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by: Mrs. Kellen Barrows

AppliedBiologicalDiversity,Ecology&Evolution BIO101

Marketplace > Drexel University > Biotechnology > BIO101 > AppliedBiologicalDiversity Ecology Evolution
Mrs. Kellen Barrows
GPA 3.53


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This 56 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kellen Barrows on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO101 at Drexel University taught by MeshagaeHunte-Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see /class/212326/bio101-drexel-university in Biotechnology at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
B10 101 midterm study guide Species are the basic units of biodiversity Biological species based on sexual reproduction and has fertile offspring 0 Must be able to interbreed o Bacteria and fossils are not biological species bc they do not interbreed A liger is not a true biological species b c cross breeding would not happen in natural environment Zygoti when sperm fertilizes the egg Prezygoti sperm cannot fertilize postzygoti barriers to uterus so sperm cannot enter Hybrids cannot get mules from mules must breed horse and donkey Sympatric speciation Agents of Evolutionary Change 1 Mutation a direct change in the DNA of an individualiis the ultimate source of all genetic variation An alteration of the basepair sequence of an individual s DNA When this alteration occurs in a gene the change in the DNA sequence may change the allele 2 Genetic drift is a random change in allele frequencies in a population The important factor that distinguishes genetic drift from natural selection The change in allele frequencies is not related to the alleles in uence on reproductive success The impact of genetic drift is much greater in small populations than in large populations 3 Migration also called gene flow is the movement of some individuals of a species from one population to another 4 Natural selection Mutation The origin of all genetic variation Genetic drifts will have the greatest effects for populations Best measure of an organism s fitness is the number of fertile offspring it produces Disruptive selection 7 most likely to lead to the formation of a new species Cocci spherical bacteria 1 Whichcam first chicken or egg egg cos amniotic egg evolve after first bird 2 Two important feature distinguish mammal hair and mammary gland 3 all animals heterotrophic cant make their own food mono 4 which insect have highest species diversity bettle 5 which animal does not belong in class arachnida crayfish 6 phylum Platyhefimithes are commonly known as flatworm 7 which best describe the body plan of modern sponges an aggregation of cells built around a water canal system 8 which terms includes all of the others in the list Angiosperm Seed plant Gymnosperm Fem Vascular plant 9 Early seed plants were pollinated by Butterfly Bees Wind Burds Turtles 10 Which following is characteristic of gymnosperms Wind pollinated More diverse than angiosperm Water pollinated Gametophyte generation are dominant All of correct 11 which the stam of flowering plant are broken down into two separate time long stalk like structure is the on the flips are the Filament Anthers 12 gymnosperm and angiosperm have the following in comment except Seed Ovules Vascular tissue Ovaries pollen And the pollen producing bodies 13 the receptive surface for pollen grains is the Anther mma Hamnent we OvMe 14 the main bulk of a multicellular fungus is called the HuhMgbody Mycellum Spore Hyphae ThaHus 15 the cell wall of fungi is made of Mycorrhizae UgMn Ch m Cellulose Hyphae Nesbitt 125 Kingdom Animals 3 characteristics eat other organism heterotrophic cant create their own food moving at some stage of life muticeuar Vertebrates Invertebrates Deuterostomes Protostomes Radically No 1st opening form gtgt mouth 151 opening form gtgt Anal Symmetrical issuesorg an Chordates Enchinoder Arthropod Round Molluscs Annelids Flatworm Cnidarians sponge ms worm Division tunicates lancelet Vertebr Insect Gastropods Segmented Jellyfish ates arachnids Bivalve worms Sea crustaceans Molluscs flatworms anemones millipedes roundwor Corals centipedes Cephalopods ms Characteristic 4 Radial External 2 types of Lack s Notochord backbone symmetry skeleton and bodies tissues locomotion in adults metaphosis sessile polyp and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord Bilateral freefloating organs nerve Symmetry medusa an Pharyngeal split in larvae Reproduce aggregati breathefeed Closest sexually and on of cells post anal tail relative of asexually built chordate Carnivores around a that use water cnidocysts canal stinging system cells Diversity Vertebrates Lampreys cartilaginous fish cartilage skeleton 880 species sharks ray rayfinned fish rigid bones