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Date Created: 09/23/15
MIS 200 Summer Quarter Midterm Review Week 1 Chapter 1 01 What is an Information system A group of components HW SW Data Procedures People that interact to produce information QZ What is MIS MIS is the interface between IT and the other functional depts It s the design and use of the information systems to achieve business goals and objectives Q3 How does IS differ from IT IT HW amp SW You can buy IT IS IT Data Procedures amp People Cannot buy IS Q4 How do successful businesses professionals use IS Gives a background you need to assess evaluate and apply emerging IS technology to Business In addition you should know about Urom slides I Concept of alignment I Why is there a gap between IT and nonIT people IT personnel have their own vocabularies consisting of acronyms and technical terms Business personnel have their own vocabularies based on their experience and expertise For both sides to have effective communications the business personnel must seek to achieve an increased level of understanding of IT and the IT personnel must seek to achieve an increased level of understanding of the business I How can value be created I Why is MIS a critical component ofyou I What are the four critical characteristics you should possess from an MIS perspective 1 Abstract Reasoning Construct and Manipulate a model or representation 2 Systems Thinking Model system components amp show how components input ampoutput relate to one another into a sensible whole that reflects the structure amp dynamics of the phenomenon observed 3 Collaboration Develop ideas and plans with others Activity of two or more peopleworking together to achieve a common goal 4 Experimentation Create amp test new reasoned alternatives consistent with availableresources I What is Moore s law Cost of data storage and communications is essentially zero Number of transistors square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months gt Speed of computer chip increases in proportion to density of transistors Price Performance ratio of computers falls dramatically Week 2 Chapter 3 01 How does organizational strategy determine information systems structure Industry Structure Determine where we are and who we are Competitive Strategy Based on Industry Structure determine Competitive Advantage Value Chain Competitive strategy determines value chains What you do Business Process Value Chain Determines Business Process Information System Structure of business processes determine design of supporting Is How you do Industry Competitive Business Information Structure Strategy Processes Systems Bargaining power ofcunomers I Threat of substitutions Bargaining power ofsuppliers Threat of new entrants Rivalry 39iHEAI 0 149w uxllmlll39r i4 unrgnrnrng power on Bdrgditlml paww oi sulnlll ol inwva 1mm imminan Vendors Q3 What is competitive strategy Cost Differentiation Lowest cost Industrywide aqossthe Industry Lowest cost Fours within an industry seg ment Example Cost leadership Walmart Differentiation Southwest Airlines Niche or Focus Dogtoyscom Alliance Walmart Innovation iRobotscom Q4 What is a value chain Porter s 4 Competitive Strategies A value chain is a network of valuecreating activities and is divided into primary activities and support activitiesnteractions across value activities readily supported by information systems Primary value activities acquire raw materials and manufacture deliver market sell and provide aftersales services Support value activitiesfirm infrastructure human resource management technology development and RampD procurement support the primary value activities Customers determine the extent to which each activity adds value to the product or service Q5 How do value chains determine business processes and information systems Support activities contribute indirectly to production sales and customer service gtProduce margin that is often difficult to calculate intangible costs and benefits 06 How do information systems provide competitive advantages Product Implementations A business can gain a competitive advantage via its products bycreating new products and services Enhancing its existing products or services ordifferentiating its products and services from its competitors And Information systems can help create a competitive advantage by being part of the product or by providing support to the product System Implementations A company can gain a competitive advantage by using business processes to Lock in customers via high switching costs Lock in suppliers via easytouse connections Create entry barriers for new competitors Establish alliances set standards reduce purchase costs providing benefits for everyone Reduce costs thus reduce prices amp increase profitability In addition you should know about dram slides I What is hyper competition Sustained competitive advantage is not possible Only temporary advantages exist created by a company s speed and aggressiveness This assumes Every advantage becomes eroded Sustaining an advantage uses too much time and resources Stay ahead of its competitors by creating temporary advantages Small steps over short competitive cycles Focus on creating the next temp Advantage before current benefits erode Exp itation Pro ts From a LNquot Countcmttack sustained WWW Traditional View a vantage Time Firm has already movcd to advantage 