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by: Zoe Lipner
Zoe Lipner

Biology of Nutrition & Health

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About this Document

Notes from 9/11/2014
Biology of Nutrition & Health
One Day of Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biology of Nutrition & Health

Popular in Biosystem Engineering

This 16 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Zoe Lipner on Wednesday September 17, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/17/14
Common Characteristics of Cells 91714 504 PM Plasma Membrane Hydrophobic water hating lipids Hydrophilic water loving Every cell has a plasma membrane that separates the cell from its surrounding environment Func on Resource management Facilitator Anchor Communicator OOOO Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Most prokaryotes have a tough cell wall outside the plasma membrane Some bacteria have a slippery protective layer called a capsule Eukaryotes are characterized by membrane bound organelles that confer speed and efficiency through intracellular division of labor Prokaryote before the nucleus Eukaryote true nucleus Cell wall plants fungi most protists rigidity and protection to the cells that have it Cellular Organization Universal characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells 0 Plasma membrane o Cytosol fluid inside a cell composition varies depending on cell o Ribosome used for protein production lots of ribosomes o Cytoskeleton Eukaryotic scaffolding skeleton of the cece would collapse wo it o Pilli specialized structures that allow these organisms to have sex exchanging of DNA How antibiotic resistance is conveyed from one cell to the next 0 Nucleoid the region where DNA resides O Prokaryotic flagellum not present in all cells different in bacteria cells moves the cell about its environment Eukaryotic Division of Labor Protein production 0 O O OOOOOO Convert info in DNA 9 RNA 9 proteins DNA resides in the nucleus Nucleolis 9 manufacture protein producers Ribosomesevery cell has this RNA escapes out of the nuclear pores to find the ribosomes Free protein released into the cytosol and functions Organelle protein Plasma membrane protein Secreted protein Golgi Apparatus further processing amp sorting of proteinsdeivers proteins and lipids Lipid production 0 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes amp is a site for lipid manufacture Lipids are hydrophobic Lysosomes where all the enzymes are win the cell Enzymes break down material to get smaller components and utilize them to build other things ATP production 0 Mitochondrion number of mitochondrion depends on the type of cell Cellular Respiration Sugars 02 9 CO2 H20 9 ATP Chloroplasts Photosynthesis CO2 H20 9 Sugars 02 9 light energy Recycling amp waste management Infrastructure 0 O O Microtubules composed of tubulin subunits Intermediate filaments muti stranded like a rope Microfilaments composed of actin monomers Direction of movement Disorganized actin monomers and short filaments Pseudopodia Lysosomes amp Vacuoles Disassemble Macromolecules Plant organelles called vacuoles act much like Iysosomes to break down macromolecules Vacuoles can also store ions amp watersoluble molecules as well as noxious compounds which deter herbivores Vacuoles filled wwater provide turgor pressure which helps make the non woody parts of plant cells rigid Plant Vacuoles o Cell wall o Central vacuole o Chloroplasts Cilia amp Flagella Enable Whole Cell Movement Many protists amp animals have cells covered in hair ike projections called cilia Cilia can be moved back amp forth a whole cell through liquid Motor proteins interlinking the microtubules causing the cell to move Cilia generate motion in much the same as the oars move a rowboat Some bacteria archaeans amp protists and the sperm cell of some plants and animals use a flagellum plural flagella to propel themselves through fluid Flagella are similar to cilia in structure Eukaryotic flagella differ from the flagella of prokaryotes in structure amp movement How Do Microbes Kill Us Extracellular o Multiply outside Produce a substance that causes harm Cause an imbalance in our normal flora 2 ie Costridium Staphylococcus Streptococcus o Intracellular Enter into cells amp can survive 2 Produce a substance that causes harm 2 Kills the cell by causing it to burst ie Chamydophiia Ehrichia Rickettsia o Toxins Endotoxins lipopolysaccharides fatty sugaripid saccharide structural Extoxins defense molecules proteins produce mainly as defense What Is So Important About a Lysosome Rare inherited metabolic disorders 0 Tay Sachs disease 0 Gaucher disease 0 Fabry disease 0 Pompe disease Abnormal accumulation of lipids 91714 504 PM 91714 504 PM Diamonds are forever why aren39t fossil fuels 91714 507 PM In the Context of your Body Integumentary system protection plasma membrane Urinary system filters wastes smooth endoplasmic reticulum Digestive system breaks down material lysosome Respiratory system gas exchange plasma membrane Nervous system brain director of your body nucleus Skeletal system structure cytoskeleton Muscular system movement cytoskeleton amp plasma membrane Immune system defense cytoskeleton amp lysosome Reproductive system making copies of yourself nucleus Endocrine system bodily functions amp homeostasis cytosol cytoskeleton golgi complex lysosome nucleus plasma membrane rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum transport vesicles Circulatory system transport defense detection amp distribution all Understanding What Matters Matter anything that takes up space and has mass Atom basic unit of matter Element 92 elements Subatomic Particles Proton Define an atom as a specific element 0 Proton electron neutron typically Neutron Define an atom s stability Electron Define an atom s reactivity Radioisotopes have unstable nuclei that decay into simpler forms releasing high energy radiation in the process 0 Neutron Proton Ii an imbalance of positivelynegatively charged ionsa charge substance typically an atom 0 Electron Proton Why Do Our Bodies Use Radioactive Isotopes ie Thyroid needs iodinewithout iodine the thyroid swells and forms a goiter How Many Elements Are You Composed Of What element really defines life 0 Carbon Atoms Don39t Stand Alone Chemical reactions 0 A reactant is a substance