hardened ray fin all kinds of normal fish lobefinned fish 2 sturdy fin underside Terrestrial Vertebrates tetrapod amphibians reptiles amp birds mammals Amphibians eg frogs Nonamniotic eggs Larvae water metaphosis Adult land animals live close to water Arachnids land scorpion mite tick spider 4 pairs oflegs on thorax usually predator Amniotic Vertebrates reptiles and birds mammals eg turtles snakes lizard crocodile birds mammals Reptiles and Birds Reptiles exothermic skin cover by scales Birds endothermic feather and fly gtgt cellular respiratory heat skin cover by feather Crustacean Most aquatic Lobsters crayfish crabs and shrimps five pairs of appendages extending from their heads Many pairs of legs Gastropods Polychaete 5A of Marine mollusc worms belly food llMany eg snails bristles slugs Some are burrowing Some are tube dwelling Bivalve Earthworm Molluscs llFew Clams bristles scallops Bulk oysters and feeders mussels a pair of shells that clamp together filter feeder Leeches Saliva of blood sucking leeches contains anticoagul ant substance Mammals 2 distinct hair and mild produce mammary gland Endothermic Longer legs gt more mobile gtgt more respiratory heat Hair to trap Millipede Segmented bodies Feed on decaying plant materials heat Monotr lViviparousviviparit eme lay y giving birth egg Monotr Marsupial Placen emes tal Mam mal No pouch to nipples carry placen babies till ta gt species full nutrie develop nt amp oxyge n to embry o in uterus Centipede Segmented bodies Predator kill insect and small mammal by venom fang Cephalopods squid octopus nautiluses Evolution From water to land Respiration swim bladder ray fin fish gtgtungs Gravity vertebrategtgta rigid backbone limbs gtgt four legs Egg drying Amniotic egg water proof eggshell 1 Three groups of plants known as bryophytes still use diffusion to move substances rather than having any sort of circulatory system They are the liverworts hornworts and mosses 2 Seed plants have a life stage that produces haploid gametes sperm and egg Botanists call this haploid form the gametophyte Pollen grains and ovules are the male and female gametophytes of seed plants A haploid female gamete egg forms inside the ovule Nl mU39lbW Pencilin vaccine isolated from fungus on a plate of bacteria is Coevolution Life dinner hypothesis If u are predator gtgt dinner if you prey gtgt life gt more pressure on prey than predator cos life is more than dinner gt prey always evolve more than predator and prey wont extinct Mutualism example protists and gut of terminte ecoli in human testine help us abosord vitamin K Ozone blocks UVB radiation and is caused by release of CFCs into the atmosphere Globalization warming linked to deforestation by tree that remove C02 from the air are now cut down and burned releasing C02 Which not properly match tissue with function shoots and anchors plant to ground absorbd water and minera from soil meristem houses division of cells which causes the root to grow vascular tissue conduct water and dissolved minerals dermal tisseabsord water and mediates gas exchange A germinating corn kenrel produces a seedling with one cotyledon germinating tomato seed produces seed with 2 cotyledons corn plant is a monocot and tomato is dicot Cot embryonic leaf The female part of flower stigma ovule Which floral organ is represented by the letter g style FLOWER STRUCTURE CARPEL sTAMEN Female reproductive structure Male reproductive structure STIGMA 39 r ANTHER Sticky landing site for pollen 39 39 V S YLE Supportive stalk VARY Site of pollen grain Supportive stalk Enclosed chamber containing the ovules Leaflike structures found PETALS Leaflike structures often brightly colored that help attract pollinators to the ower at the point where the ower is connected to the plant that surround and protect the ower bud during its development Figure 1 88 Whurls Lie7A Guide 7 Biology o 201 l w H Freeman and company 10 The common term for the action of transferring pollen grains from the anther onto a stigma is Reproduction Pollination 10 H H H H 4 H Fertilization Intercourse None of the above is correct The growth resposnse of a young plant to the pull of gravity is known as Photoperiodism period of lightdark Gravitropism quottrophismquot mean growth Graviperiodism Thigmotropism how plant grow in response to connect with an object Graviposition Heal trophism how plant grow in response to sun n day neutral plants Flower production is trigger by Longer period of daylight By the state of mature day NEUTRAL mean its ok how long the day is LONG DAY PLANT means longer daylight Shorter period of daylight Shorter period of darkness Longer period of darkness Flower leaves the fold up in response to touch are most likely exhibiting Mimicry Chemical defense Mutualism with defensive insect Mechanical defense camouflage