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by: Trinity Ratke DVM

InternationalPolitics PSCI150

Marketplace > Drexel University > Political Science > PSCI150 > InternationalPolitics
Trinity Ratke DVM
GPA 3.75


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Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trinity Ratke DVM on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI150 at Drexel University taught by DanielFriedheim in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/212371/psci150-drexel-university in Political Science at Drexel University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
5 E N U39 0quot gt1 9 Trade amp Money Bretton Woods System 7 a post World War II arrangement for managing the world economy established at a meeting in Bretton Woods New Hampshire in 1944 Its main institutional components are the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund central bank 7 an institution common in industrialized countries whose major tasks are to maintain the value of the state s currency and to control in ation Comparative advantage 7 the principle that says states should specialize in trading goods that they produce with the greatest relative ef ciency and at the lowest relative cost Devaluation 7a unilateral move to reduce the value of a currency by changing a xed or of cial exchange rate Doha Round 7 a series of negotiations under the World Trade Organization that began in Doha Qatar in 2001 It followed the Uruguay Round and has focused on agricultural subsidies intellectual property and other issues exchange rate 7 the rate at which one state s currency can be exchanged for the currency of another state Since 1973 the international monetary system has depended mainly on oating rather than xed exchange rates free trade 7 the ow of goods and services across national boundaries unimpeded by tariffs or other restrictions in principle free trade was a key aspect in Britain s policy after 1846 and of US policy after 1945 GATT 7 A world organization established in 1947 to work for freer trade on a multilateral basis the GATT was more of a negotiating framework than an administrative institution It became the WTO in 1995 Hyperin ation 7 an extremely rapid uncontrolled rise in prices such an event occurred in Germany in the 1920 s and some poor countries more recently IMF 7International Monetary Fund An intergovernmental organization that coordinates International currency exchange the balance of international payments and national accounts Along with the World Bank it s a pillar of the international nancial system intellectual property right7the legal protection of the original works of inventors authors creators and performers under patent copy right and trademark law Such rights become a contentious area of trade negotiations in the 1990s MN C multinational corporation a company based in one state with af liated branches or subsidiaries operating in other states NAFTA North American Free T radeAgreernent 9 Canada US Mexico non tariff barriers 7 forms of restricting imports other than tariffs such as quotas OPEC 7 the most prominent cartel in the international economy its members control about half the world s total oil exports enough to affect the world price of oil Protectionism the protection of domestic industries against international competition Ch l Ch E gt1 0quot U39 9 0 7 8 9 by trade tariffs and other means service sector7the part of an economy that concerns service as opposed to the production of tangible goods the key focus in international trade negotiations is on banking insurance amp related nancial services Tariff 7 a duty or tax levied on certain types of imports as they enter a country World Bank 7 Formally the Intemational Bank for Reconstruction and Development an organization that was established in 1944 as a source of loans to help Reconstruct the European economies Later the main borrowers were developing countries and in 1990s Eastern European ones WTO 7 expanded GATT s traditional focus on manufactured goods and created monitoring and enforcement mechanisms IOs Int Law amp HR Amnesty International 7 an in uential nongovernmental organization that operates globally to monitor and try to rectify glaring abuses of political human rights crimes against humanity 7 a category of legal offenses created at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II to encompass genocide and other acts committed by the political and military leaders of the Third Reich Nazi Germany diplomatic immunity 7 a privilege under which diplomats activities fall outside the jurisdiction of the host country s national courts EU 7 European community and associated treaty organizations Euro 7 aka the ECU European currency unit single European currency used by 16 members of the EU ICC 7Internati0nal Criminal Court a permanent tribunal for war crimes amp crimes against humanity ICRC Red Cross 7 NGO hat provides practical support like medical care food and letters from home to civilians caught in wars and to POWs Exchange of POWs is usually negotiated through the ICRC international organizations 7 like IGO s 9 the UN amp NGOs like the Red Cross responsibility to protect 7 principle adopted by world leaders in 2005 holding governments responsible for protecting civilians from genocide and crimes against humanity perpetrated within a sovereign state UN Charter 7 the founding document of the UN based on the principles that states are equal have sovereignty over their own affairs enjoy independence and territorial integrity and must ful ll international obligations lays out structures amp methods of UN 11 UN General Assembly 7 A body composed of representatives of all states that allocates UN funds passes nonbindin 39 quot and quot economic 39 39 programs and various autonomous agencies through the Economic and Social Counsel 12 UN Security Council 7 a body of ve great powers can veto resolutions and ten rotating member states that makes decisions about international peace and security including the dispatch of UN peacekeeping forces 13 war crimes 7violations of the law governing the conduct of warfare such as by mistreating prisoners of war or unnecessarily targeting civilians 14 WHO 7 an organization based in Geneva that provides technical assistance to improve health conditions in the developing world and conducts major immunization campaigns 15 World Court 7the judicial arm of the UN located in the Hague hears only cases between states Ch 7 North South 1 quotfour tigersquot 7 the most successful newly industrialized