2 Exploitation Pro ts from a Countcra ack series 0 actions Hypercompetmon Time Launch What is the D Aveni s 7 s model all about Superior stakeholder satisfaction Maximize customer satisfaction by adding value strategically Strategic soothsaying Use new knowledge to predict new windows of opportunity Positioning for speed Prepare the organization to react as fast as possible Positioning for surprise Surprise competitors Shifting the rules of competition Serve customers in novel ways Signaling strategic intent Communicate intensions in order to stall competitors Simultaneous and sequential strategic thrusts Take steps to stun and confuse competitors in order to disrupt or block their efforts Week 3 Chapter 2 01 What is a business process How you perform activity provide service and achieve process 02 What are the components of a business process I Activities transform resources and information of one type into resources andinformation of another type I Resources items ofvaue such as customers employees distributors etc I Facilities structures used within resources Ex inventories databases I Information activities use information to know how to transform inputs to outputs Q3 How do Information systems support business processes IS supports activities in a business process Several activities may use one information system Activity may have own information system Activity may use several information systems Systems designers determine relationship of activities to information systems Relationships are determined during systems development In addition you should know about Urom slides I What is narrative model I What is logical model Information using flow chart I What is a physical model I What is the difference between an ass system and a tobe system I What is business process reengineering why is it critical to an organization Restructuring your business process I Drawing Use Case Diagrams Actors Use Cases verb Documentation I What are Use Case Diagrams Use case diagrams are used to visualize specify construct and document the intended behavior of the system during requirements capture and analysis Provide a way for developers domain experts and endusers to Communicate Serve as basis for testing I What are the different types of relationships in Use Case Diagrams Generalization Include Extend Week 4 Chapter CE3 01 How do decisions vary by level Broadersoon organizational issues 39 EIS Allocation and utilization of resources Management information systems MIS y todey ectlvlties Tremainn nronesslng systems TF5 Managerial Operational Q2 What isthe difference between structured and unstructured decisions Structured Unstructured decisions decisions No agreedon or standardlled eo sinn dmslon quantity making method stock market Allocating How well sulted an furniture and emu oyee is equipment to partlculerjoh employees Q3 How do decision ievei and decision process reiate Unnucrured Automated S Jumlred Augmemati n Systems Strategi as Operational Managerial rips lMlSi Q4 What isthe difference between automation and augmentation Automated Information Systems Augmentation Information Systems i 05 How does IS support decision steps Chapter 10 Q1 What is Systems Deveiopment Process of creating and maintaining IS which invoives aii 5 IS Components 02 Why Is Systems Deveiopment Difficuit and Risky Many projects never finished gtthosethat finish often 2007300 over budget Some projects finish within budget and schedule but never satisfactorily accomplish their goals Q3 What Are the Five Phases of the SDLC System Definition Approved User Req uirements System Design Problem or Need for Change u sers Q4 Howls System Definition Accomplished goals and scope Assess feasibility Form project team 39 Plan project 05 What Is the Users Role in the Requirements Phase Project Plan Re 39irememsAnal sis 39 q y Approved User Requirements Conduct user interviews Evaluate existing systems Determine new Web pages Com ponent Design features and functions Consider security Create the data model Consider all ve components Pre Mid Term Determining industry structure Determine where we are and who we are a Bargaining power of customers a Threat of substitutions a Bargaining power of suppliers a Threat of new entrants a Rival Formation of competitive strategy and performing value chain analysis East Differentiation Lowest cost Industrywide across the industry Lowest cost Focus withinan industry segment Porter s 4 Competitive Strategies a A value chain is a network of valuecreating activities and is divided into primary activities and support activities Interactions across value activities readily supported by information systems Primary value activities acquire raw materials and manufacture deliver market sell and provide aftersales services 0 Support value activities firm infrastructure human resource management technology development and RampD procurement support the primary value activities Customers determine the extent to which each activity adds value to the product or service How do value chains determine business processes and information systems Support activities contribute indirectly to production sales and customer service gt Produce margin that is often difficult to calculate intangible costs and benefits Drawing Business Process Models How you perform activity provide service and achieve process Activities transform resources and information of