Which is NOT a plant defense mechanism Mimicry butterfly don t want to lay eggs anymore Sticky sap sticky liquid immobilize insect Toxin secretion toxic take advantage on medication Increased nitrogen concentrations make it more attractive for food cos its more protein like soybean used to make tofu thorns Ecology is best defined The study of relationship between all living organism and environment 11 The study of aquatic organisms The study of relationship between parasites and host The study of plant success The study between predator and prey populations 16 In the graph curve A is the and curve B OGISTIC GROWTH is A exponential growth B logistic grOWth llne ca rry ca paelty Logistic growth describes population growth that is gra ually reduced as the population nears t environment s carrying capacity Exponential growl ll 5 cnnnvmc cArAcrrv E 2 g y a Logistic L a growth Time Figule 16 wmntil nzoinmi 17 When the harzard factor is low individual tend to reproduce Less often Later in life Only during particular seasons Earlier in life be quick to pass ur gene before die More often 18 N O N A population pyramid get wider in shape with higher age groups represents while nearly parallel represents Declining growth stationary growth Increasing growth stationary growth The primary reason for differences in climate in different parts of the earth is The earth is saped like a pear and not a sphere Different places receive different amounts of solar energy Every place on earth receives the same total hours of sunlight Different places have different thickness of the atmosphere Different palces receive different amount of thermal energy Thermal energy is more than solar energy Which of following nutrient cycles has the smallest atmosphere component chapt 15 Carbon cycle in air carbon dioxide Phosphorus cycle in soil Nitrogen cycle in air nitrogen gas Water cycle in air water vapor Oxygen cycle in air oxygen Roughly how much energy in trophic level is available to next trophic level 10 Fundamental niche is Climatic conditions required for the organism to survive and reproduce Area that an organism occupies immediately after birth Area in which the organism reproduces Range of environment condition under which organism can survive full range gtgt real range realized range Physical space that organism occupies Commensal relationship One species provides nutrient cellulose for other Neith species benefit One bene t while the other neither benefit nor is harm N 4 N U39I 26 Neither benefit or harm More two species are involved A habitat with disturbance is expected to have the greatest species richness An Intermediate amount of Very little stronger species kill other gtgt diversity low A great deal when have disturbance gtgt reset the clock diversity low Unpredictable predicable BY furmigrating several of island in the dlorida Keys wit methyl bromide scientist demonstrate that Insect are better colonized Rate of immigration and new species and extinction ofspecies on an island is a function of island size and distance from the mainland Species chances of going extinct are increased when its geographic range is its local population size is and habitat toilarance is Extensive large narrow Extensive small narrow Restricted small broad Restricted vulnerable smallgtgtvunerab narrow vulnerable 27 a gene pool consist of the total of all alleles present in a population natural selection can act only on traits that are heritable which of the following is the best way to distinguish male from female males produce motile gametes in a polygynous mating system multiple females tend to mate with the same mae gyn female the energy that a parent puts into the growth feeding and care of offspring is called reproductive investment prokaryotes are classi ed into 2 domains in one sense microevolution is process and macroevolution is result NP MP P N 14 8 speciation without geographic isolation is called sympatric speciation 9 viruses are most closely related in that they share a common ancestor to which domain of life viruses are not considered to be part of the tree of life 10 viral DNA is replicated by using the host s metabolic machinery and energy 11 why is amniotic egg 39 39 environment 12 two important features that distinguish mammals from any other type of animal are hair and mammary glands 13 all animals heterotrophic cant make their own foodgtlt autotrophic plant and share a common ancestor 14 which of these does not belong in class Archnida crayfish 15 the phylum platyhelminthes are commonly known as flatworm 16 which of the following terms include all of the others in the list angiosperm flowering plant seed plant gymnosperm fern vascular plant 17 which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperm they are wind pollinated 18 the stamens of a