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Common Characteristics of Cells

by: Zoe Lipner

Common Characteristics of Cells 1005

Marketplace > George Washington University > Biosystem Engineering > 1005 > Common Characteristics of Cells
Zoe Lipner

Biology of Nutrition & Health

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About this Document

Notes from 9/2/14
Biology of Nutrition & Health
One Day of Notes
25 ?




Popular in Biology of Nutrition & Health

Popular in Biosystem Engineering

This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Zoe Lipner on Wednesday September 17, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/17/14
Common Characteristics of Cells 91714 504 PM Plasma Membrane Hydrophobic water hating lipids Hydrophilic water loving Every cell has a plasma membrane that separates the cell from its surrounding environment Func on Resource management Facilitator Anchor Communicator OOOO Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Most prokaryotes have a tough cell wall outside the plasma membrane Some bacteria have a slippery protective layer called a capsule Eukaryotes are characterized by membrane bound organelles that confer speed and efficiency through intracellular division of labor Prokaryote before the nucleus Eukaryote true nucleus Cell wall plants fungi most protists rigidity and protection to the cells that have it Cellular Organization Universal characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells 0 Plasma membrane o Cytosol fluid inside a cell composition varies depending on cell o Ribosome used for protein production lots of ribosomes o Cytoskeleton Eukaryotic scaffolding skeleton of the cece would collapse wo it o Pilli specialized structures that allow these organisms to have sex exchanging of DNA How antibiotic resistance is conveyed from one cell to the next 0 Nucleoid the region where DNA resides O Prokaryotic flagellum not present in all cells different in bacteria cells moves the cell about its environment Eukaryotic Division of Labor Protein production 0 O O OOOOOO Convert info in DNA 9 RNA 9 proteins DNA resides in the nucleus Nucleolis 9 manufacture protein producers Ribosomesevery cell has this RNA escapes out of the nuclear pores to find the ribosomes Free protein released into the cytosol and functions Organelle protein Plasma membrane protein Secreted protein Golgi Apparatus further processing amp sorting of proteinsdeivers proteins and lipids Lipid production 0 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes amp is a site for lipid manufacture Lipids are hydrophobic Lysosomes where all the enzymes are win the cell Enzymes break down material to get smaller components and utilize them to build other things ATP production 0 Mitochondrion number of mitochondrion depends on the type of cell Cellular Respiration Sugars 02 9 CO2 H20 9 ATP Chloroplasts Photosynthesis CO2 H20 9 Sugars 02 9 light energy Recycling amp waste management Infrastructure 0 O O Microtubules composed of tubulin subunits Intermediate filaments muti stranded like a rope Microfilaments composed of actin monomers Direction of movement Disorganized actin monomers and short filaments Pseudopodia Lysosomes amp Vacuoles Disassemble Macromolecules Plant organelles called vacuoles act much like Iysosomes to break down macromolecules Vacuoles can also store ions amp watersoluble molecules as well as noxious compounds which deter herbivores Vacuoles filled wwater provide turgor pressure which helps make the non woody parts of plant cells rigid Plant Vacuoles o Cell wall o Central vacuole o Chloroplasts Cilia amp Flagella Enable Whole Cell Movement Many protists amp animals have cells covered in hair ike projections called cilia Cilia can be moved back amp forth a whole cell through liquid Motor proteins interlinking the microtubules causing the cell to move Cilia generate motion in much the same as the oars move a rowboat Some bacteria archaeans amp protists and the sperm cell of some plants and animals use a flagellum plural flagella to propel themselves through fluid Flagella are similar to cilia in structure Eukaryotic flagella differ from the flagella of prokaryotes in structure amp movement How Do Microbes Kill Us Extracellular o Multiply outside Produce a substance that causes harm Cause an imbalance in our normal flora 2 ie Costridium Staphylococcus Streptococcus o Intracellular Enter into cells amp can survive 2 Produce a substance that causes harm 2 Kills the cell by causing it to burst ie Chamydophiia Ehrichia Rickettsia o Toxins Endotoxins lipopolysaccharides fatty sugaripid saccharide structural Extoxins defense molecules proteins produce mainly as defense What Is So Important About a Lysosome Rare inherited metabolic disorders 0 Tay Sachs disease 0 Gaucher disease 0 Fabry disease 0 Pompe disease Abnormal accumulation of lipids 91714 504 PM 91714 504 PM


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