one type into resources and information of another type Resources items of value such as customers employees distributors etc Facilities structures used within resources EX inventories databases Information activities use information to know how to transform inputs to outputs lluCumd Sylluninmdry K Ema In W mi 1 What is business process reengineering why is it critical to an organization Business Process Rasnginsenng Cycle As a structured ordering of work steps across time and place a business process can be decomposed into specific activities measured modeled and improved It can also be completely redesigned or eliminated altogether Reengineering identifies analyzes and redesigns an organization39s core business processes with the aim of achieving dramatic improvements in critical performance measures such as cost quality service and speed Different phases in SDLC a Business Planning Proces System Definition Requirements analysis Component Design Implementation User gt System maintenance gt System definition Week 6 Database and IS Security Chapter 5 Q1 What is the purpose of a database a Keep track of only a single theme a Allow keeping track of multiple themes Q2 What does a database contain a Rows Records a Columns Fields a Characters Bytes Chapter CE7 Q2 How Are Database Application Systems Developed Interview users to identify and develop requirements for applications Analyze existing forms reports queries other user activities Summarize requirements and themes in a data model Users review and validate data model Build database hat are the components of the Entity relationship diagram Entities Something users want to track order customer salesperson item volunteer donation Attributes Describe characteristics of an entity order customer volunteer name phone Identifier Attribute that uniquely identifies one entity instance from other instances studentlDnumber D Ollglllll 3 Chapter 12 Q1 What are the sources and types of security Threats a Human error and mistakes 0 Accidental problems caused by both employees and nonemployees employee misunderstands operating procedures and accidentally deletes customer records I An employee while backing up a database inadvertently installs an old database on top of the current one 0 Category also includes poorly written application programs and poorly designed procedures 0 Physical accidents a Malicious human activity Employees and former employees who intentionally destroy data or other system components 0 Hackers who break into a system virus and worm writers who infect computer systems 0 Outside criminals who break into a system to steal for financial gain Terrorism a Natural events and disasters 0 Fires floods hurricanes earthquakes tsunamis avalanches and other acts of nature 0 Includes the initial loss of capability and service and losses stemming from actions to recover from the initial problem In addition you should know about from slides The Relational Terms in Database Entity is a person place thing or event about which you want to keep data Entity relationship diagramDatabase Design A popular technique for designing relational databases A graphical representation of an ER model Data Warehousing Dan anuhuusa Modal lnlnl nul dalnbases Dal anhuusn a T 39 quot 77 Marketing inlurmalian 73 r v Sales inlurmatinn External dalahasas Billing informauun Compeximr inlnrmalian E Dumpeximr informmian lnduslry inlnrmlllian m Mailing list inlnrrnaliun I Slack markal analysis How Much Is a Database Worth Data on everything customers do 15000 personvisits a year an average of 500 visits per day Customers receive targeted solicitations for offerings they care about and don t receive solicitations for those they don t Different types of Security Unauthorized Procedural mistakes Pretexting Disclosure during data disclosure 39 39 recovery Spoo ng Snl Computer crime Incorrect data Procedural mistakes Hacking Incorrect data modi cation Incorrect procedures Computer crime recovery Ineffective accounting Problem controls System errors Faulty service Procedural mistakes Computer crime Service Improperly Develo men and Usurpatlon restored Installation errors Denial of service Accidents DOS attacks Service Interruption Accidents Theft Property loss infrastructure Terrorist activity problems Data Breaches a Security breach is defined as the unauthorized acquisition or access of computerized data that c mpromises the security confidentiality or integrity of personal information maintained by the data collector Vermont Statute Since 2006 Total Number of Reported Data Breach Incidents 3628 Involved unprecedented disclosures of information securi 515453730 total number of personal information potentially compromised Week 7 Enterprise systems Chapter 7 Q1 Why Is Business Process Management Important to Organizations Processing an order crosses departmental boundaries Credit card processing shipping scheduling extend to other companies Business processes and IS must evolve as business changes Q2 How Does BPM Vary in Scope a Functional 0 Single department May lead to islands of automation which is also known as Information Silos a Crossfunctional o Eliminatesreduces isolated systems and data 0 Uses committees to resolve conflicts between departments a lnterorganizational ross Organizations 0 Requires negotiation contracts litigation to resolve conflicts between organizations Q4 How Does the Interaction