flowring plants are broken down into two separate parts the longstalk like structure is filament the pollen producing is anther 19 the receptive surface for pollen grains is the stigma 20 the main bulk of a multicellular fungus is called the mycelium while the is the hyphae 39 a key 39 y 39 39 It greatly increases the survival probabilities of eggs in a terrestrial Chapter 10 According to the biological species concept species are natural populations of organisms that have the potential to interbreed and are isolated from other such populations Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer 1 behaviorally 2 prezygotically 3 postzygotically 39l 4 geographically 0 This allows for individuals to be physically apart but it does not mean that they are reproductively unable to mate Section 103 5 reproductively a Score 0 The difference between microevolution and macroevolution is that E 1 they take place on different time scales E 2 macroevolution occurs with physical structures whereas microevolution occurs with physiological traits E 3 microevolution involves changes to individuals within a population whereas macroevolution involves changes 16 to all of the individuals within a population E 4 microevolution has been proven whereas macroevolution is very speculative C 5 microevolution occurs in prokaryotes whereas macroevolution takes place among eukaryotes Prokaryotes are classi ed into domains Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer 1 1 EU 2 2 100 a CORRECT Prokaryotes are classi ed into bacteria and archaea Section 1014 3 3 4 4 5 5 Score 100 Which of the following groups would be placed nearest the fungi in an evolutionary tree based on DNA sequences Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer 1 plants 2 bacteria 3 animals M 4 archaea El 5 rotists 0 Protists and Fun i are not P g monophyletic Section 1017 18 Which of the following is NOT a prezygotic barrier to interbreeding between different species E 1 Two species live in areas so far from each other that they never meet C 2 Two species have sufficient physical differences that cause them to be unable to mate E 3 Two species have different courtship rituals E 4 Hybrids between the two species are infertile Prezygotic physical differences that prevent two species from matting Postzygotic barrier mating produce hybirds that unable to to reproduce or don t live long E 5 Biochemical factors prevent the sperm of one species from fertilizing the egg of the other species Chapter 11 Which of the following are chordates Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer sh N humans E frogs E3 4 All of the 100 H Right Fish humans and frogs are above are all chordates Section 114 chordates V39 Only a and c are chordates Which of the following is not a characteristic of all animals 3 1 They are able to move at some point in their life C 2 They get their energy by eating other organisms 3 They are multicellular 4 They are sexually reproducing at some point in their life cycle E 5 All of the above are characteristics of all animals The phylum Arthropoda includes all of the following kinds of animals except Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer 1 snails a 2 crabs 3 cray sh 0 No cray sh are crustacean arthropods Section 1114 4 butter ies 5 scorpions Which of the following traits is unique to arthropods Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer a ventral nerve cord E0 2 an 100 a Right Only arthropods have exoskeleton exoskeletons Section 1114 E segmentation 5 a large ratio ofbrain size to body size 5 wheeled appendages In cnidarians cnidocytes are primarily used for E 1 creation of water flow across the body wall E 2 formation of free living medusas E3 3 secretion of digestive enzymes 4 prey capture and defense 5 muscular contraction during movement Sponges are sessile meaning that they E l reproduce asexually E 2 are parasitic and depend on their host for a constant supply of nutrients E 3 have exoskeletons that they must shed as they grow E 4 live within shells they nd on the ocean oor E 5 live attached to a solid structure and do not move around Chapter 12 green algae also multicellular and photosynthetic eukawotes the closest relatives of plants They dif39ferfrom plants however in that they live only in the water or on vew moist land surfaces This is in sharp contrastwith plants which can live even in deserts 4types Nonvascular plants liverworts hornworts and masses bryophytes no vessel system to transport water and nutrition to shoots gtgt short MOSS IIFE CYCLE Vascular Plant Fern In many ferns the structures in which haploid spores are produced are called Spuidngid During rainstonns sperm swim from milereprodn vesunnureslo lemnlelevroduc estructures wherethevler mega A diploid embryo anus and dauiops into an adull diploid moss