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by: Mrs. Kellen Barrows

Cells,Genetics&Physiology BIO107

Marketplace > Drexel University > Biotechnology > BIO107 > Cells Genetics Physiology
Mrs. Kellen Barrows
GPA 3.53


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Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kellen Barrows on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO107 at Drexel University taught by MeshagaeHunte-Brown in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/212327/bio107-drexel-university in Biotechnology at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Final Review Biology 100 NEquot 539quot F U39l oo1c O H O H H H N H W H 1 Informational macromolecule DNA Lipids synthesized and modified in eukaryotic cells smooth endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane components in plant cells but NOT animal cells plasmodesmata a Pores from one cell wall into the neXt that allows the cell membrane to continue plant equivalent to a gap junction in animal cells Largest structure in eukaryotic cell is nucleus the and it is surrounded by two membranes A protein s function is most dependant on its shape a Four levels ofprotein structure 39 Primary amino acid sequence Secondary shape pleated sheets alpha heliX because of hydrogen bonding Tertiary 3D shape because of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups Quaternary what amino acids fit together for protein shape H i ii39 H iv Water displays unique properties because ofits ability to hydrogen bond DNA without membrane is NOT found in a eukaryotic cell An intestinal epithelial cell powers the movement of glucose into the cell against its concentration gradient by simultaneously transporting sodium sown its concentration gradient Which transport mechanism is responsible a Secondary Active Transport moving something against a concentration gradient Which of the cell membrane functions below is possible due to the presence ofproteins in the plasma membrane a Proteins act as fingerprints determine what can enter and leave the cell and binds to messages sent from other cells and relay the message to the interior of the cell Most uid membrane 30 saturated fatty acid and 70 unsaturated fatty acid a Most uid will have the most unsaturated fatty acid Ifa thylakoid was punctured so that its interior was no longer separated from the stroma which of the following processes would be most directly affected a The synthesis of ATP The light reactions ofphotosynthesis supply the Calvin cycle with ATP and NADPH and H Fermentation reactions generally occur under conditions oflow oxygen concentrations Occurs during Anaphase I ofmeiosis the chromosomes move towards the poles How are meiosis and mitosis NOT different chromosome replication occurs before mitotic division but not before meiotic division HH lm HH coo N H W W NOT DIRECTLY involved in translation DNA Phenotypes are generally a product of the genotype in combination with the environment The impact ofa single gene on more than one characteristic is pleiotropy Sexlinked traits are often expressed in different frequencies in males and females A mutation that involves the addition subtraction or substitution ofa single base is known as a point mutation Genes that are linked do not assort independently but they may recombine by crossing over The three principle function of the vertebrate circulatory system are transport protection and body temperature regulation Animals live jellyfish and cnidarians acquire nutrients and oxygen by direct diffusion Highest to lowest blood pressure arteries capillaries veins Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the Vena Cavae What is the main function ofthe sinoatrial SA node Choreograph an efficient contraction of the heart Why is countercurrent exchange of oxygen in fish gills so efficient a It maintains a concentration gradient between the water and the bloodstream for the entire time that the water and blood vessel are in close contact Why do many fish swim with their mouths open a They do this to ventilate their gills On food packages quotinsoluble fiber refers to plant material that we can t fully digest but is important for a healthy digestive tract This substance refers to a carbohydrate A person who has their fall bladder removed might have difficulty in digesting which of the following components of their diet a Fat b Gall bladder stores bile i Used for fat digestion Which digestive enzymes are secreted in the mouth a Alphaamylase Ifindigested fool is absorbed in the small intestine why is there an exit to the digestive system a Not all that you ingest is digested and absorbed the quotleftoverquot must be eliminated Which of the following is NOT a major component of the digestive system thyroid The four stages of food processing in sequential order are ingestion digestion absorption and elimination Most mammals including humans prefer the taste of fats to carbohydrates and proteins Why a The caloric content ofa gram of fat is more than double that ofa gram ofprotein and carbohydrates 36 An action potential is initiated by the opening ofa large number of sodium ion channels 37 The axons ofneurons are often enclosed by a fatty protective coating called myelin sheath 38 Impulses must travel from neuron to neuron and neuron to muscle cell in an uninterrupted chain so that all the important messages necessary for survival are properly conveyed How are impulses transferred from a neuron cell to a receiving cell a Neurotransmitters carry them from one cell to the neXt 39 What is the difference between a nerve and a neuron a A nerve is a bundle ofneurons whereas a neuron is an individual cell 40 The central portion ofa neuron where most of the metabolic work is performed is called the cell body 41 Botulinum toxin Botox is one of the most poisonous substances known A few hundred grams is enough to kill every person in Earth Botox causes paralysis in its victims Which neurotransmitter does it affect a Acetylcholine


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