of Business Process Elements Affect Cost and Added Value Ways to increase process performance I Brute force approach add people equipment 2 Change process structure wo changing resource allocations 3 Do both I and 2 Q5 What Role Do Information Systems Play in Business Processes Roles a Implement business process activities a Entirely manual automated or mixed information systems ChapterCE l l Q1 How Do Functional Processes Relate to Functional Applications and Systems Functional Processes Single organizational function Sales lead tracking Customer support business processes Accounts Payable Functional Application and Systems Computer program Supports major activities Q2 What are the functions of Sales and Marketing Applications Purpose of sales management is to find prospects and transform them into customers by selling them something Also sales management manages customers to sell them more products Purpose of marketing processes is to assess the effectiveness of marketing messages and advertising Applications Prospect or lead generation Lead tracking Customer management Sales forecasting Product and brand management Q3 What are the functions of Operations Applications lull mm Track order through ful llment r l Scheduleshipping Record payment method Handle exceptions Enrer order for processing inform 05mm of order status Customer Mu Conlrol inventory Answer questions on orders and Manage inventory produ use Supportevaluate policy Sellml via Web inueasingly c ominon Manufacturing Conlml Inventory Create and maimzjn m a Burials Create and maintain manufacturing and admits guodsinpnxess and fian goods Rhedule and antral madnnesrn actordame mlh production schedules to manufacmnng me mm produwon Q5 What are the functions of Human Resources Applications Job pusllngs Payroll Vacallum lmalrh and bene ts lob requirements Performance evaluations Q6 What are the functions of AccOL nting Applications usury mmgemm Manng rammed Lmnlngs dividends snows mums In nll and many nrld mympnmmm lour mun emuly quunu nancing eqully on le ml unnumng l Helps the mmme manage lnrlowa and Keeps records and reports nancial mulls oulllows of m m lnvenmmreduorund ullmr alumni budget arranges for any needed extolmi sets 9 govemmm regulator l ilrumclng Tracks dummh39hdl llm rumany own In 39 quot V Nilmunian lm lutrmnl mm Iww manly In luppunsmrdmumynwmm r 39 I1 an t Inunrume ummvlriu mum mmlum nr wwm Tracks amounts wed in me company w mm management in quantifying goals in cunerv ma Mumps collmlom or tevnnum And c uenm lrMJu ogresx zowanl meeting thm gm Chapter CE12 Q4 What are the functions and characteristics of ERP applications c Provides crossfunctional process view of organization c Has a formal approach based on formal business models c Maintains data in centralized database c Offers large benefits but is difficult fraught with challenges and can be slow to implement c Often very expensive Q6 What Is a Realistic Role for BPM in CrossFunctional Processes c Most organizations will adopt BPM in principle c Endorse overarching concept of 4 stages of BPM cycle c Will not embark on a project to model all oftheir processes but will redesign process as problems occur using BPM principles o Wi likely accept any inherent processes in CRM or ERP applications as a given and model new process activities around those inherent processes o Wi endorse serviceoriented components from their CRM and ERP application vendors In addition you should know about from slides How do IS vary with scope a Personal 0 Single User Informal Procedures Isolated 0 Data Duplication among employees a Workgroup Departmental o 10 100 users Procedures understood amongst the group 0 Data Duplication within department a Enterprise 0 100 1000s users Procedures formalized 0 Data Duplication minimized a Interenterprise 0 1000s users Procedures formalized o Controlled Data Duplication o Interorganizational IS required Relationship between different types of Business Processes and IS Types of Business Processes Functional CrossFunctional Interorganizational IS and Business Processes Business process activities Manual automated mixed information systems How Decision Level Decision Type and IS Type Are Related Unstructured Automated Systems Structured Augmentation Systems I I Operational Managerial Strategic TPS IMIS Elsi What is TPS and what are its characteristics is a computerized system which performs and records daily routine transactions Eg payroll system production instructions o High performance a Reliability a Inflexibility a Controlled processing Cloud Computing and its different types Shared resources like servers software and information are provided to computers How wil and sco What ar C Payperuse model Available convenient ondemand network Resources can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction ls accessible via Internet protocols from any computer i Software as a Service 6338 Software deployment model whereby a Provider licenses an application to customers for use as a service on demand SaaS UlMims Him3 aim39 cornmun CEI O39I games mm M14 i Platform as a service PaaS Delivery of computing platform amp solution stack as a service i Infrastructure as a Service IaaS Cloud Providers offer computers and resources from their large pool installed in data centers I you select a cloud provider Through the process of the SLA matrix you features give weights re accordingly