Yhe diploid moss develops a arsule which bums and releases hlplvid spores FERN LIFE CYCLE A Syufe lands an moist mil and grows m an adullhapluld muss water 39 39ability o dddi W M 0im unhnnesm gm mm um um mumdmiwmmw va Luldl y Lem seed an 39 39 39 will its own supply of water and nutrients encased within a protective coating Mostly pollinated via wind Seed plants have a life stage that produces haploid gametes sperm and egg Botanists call this haploid form the gametophyte Pollen grains and ovules are the male and female gametophytes of seed plants A haploid female gamete egg forms inside the ovule When a pollen grain lands nearthe ovule it produces a pollen tube that grows into the ovule Sperm from the pollen grain move through the pollen tube into the ovule and fertilize the egg The external layer ofthe ovule forms the seed coat The evolution of seeds by gymnosperms almost completely eliminates the haploid life stage that we saw in mosses and ferns Nonvascular plants spend most oftheir lives in the haploid stage oftheir cycle and ferns produce spores that grow into freeliving haploid plants With the appearance of gymnosperms plants developed a life histow with no freeliving haploid stage GVMN 5 RM LIFE cchE v n p M mm p Humanymwmnu mumm Mug W Wammcuum 3 Mix m m h Eventually m ma a valeum from me kmnlu me and gruws into n m am I n by gymnuXPIrmx ellmln Ing Inpr Me stage sun in muss an Angiosperms Flower Double fertilization Which of the following is a signi cant new challenge that plants faced when they moved from their aquatic environment onto the land E 1 light availability E 2 Desiccationgtgt develop the cuticle wax to prevent water loss E 3 nutrient availability E 4 predation C 5 the need for osmotic regulation Mosses and ferns differ in their reproductive strategies from gymnosperms and angiosperms in which of the following ways E 1 Mosses and ferns rely on liquid water for fertilization whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms do not need liquid water for fertilization That39s right Mosses and ferns require liquid water for fertilization because they make sperm that have to swim to the eggs Angiosperms and gymnosperms use pollen instead of sperm Section 125 E 2 Mosses and ferns have much larger seeds than do angiosperms and gymnosperms E 3 Mosses and ferns use wind pollination whereas angiosperms and gymnosperms use insects for pollination E 4 Mosses and ferns are primarily diploid in their adult reproductive form whereas gymnosperms and angiosperms are primarily haploid E 5 Mosses and ferns are primarily haploid in their adult form whereas gymnosperms and angiosperms are primarily diploid Which of the following is characteristic of gymnosperms E 1 They are more diverse than the angiosperms E 2 They are wind pollinated E 3 The gametophyte generation is dominant j 4 They are water pollinated E 5 All of the above are correct Angiosperms and gymnosperms differ from each other in that 1 angiosperms have vascular systems but gymnosperms do not N angiosperms produce seeds but gymnosperms do not angiosperms tend to rely on animal pollinators whereas gymnosperms tend to rely on wind pollination 4 angiosperms use pollen whereas gymnosperms use cones manna W U39l angiosperms have a single fertilization process whereas gymnosperms use double fertilization In terms of their adaptation to living on land how are reptiles similar to the seed plants 3 1 Both reptiles and seed plants became completely independent of water E 2 Reptiles eat plants 3 3 Seed plants and reptiles have developed structures such as cuticles and impermeable skin to minimize desiccation C 4 Reptiles and seed plants have developed structures that house their gametes and protect them from the surrounding environment E 5 Both c and d are correct Which of the following comparisons and contrasts between fungi and plants is incorrect C 1 Fungi cannot photosynthesize but plants can 3 2 Both fungi and plants use chitin as a structural stabilizer 3 Fungi are heterotrophs but plants are not C 4 Both fungi and plants have cell walls E 5 Both fungi and plants have a sexual stage in their reproductive cycle Dispersal of fungal spores is typically done by Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer E1 1 movement of 0 N0 fungal spores are dispersed cilia more commonly by wind or water Section 1213 N insects LA hummingbirds Wind 5 4 UI movement of agella You are taking a hike down a forest trail and see the familiar sight of a mushroom on the ground This Visible portion of a fungal body is the structure also referred to as the Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer Eu 1 hypha 0 Ahypha is the threadlike structures that grow underground and are usually not Visible Section 1214 2 fruiting a body 3 thallus 4 spore sac 5 mycelium C ha pte r 13 