that undergoes a chemical change to form a new substance called a product Three interactions that are biologically important 0 Covalent bonds occur between atoms Electron sharing between atoms Bonds allow for great stability What the digestive system must break to absorb nutrients o Ionic bonds occur between ions Salts are compounds that are held together by ionic bonds that form a crystal lattice Attraction of atoms of opposite charge 0 Hydrogen bonds occur between atoms in different substances 91714 507 PM 91714 507 PM Water 91714 509 PM The Special Properties of Water Water sustains all life as we know it The average cell is about 70 water by weight Almost every chemical process associated wlife occurs in water Water is a Polar Molecule Water 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom Polar molecules contain an uneven distribution of electrical charges that make one end of the molecule slightly negative and the other end slightly positive Hydrogen bonds form btwn positively charged hydrogen atoms amp adjacent negatively charged atoms Take home water sticks to itself but these aren39t permanent bonds Aqueous Solutions Solute solvent o Solute 9 substance that dissolves o Solvent 9 liquid substance like water What likes water o Hydrophilic molecules are polar and interact wwater o Charged substances ie ions What hates water o Hydrophobic molecules are typically nonpolar and do not associate wwater o Unchargedneutral substancesie lipids What is a mixture of 2 solutions which can39t dissolve 0 An emulsion Water39s Unique Properties The hydrogen bonds btwn water moleculesother substances generate an attractive force called cohesionadhesion Surface tension results from the pull of hydrogen atoms on the water molecules at the air water boundary Temperature regulator due to high heat capacity and evaporative cooling Ice is less dense than liquid water and floats An Q lots of hydrogen ions A E removes hydrogen ions A pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions on a scale of 014 Pure water is a neutral solvent amp has a pH of 7 What Do We Really Need to Survive 4 major classes of molecules are essential to life Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids Each of these molecules is made up of varying combinations of carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur OOOO Hydrocarbons An gganic molecule is one that contains at least one carbon hydrogen bond The backbone of all macromolecules Fossil fuels are old organisms Diamonds come from a variety of carbon sources 610 carbons in a chain Diamonds are just carbon atoms crushed together Bigger is Better Monomers 0 Individual units of a macromolecule Polymers o Chains of monomers bonded together How are they linked o Dehydration synthesis monomers 9 polymers Removing water from monomers to create the covalent bonds that link together to create polymers The Chemical Building Blocks of Life The properties of organic macromolecule depend 0 Their monomers o Clusters of atoms covalently bonded together called functional groups Carbohydrates Food Labels 0 Sugars Monosaccharide Glucose amp fructose sweeter Disaccharide Table sugar sucrose formed when 2 monosaccharide glucose amp fructose are covalently bonded Polysaccharides are large polymers built by linking many monosaccharides together 2 Depends on the type of polysaccharide Cellulose is the most common carbohydrate on earth Glucose is monomer for most common polysaccharide Cellulose can39t be broken down in our bodies amp starch plant energy are both found in plants amp Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide that stores energy in animal cells for rapid release when needed Chitin is produced in fungi and invertebrate for structural purposes Confusing SugarCarb Labeling Total carbs 20g 0 Fiber separate from other carbs has own recommended daily values 0 Sugars mono and di 0 Starch not listed 0 Sugars Fiber Starch 25g of carbs Proteins 91714 509 PM Proteins What do proteins do o Storage last resort for energy Structure allow cells to latch onto one another Transport transport lipids HDL amp LDL Catalysis cause reactions to happen Defense antibodies Communication plasma membrane auto immune diseases hormones OOOOO Proteins Are Built from Amino Acids All proteins are built from monomers called amino acids 20 different amino acids Each amino acid has different properties Polypeptides protein o Name originates from the bond btwn the amino acids peptide bond Structure of Proteins The sequence of amino acids Overall 3D structure tertiary structure Not just a string Folding function A Protein Must Be Correctly Folded to be Functional Certain proteins need more than one string of amino acids to be func onal Hemoglobin 0 2 string of alpha protein o 2 string of beta protein Denaturation Destruction of a protein39s 3D shape resulting in a loss of protein activity Extreme temperatures pH and salt concentration can cause denaturation of protein Nutrition Malnourishment o Not getting all of the correct necessary nutrients calories Overnourishment o Too many calories Undernourishment o Too few calories Undernourished malnourished Must consume 8 out of 20 amino acids to be considered nourished Lipids Fatty acids o Fatty acids in which all the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are linked wa single covalent bond are called saturated fatty acids o Fatty acids in which one or more carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are linked by a double bond are called unsaturated fatty acids Phospholipids o Phospholipids are made up of 2 hydrophobic fatty acid tails bonded to a hydrophilic head consisting of a glycerol and a phosphate group Sterols Animals Store Surplus Energy as Triglycerides 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule make up a triglyceride Triglycerides built from saturated fatty acids are known as fa amp are solid at room temperature Triglycerides built from unsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature amp are called E Animals Store Surplus Energy as Triglycerides Energy can be sorted in the form of triglycerides deposited in the cytoplasm of cells Lipids contain more than twice the energy of protein or carbohydrates of the same volume For every gram of fat you get 9 energies


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