e Information silos how are they formed and what problems are caused by information Silos Information silos known as island of automation a group of IS that operate in isolation from one another Different IS used by different departments that share data gt Organizational growth gt Increasing use of IS Data Duplication and Inconsistency Isolated Process Organizational Inefficiencies Lack of Integrated Information Increased Expense Week 8 SCM ECommerce Web 20 Social Capital Organizational Structure Chapter CE iS Q1 What are the typical Interorganizational Processes Customer s credit card transactions customer retailer credit card Automated clearing house customer retailer banks network syst Customized process buyer supplier manufacturer shipper etc company bank ems Q2 What is a supply chain Goods amp Services 5 h Supplier Raw Materials Man ufaclurlng l quot39 Consumer Distribution Money amp Info Customer l Q5 What is the Bullwhip effect a Trend of larger swings in inventory in response to changes in demand a The top of the supply chain receives the harshest impact of the whip effect a As demand increases the distributor decides to increase inventory to buffer against unforeseen problems in demand Each step along the suply chain increases their inventory swagum Stock I Yrsn orafomern Q6 How do IS affect Supply Chain performance It helps integrate the different parts of a business that are all necessary from start to finish Chapter 8 Q1 How do companies use ECommerce Merchant companies Take title to goods they sell v BusinessAtoconsumer 32C Auctions Businesstobusiness 828 v Clearinghouses BusinessvtogovemmentBZG Exchanges 2 Nonmerchant companies Arrange for purchase and sale of goods without owning or taking title to those goods Q2 How does ECommerce improve market efficiency a E Commerce increase market efficiency a lntensified price competition as it increases consumers ability to gather information about products and prices a Disintermediation Q3 What economic factors disfavor ECommerce a Disintermediation channel conflict price conflict with existing channel logistic expenses and customerservice expenses increase for manufacturer Q5 What is web 20 a Intersection of web application features Facilitate information sharing usercentered design and collaboration on the World Wide Web Contrast to websites where users are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them a Blogs wikis video sharing sites etc Q6 How Can business benefit from web 20 AdWords Enables you to create advertisements which will appear on a network of sites Placement on search results list depends on how much you pay for search work AdSense Delivers AdWords ads to individuals39 websites Pays web publishers for the ads based on user clicks on ads or on ad Impressions Mashups You can buy a watch from Nordstrom that you saw on your favorite HBO series if the companies have a mashup User Generate Content Product recommendations and user reviews and use crowd sourcing which is the process by which organizations involve their users in the design and marketing of their product Chapter CE15 Q1 What value does Social Networking add to business An alternative to unreliable and costly other forms of marketing Social networking is faster cheaper and more personal Viral hook Something that induces people to share your with others A wide web of friends that can be reached Q2 What is a supply chain Q5 What is the Bullwhip effect Q6 How do lS affect Supply Chain performance In addition you should know about from slides Relationship between different types of Business Processes and IS All based on communication The relationship that is known the least is the weakest part ofthe communication chain Value of Social Capital Number of relationships in a social network by strength of those relationships and by resources controlled by those related Increasing the strength of Relationships Strength of a relationship Likelihood that entity person or other organization will do something that benefits organization Way to increase the strendth Buying your products writing positive reviews posting pictures using your products or services Asking people to do a favor for you Frequent interactions Viral Marketing Word of Mouth Marketing Mashups User Contribution Taxonomy Crowd Sourcing Viral marketing less traditional reaches more people in a faster cheaper and more personal way examples are groups and applications Word of Mouth Marketing type of viral marketing often done through social networking and conversation examples are telling your friend about a good cup of coffee or making it your Facebook status Mashups a web application that combines data from other websites example include GoogleMaps User Contribution Taxonomy firms survive on user contribution Two Types ACTIVE content stuff for saleexamples are eBay Craigslist Facebook Youtube PASSIVE behavioral dataresourcesexamples are Skype and Google Crowdsourcing making use of creative intelligence outside of company reaching out to the public an example is design contests etc o How Does Social Capital add value Social Capital investment in social relations with expectation of returns in the marketplace Add value by a Information about opportunities alternatives problems and other factors a Influence decision makers in your organization or others 3 Social credentials from linking to network of highly regarded contacts