BACTER SSIFICATION AND 5 species are hythelrshape a lassl ed Plasma membrane Cell wall cytoplasm Plll Ribnsumes Chromosome DNA Figure 135 mam um mm Blalagr mmw wwwmacumm Methods of genetic exchange in bacteria 0 Conjugation a bacterium transfer a copy some or all its DNA to another bacterium o Transduction a virus inject the bacterial DNA it gets from the old bacteria host to new host 0 Transformation a bacteria cell burst out leaving short or long DNA around A new bacteria can pick up these DNA to increase its gene pool Using Good bacteria to treat diseases Probiotic therapy Bad bacteria causese diseases Pathogenic bacteria Metabolic diversity o Photoautrotrops light feeding o Chemoorganotrophs feed on organic materials 0 Chemolithotrophs feed on inorganic VIRUS Non the border of living and non living things Structure i 39 Enveloped viruses wrap 39 capsquot quotta39f39e39 themselves in a bit of made of Fromm the plasma membrane Genetic material of the host cell as they DNA or RNA are released Plasma membrane envelope 39 i Enveloped virus Nonenveloped virus Figure 1323 Whm Is LiIEHI Guide To Binlogy 2010WHFreeman and Company Virus DNA are replicated using the host metabolic machinery and energy Glycoprotein surface the KEY allow a virus to in and out a cell Which group of organisms utilizes the largest variety of energy sources Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer 1 prokaryotes a Er N E 5 V39 fungi 0 No fungi have a more limited ability to use various energy sources Section 137 protists invertebrate animals vertebrate animals Which of the following statements about antibiotics is incorrect N Student Response Value Correct Answ er Feedback Penicillin Was the first antibiotic isolated from bacteria and widely used to ght bacterial infections Antibiotics help microbes E 5 E V39 compete with other microbe s Antibiotic resistant microbes are selected for in humans who are taking antibiotics Antibiotics against Viruses are not effective against bacteria Antibiotics are used not just in human health care but also in agriculture S core 100 H Right this is the incorrect statement Antibiotics have no affect on viruses Section 138 100 Many biologists do not consider Viruses to be alive Which of the following characteristics of Viruses leads to this conclusion Student Value Correct Feedback Response Answer Viruses lack a metabolic system N Viruses do not respond to external stimuli E Viruses are unable to reproduce on their own 5 All of the above are correct Q1 V39 Only a 100 a Correct Living things are able to and c are metabolize and reproduce correct Section 1315 The genetic information in all viruses is E 1 E 2 E 3 C 4 E 5 protein polymerase enzymes DNA or RNA Chapter 14 Exponential growth 1 single invidual reproduce more than 1 replacement gtgt growth rapidly increase eg 500 gt lbillion Growth calculation birth rate death rate thecarrying capacity K theceiling on growth of population in the environment Population density dependent factors food supply habitat for living or breeding parasites and diseases predator risk Population density independent factors weather based LOGISTIC GROWTH Logistic growth describes population growth that is gradually reduced as the population nears the environment39s carrying capacity Logistic growth Exponential growt CARRYING CAPACITY Logistic growth Population size Time Figure I4 6 mm imam 1 Biolngy mum Hirceman and many Population oscillation POPULA N OSC LLATIONS A growing have popula mu provides Inn and far he lynx which then reproduce a higher rates 7 Snuwshaa hams pay 7 Lynx lDledalor Pnpnlninn size Lynx eat m man haves tharehy raduziug mar 39uud in ma ansing Enables the have population 3 grn w Figure 1 41 a who Is um mm r ninlngy 3 mow H rmmm mm mm Life table and survivorship curve Survivorship curves graphs ofthe proportion of individuals of a particular age that are alive in a population SURVIVORSHIP CURVES pupuhnnn s Pramr au cl indi Numhnrm survlvnrs log scale Percentager mxlmum m span awmau DHMWuV p N11lw awn1 mm YVPEI Highsurvmrshlp nnlil uld igewlllen r idydeueasi g orsh Fi re1 7 VlhallsLlflA6uldehHlllagy 2 me Freurmvand mum Three areas to which an organism can allocate its resourcesGrowth Reproduction Survival Big bang reproduce produce early die after mating Hazard factor high short life span low longevity n average which leaves more offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce a pair of elephants or a pair of rabbits E 1 The pair of elephants because elephants live much longer and have more breeding seasons 8 2 The pair of rabbits because they have so many more offspring per breeding season than do elephants 39 C 3 The pair of rabbits because they reach sexual maturity more rapidly E 4 The pair of elephants because any individual elephant born is more likely to