is complete Translation ends and both the protein and the mRNA molecule are released from the ribosome 4L Mutation alteration of the sequence of DNA 0 Can lead to changes in the structure and function of the proteins produces 0 Can have a range of effects it Types of mutations 0 Point mutations I Basepairsubstitution I Basepair insertion I Basepair deletion o Chromosomalaberrations I Gene deletion I Gene relocation I Gene duplication i From mutation to illness 0 1 A mutated gene codes for a nonfunctioning protein commonly and enzyme 0 2 The nonfunctioning enzyme can t catalyze the reaction as it normally would 0 3 The molecules it would have reacted with accumulates o 4 The accumulating chemical causes sickness or death k Biotech helps humans by 0 Producing medicines to treat diseases 0 Curing diseases 0 Preventing diseases from occurring 5 Steps of biotechnology o 1 Chop up the DNA from a donor species that exhibits the trait of interest 0 2 Amplify the small amount of DNA into more useful quantities o 3 M the different DNA pieces into bacterial cells 0 4 Grow separate bacterial colonies each containing a different inserted piece of donor DNA 0 5 Identify the bacterial colonies that have received the DNA containing the gene of interest it Achievements following the development of insulinproducing bacteria 0 Human growth hormone o Erythropoietin Stem Cells cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body it Gene therapy difficulties 0 Difficulty getting the working gene into the specific cells where it is needed 0 Difficulty getting the working gene into enough cells and at the right rate to have a physiological effect 0 Problems with the transfer organism getting into the unintended cells i Fears and risks of eating genetically modified foods 0 Organisms that we want to kill may become invinsible o Oranisms that wedon t want to kill may be killed inadvertently o Genetically modified crops are not tested or regulated adequately 0 Eating genetically modified foods is dangerous 0 Loss of genetic diversity among crop plants is risky 0 Hidden costs may reduce the financial advantages of genetically modified crops 4 Creating DNA fingerprints by using VNTRsWk4 L3 ll Telomeres a protective cap at the end of the DNA 0 Everytime a cell divides the telomere gets a bit shorter Eventually it will get too small and die it Prokaryotes divide by binary fission EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE 4L 1 Gap 1 o The cell s primary growth phase Normal cellular functions making proteins getting rid of wastes etc take place i 2 DNA Synthesis 0 The cell begins preparations for division Every chromosome creates an exact duplicate of itself in a process called replication ll 3 Gap 2 0 Second period of growth and preparation for cell division 4 Mitosis o The cell s nucleus duplicates the divides 4amp 5 Cytokinesis o The cell then duplicates forming 2 separate cells El Replication the process of DNA replication 0 Every quotAquot pairs with quotTquot 0 Every quotGquot pairs with quotCquot DNA REPLICATION 1 Unwinding o The coiled double stranded DNA molecule unwinds and separates into 2 strands i 2 Rebuilding 0 Each of the sing strands becomes a doublestrand again as an enzyme connects the appropriate complementary base to the exposed base ilk Apoptosis the preplanned process of cell suicide 0 Certain cells are targeted for apoptosis MITOSIS IL 1 Prophase 0 Nuclear membrane breaks down 0 Sister chromatids replicated chromosomes condense o Spindle forms l 2 Metaphase 0 Sister chromatids line up at the center of the cell 3 Anaphase o The sister chromatid pairs are pulled apart by the spindle fibers One full set of chromosomes goes to one side of the cell and another identical set goes to the other 4 4 Telophase o The chromosomes begin to uncoil ad the nuclear membrane is reassembled around them ll Cytokinesis cytoplasm and organelles duplicate and are divided into two approximately equal parts The cell splits in two 4amp Unrestrained cell growth and division 0 Can lead to tumors 0 Second leading cause of death in US 0 Tumor growth i Cancer cells vs Normal cells 0 No contact inhibition caner o The wild out crazy and multiply MEIOSIS 3 Important features o It reduces the amount of genetic material in gametes o It produces gametes that all different from each other with respect to the combinations of alleles they carry Homologues maternal and paternal copies of a chromosome FF Sister chromatid chromosome and its identical duplicated version