a Personal reenforcement of professional image and position Different types of organizational structures a Flat Organizational Structure 0 Responsive to dynamic uncertain environments 0 Structure often becomes less flexible as the org grows 0 IS becomes the communication glue as hierarchy grows Example Exists is smaller companies a Hierarchical Organizational Structure 0 Division of labor specialization and unity of command 0 Decisions are made at the top 0 Middle managers primary information processing function 0 IS store communicate information along the lines ofthe hierarchy and support the info management function of the managers 0 Example In business the board of directors is the highest authority which in turn delegates the dayto day running ofthe company to a managing director or CEO They further delegate the work to Executive who transfer the work to mangers and the work flows down in hierarchy a Matrix Organizational Structure 0 Workers have multiple supervisors 0 Fail to enable managers to achieve their business strategies because of increased information processing demands 0 Example A company that produces two products X and Y Using the matrix structure this company would organize as follows I X sales department I X accounting department Y sales department I Y accounting department a Network Organizational Structure ormal and informal communication networks that connect all parts ofthe company 0 Promote creativity and flexibility while maintaining operational process control based on IS 0 Extensive use of communication technologies and networks also makes it easier to coordinate across functional boundaries 0 Example HampM outsources its clothing to a network of 700 suppliers Not owning any factories HampM can be more flexible in lowering its costs which aligns with its lowcost strategy Product Operatioiul Cux mr Leadership Excalloncv Inlimaty Value chain iProduci iocusi Value shop Opportunity locust Value ttilwork ansl imir Customer lowsl mel llm SLA Matrix a Service Availability define the availability ofthe service eg 9995 uptime a System Response Time define response time of various transactions a Customer Service Response Time a response on customer enquiries should take no more than an allotted time a Service Outage Resolution Time time it takes to restore a service after outa e Failover Window For Disaster Recovery how long will it take to restore the service in a disaster recovery a Reclaiming Customer Data transfer all the data in case the customer leaves the service a RFO Reason for Outage a report to customers following a service outage explaining its reason Week 9 Business Intelligence Chapter 9 2 owolste oi ti vt Reporting systems llil gl39nlll39 mth r 39 I l l t s u v v v x r J onlrtu grouping skimming relevant Culal and timely and formatting Produce Information to the right person atlmlttlsturrtd deliver reports Datlatnlning umlnl ul quot k systems tedtrtiques to find patterns discovering patterns and and relationships relationships In data to predia ure outcomes Knowledge Share knowledge of products Improve detisions by publishing management product uses best practices employee and others39 knowledge systems ElC among employees Create value from existing managerscustomersand intellectual capital Foster others innuvarionjrnprovr custolner scrvlcr Incense organizational responsiveness and reduce Costs sun 45 4 pub the form of ll fhen rules and nonexperts by encoding process those rules to make a saving and processing expert diagnosis or recommendation knowledge Q3 What problems do operational data pose for BI systems Raw data usually unsuitable for sophisticated reporting or data mining Dirty Missing values 0 O a Inconsistent data C O Data not integrated Wrong granularity 0 Too fine 0 Not fine enough a Too much data 0 Too many attributes 0 Too many data points Q4 What are the purpose and components of a data warehouse Data 0 3 j Eer onak warehouse Warehous as m Metadma Databaseg a 39 J x 1 i 0 i Dam V ther Extraction Data Business 39ilnlernalt b Cleaning 39 Data Tuu DBMS Tools Programs t I v 391 5 ternall a 1 i Data 1 i 1 Business Intelligence Users Q6 What are the characteristics of data mining systems Statistics Artificial Intelligence Mathematics Machine Learning Sophisticated Cheap CmDUte39 Marketing Financeand 9 Processmg and 01m Buginess Management 510399 Professionals Technology In addition you should know about from slides Why do organizations need business intelligence Business coect massive amounts of data Reveal important patterns of relationships and valuable information buried in that data Relationship between the different types of BI systems and decision levels Operalional Bl Tactical Bl Strategic BI Business focus Manage daily a erations Conduct short term Achieve longterm integratequot Bl wit analysis to achieve organizational goals operational systems strategic goals Primary users Managers analysts Executives managers Executives managers operationalusers Time frame lntraday Daylsi ro weeks to Months to years months Data Realtime metrics Historical metrics Historical metrics Data Information and BI Data raw facts that describe the characteristic of an event Information data converted into a meaningful and useful context Business intelligence applications and technologies that are used to support decisionmaking efforts
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