survive to become an adult and reproduce E 5 If both populations are stable the pair of elephants and the pair of rabbits will leave the same number of offspring that survive to become adults and reproduce Chapter 15 Ecosystem living and nonliving things gt biotic and physical traits Biomes terrestrial biomes temperature and rainfall gtPrimary productivity levels the amount of organic matter produced Aquatic biomes depth salinity water movement Primary producers the organisms primary productivity such as grasses trees and agricultural crops the chief determinants of the amount and breadth of other life in the region Energy flow Primary producer gt primary consumer gt secondary consumer gt tertiary consumer Niche way of living how organism exploit external condition space temperature and water timing of mate food etc Fundamental niche the full range of environment one can live vs realized niche the actual niche that the organisms are using character displacement the ghost of competition past to identify areas where competition has occurred in the past Physical defense Include Mechanical Chemical Warning Coloration and Camouflage Mechanisms Behavioral defense Include both seemingly passive and active behaviors hiding or escaping or alarm calling or ghting back Parasitism parasite benefit and host harm gt the parasite generally is much smaller than its host and stays in contact with the host for extended periods of time normally not killing the host but weakening it as the parasite uses some of the host s resources Mutualism everybody wins Commensalism an interaction with a winner but no loser When moist wind from an ocean blows onshore toward a mountain range 3 1 as the air rises it pulls moisture from the ground causing the higher elevations to be drier E 2 as the air goes over the top of the mountain and falls back down toward lower elevations it holds less moisture creating a rain shadow zone of unusually high precipitation C 3 as the air rises it holds less moisture causing the dissipation of all clouds E 4 as the moist air goes over the top of the mountain and falls back down toward lower elevations it holds even more moisture creating a rain shadow desert with very little precipitation E 5 None of the above are correct The 10 rule of energy conversion efficiency E 1 explains why big fierce animals are so rare E 2 explains why the biomass of herbivores must exceed that of carnivores E 3 limits the length of food chains E 4 suggests that 90 of what an organisms eats is used in cellular respiration or is lost as feces E 5 All of the above are correct Nitrogen enters the food chain E l primarily through soildwelling bacteria that fix nitrogen by attaching it to other atoms E 2 from the atmosphere when fixed by the photosynthetic machinery of plants E 3 when rocks dissolved by rainwater become soil and are utilized by plants as they grown E 4 through soil erosion followed by runoff into streams and ponds C 5 through methane produced by herbivores as a byproduct of the breakdown of plant material Which of the following statements about an organism s niche is incorrect 1 It encompasses the space the organism requires 2 It includes the type and amount of food the organism consumes 3 It is not always fully exploited 4 It may be occupied by two species as long as they are not competitors 1 F n 1 M 5 It re ects the ways in which the organism utilizes the resources of its environment 43 he g host of competition past refers to the fact that E 1 competition often leads to character displacement which remains even after direct competition is reduced E 2 competition cannot be seen in nature competition inevitably leads to the extinction of one of the competitors E 4 competition inevitably leads to the extinction of both competitors E 5 the fossil record is a record of competitive interactions Rabid animals E 1 froth at the mouth so as to increase the likelihood that the rabies causing virus is passed on to another host have been infected by parasitic bacteria n w must die before their host can be passed on E 4 are infected by a viral ectoparasite E 5 often show reduced aggression which increases their ability to get closer to other animals thereby spreading the infection Chapter 17 Plants three distinct parts roots stem leaves Three kinds oftissues dermal ground vascular PLANT STRUCTURE mwss The glimary me I phulnsynkhasis nuverling energy lrnmkhe sun inm had In me plan 515M muiammmm suppovl fur m plank melsls a PnsillnnleavessoxhalIheyan Sn 1 for er and nutrients moughom the plznl lam Absmb mm and mlnaralx he he so nAnchunIIE plzm in Mice am 1 1 z an i u Wm mmquot Dermal tissue three kinds of cells Epidermal cell cuticle wax layerto protect TVPEs OF 1155quot IN VASCULAR PLANTS such is he eudkai example nwn he anall orga zld araundlhesim buic body