help together at a centromere F 2 major parts to meiosis o 1 The homologues are separated o 2 Each of the two new cells divides again separating the sister chromatids into to even newer cells i 1 Prophasel o Replicated chromosomes condense o Spindle is formed 0 Homologous pairs of sister chromatids come together and cross over 0 Nuclear membrane disintegrates 2 Metaphasel o Homologues move toward the center of the cell and line up 4i 3 Anaphase 0 Beginning of the first cell division that occurs during meiosis F o The homologues are pulled apart toward opposite sides of the cell 0 The maternal and paternal sister chromatids are pulled to the ends of the cell in a RANDOM FASHION 4L 4 Telophase and Cytokinesis o This phase is marked by the chromosomes arriving at the two poles of the cell 0 The cytoplasm the divides and the cell membrane pinches the cell into two daughter cells 5E 5 Prophase II o The genetic material once again coils tightly making the chromatids visible under the microscope 6 Metaphase II o The sister chromatids each appearing as an X move to the center of the cell i 7 Anaphase II o The fibers attached to the centromere begin pulling each chromatid in the sister C chromatid pair toward opposite ends of each daughter cell F PP 8Teophase II o The cytoplasm then divides the cell membrane pinches the cell into two new daugheter cells and the process comes to a close Outcome of meiosis o The creation of four haploid daughter cells each with just one set of chromosomes which contains a completely unique combination of traits Sexual reproduction advantages 0 Crossing over in the production of gametes o Shuffling and reassortment of homologues during meiosis o Combining alleles from two parents at fertilization Sex is determined 0 Through meiosis each egg gets two X chromosomes in females and one X and one Y in males Karyotype o A display of an individual s complete set of chromosomes Chorionic Villus Sampling CVS 0 Tissue is removed from the placenta o Woks because the placenta and fetus comes from the same fertilized egg Nondisjunction o The unequal distribution of chromosomes during meiosis 0 Error of cell division that creates a gamete with zero or two copies of a chromosome rather than a single copy Heredity o The passing of characteristics from parent to offspring through their genes Menels Law of Segregation 0 Only one of the two alleles for a gene is put into a gamete At fertilization offspring receive from each parent one allele for each gene Phenotype the outward appearance of an individual Genotype an organism s genetic composition 0 Homozygous dominant o Heteryzygous Pedigree a type of family tree Incomplete dominance o Occurs when a heterozygote exhibits an intermediate phenotype between the two homozygotes Codominance o The heterozygote displays characteristic of both homozygotes Multiple allelism o A single gene has more than two alleles 0 Each individual carries only two alleles 0 Individuals can be 4 different blood types A B AB or O Fame 4 Antigens Chemicals on the surface of some cells They act as signposts that tell the immune system weather the cell belongs to the body Antibodies immune system molecules that attack cells with foreign antigens Polygenic trait a trait that is influenced by many different genes The The Sexdetermining Region on the Y chromosome 0 Causes fetal gonads to develop as testes shortly after fertilization 0 Following the gonads secretion of testosterone other developmental changes also occur Linked Genes Ex Red hair freckles pale skin Homeostasis maintenance of relatively consistent internal chemical and physical environment in the face of constantly changing environmental factors THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM i L Circulatory system the chief route of distribution in animals Function of the circulatory system Transport 0 The circulatory system transports oxygen nutrients waste products immune system cells and hormones in the blood throughout the body Temperature regulation 0 Helps to maintain body temperature within the optimum range for metabolic functioning Protection 0 Contains a variety of cells and chemicals that contribute to the individuals defenses against infection by pathogens Thin animals such as jellyfish do not need a circulatory system They diffuse Open circulatory system 0 No clear distinction between the circulating fluid and interstitial fluid 0 Hearts pump the fluid mixture called hemolymph


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