plln md m bu mm m sum mm lypl n ma nsmu rlssui Covers and protects me swim ohhe Plant VA smun nssuz mmpnns water 3 quot4 sealon nutrients lhrnughnul m p m L 5 VV ms ue scular ussu Gmund tissue Figure 74 mmiwmm Inning m m m An iiutmnm u Guard cell gas exchange hole on leaves STOMATA hole for gas exchange Cork cell when trees grow replace epidermal to protect tree bark Vascular tissues two types Xylem transport water and mineral absorded by roots to plant rmuem LlEdLELl by llulll leaves to other parts Ground tissue three kinds Parenchyma cells make up majority of soft flexible parts in plant fruit leaved etc gtgt food storage hormones release photosynthesis Collenchyma cells make plant flexible and able to bend Sclerenchyma cells not live when mature act like the steel grinder to gtlt gravity and help grow tall Plants require four things for proper nutrition 1 Sunlight for the energy to build molecules of sugar 2 Water 3 Air as a source of carbon dioxide 4 Usually soil Six of essential nutrient are required in large amounts These are nitrogen phosphorus magnesium potassium sulfur calcium Water is transported into the root by osmosis What were we talking about 0 Cell theory 0 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 0 Cell membrane structure 0 Phospholipids 0 proteins f Passive transport is the spontaneous diffusion of molecules across a membrane There are two types of passive transport 1 Diffusion r 2 osmoss m o Asol39llite such as food El Diffusion and concentration olo 39ng Is dropped into a solvent such as water I A gradients VJ Food coloring o Foodcoloring molecules 7 7 CI Solvent particles movegboymndomuy bumping Into each other El Solute particles Foodcoloring molecules 9 W o The random motion ofthe V foodcoloring molecules 9 D causes them to end up K 399 q 3 7 evenly distributed 3 Z 2 O i Figure 316 Wharls LieA Guide To Biala Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion PASSIVE TRANSPORT Passive transport occurs when molecules move across a membrane without energy input Molecules move down their concentration gradients Extracellular uid Q 0 o a 0 Molecules 9 O O Most molecules can t get through plasma membranes on their own D Carrier molecules transport proteins Higher concentration of molecules V D Q 9 03 v El Defective transport proteins DCan reduce or even bring facilitated diffusion to a complete stop Carrier molecule 9 on Intracellular uid concentration of molecules uSerious health SIMPLE DIFFUSION FACILITATED DIFFUSION consequences Molecules pass directly through Molecules move across the the plasma membrane without the plasma membrane with the DMany genetic diseases assistance of another molecule help of a carrier molecule Cystinuria and Figure 317 Stones What Is Life Guide To Biology ozomwn Freeman and Company Osmosis is a type of passive transport by which water diffuses L in quotA I39 L 39 s L Osmosis is the passive 439 394 f f d a has a greater concentration of solutes ANIMAL CELL Extracellularfluid PLANT CELL RED BLOOD CELL suLunuu rquot M Solute concentrations quot 39 are higher in the extracellular uid Water diffuses out of cells 5 521quot n a on n HYPOTONIC SOLUTION Solute concentrations are lower in the extracellular uid Water diffuses into cells ISOTONIC SOLUTION Solute concentrations are balance Water movement is balanced Q Unlike animal cells plant cells generally do not explode in hypatanic solutions because their rigid cell walls limit cellular expansion Figure 31 8 Wharls Lierl Guide To Bialagy K 2010W H Freeman and Company Cells in Solution CITonicity the relative concentration of solutes outside of the cell relative to inside the cell Hypertonic Hypotonic Isotonic OSMOSIS IN ACTION Dehydrated celery WHEN PLACED IN DISTILLED WATER WHEN PLACED IN SALT WATER Distilled water contains l Salt water contains fewer dissolved molecules 1 more dissolved molecules quot than the celery cells quot than the celery cells Water molecules diffuse into the celery equalizing the waterco n centration inside and outsidethe cells The celery becomes crisp Water molecules diffuse out of the celery The celery becomes even more shrivelecl Figure 31 9 What Is LierA Guide To Biology 2010W HFreeman and Company El How do laxatives relieve constipation IMilk of magnesia and magnesium salts DWater moves via osmosis from the cells into the intestines uThe Direction of Osmosis uDetermined only by a difference in total concentration of all the molecules dissolved in the water EIIt does not matter what solutes they are K EIIn active transport cells use energy to move small molecules El Molecules can 1 always move spontaneous y and effortlessy in and out of cells EITWO distinct types of active transport 1 Primary 2 Secondary differ only in the source of the fuel


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