areas of East Asia South Korea Taiwan Hong Kong and Singapore 2 basic human needs 7 fundamental needs of people are adequate food shelter healthcare sanitation and education seen as moral imperative and form of investment in human capital essential for economic growth 3 cash crop an agricultural good produced as a commodity for export to world markets 4 DAC 7DevelopmentAssistance Committee a committee whose members consist of states from Western Europe North America and JapanPacific that provide 95 of official development assistance to countries of the global south 5 developing countries 7 states in the global South the poorest regions of the world also called third world countries less developed countries or undeveloped countries 6 export led growth 7 an economic development strategy that seeks to develop industries capable of competing in speci c niches in the world economy 7 foreign assistance money or other aid made available to states in the global south to help them speed up economic development or meet humanitarian needs Most foreign assistance is provided by governments and is called of cial development assistance 8 IMF conditionality 7 an agreement to loan IMF funds on the condition that certain government policies are adopted Dozens of developing countries have entered into such agreements with the IMFG in the past two decades 9 import substitution 7 a strategy of developing local industries often conducted behind protectionist barriers to produce items that a country had been importing 10 micro credit 7 the use of very small loans to small groups of individuals often women to stimulate economic development Ch 8 Envi 1 N W 5 U 0 gt1 9 Millennium Development Goals 7 UN targets for basic needs measures such as reducing poverty and hunger adopted in 2000 with a target date of 2015 NIC39s 7 newly industrializing countries countries in the global south that have achieved self sustaining capital accumulation with impressive economic growth The most successful are the four tigers or four dragons North South gap 7the disparity in resources income wealth and power between the industrialized relatively rich countries of the west and former east and the poorer countries of Africa the Middle East and much of Asia and Latin America Refugees 7 people eeing their countries to nd refuge from war natural disaster or political persecution International law distinguishes them from migrants subsistence farming 7 rural communities growing food mainly for their own consumption rather than for sale in local or world markets UNDP 7 UN developmentProgram a program that coordinates the ow of multilateral development assistance and manages 5000 projects at once around the world focusing especially on technical development assistance ronment Technology acid rain 7 rain caused by air pollution that damages trees and often crosses borders Limiting acid rain via limiting nitrogen oxide emissions has been the subject of several regional agreements global warming 7 a slow longterm rise in the average world temperature caused by the emission of greenhouse gases produced by burning fossil fuels oil coal and natural gas digital divide 7the gap in access to information technologies between rich and poor people and between the global north and south greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and other gases that when concentrated in the atmosphere act like the glass in the greenhouse holding energy in and leading to global warming Kyoto Protocol 1997 the main international treaty on global warming which entered into effect in 2005 and mandates cuts in carbon emissions in 20082012 Almost all the world s major countries except the US are participants Montreal Protocol 1987 7 an agreement on protection of the ozone layer in which states pledged to reduce and then eliminate use of chloro uorocarbons CFCs Most successful environmental treaty oz one layer 7 the part of the atmosphere that screens out harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun certain chemicals used in industrial economies break the ozone layer down tragedy of the commons 7 a collective goods dilemma that is rated when common environmental assets such as the world s sheries are depleted or degraded through the N E 4 0 gt1 9 0 0 failure of states to cooperate effectively One solution is to enclose the commons split them into individually owned pieces international regimes can also be a partial solution 9 UN EP 7 UN Environmental Program a program that monitors environmental conditions and among other activities works with the World Meteorological Organization to measure changes in global climate 70 examples in Goldstein index Africa African Union AU 7 helps supports the African Humans Rights Commissions Agency for Internat39l Development USAID 7 main agency that dispenses US foreign economic assistance which works mainly with the US embassy in each recipient country alBashir 7the president of Sudan who was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity and the ICC issued a warrant for his arrest Anan Ko 7 Secretary General of the UN Asia tsunami 7 December of 2004 showed new found success of international community in coordinating relief efforts ATampT 7 multinational corporation that sells a service blue helmets 7name for UN Peacekeepers Brazil rainforests 7 contains one of the largest rainforests can exploit its forests for gaining economic bene ts capital accumulation 7 carbon dioxide 7 responsible for 23 of the greenhouse affect China economic development 7 growing in income China carbon dioxide 7 has total production of carbon dioxide higher than that of the US and its fast growing coal burning economy is a major factor in global warming chloro uorocarbons CFCs 7 chief culprits that break down the ozone layer found in refrigeration and aerosol sprays UI ON 00 O N O N N L N 4 N UI N ON N l N 0 LA 0 collective goods environmental 7 because environmental effects tend to be diffuse and long term and because such effects easily spread from one location to another international environmental politics creates difficult collective goods problems Corruption 7 China economic development IMF restraint international trade Iraq oil for food programs MNCs and host countries too many to look up Currency 7 money dollar US 7 Betton Woods American currency education 7 can be affected by capital accumulation discrimination against women poverty enforcement international law 7 depends on power of states either individually or collectively sanctions reciprocity and collective responses World Court environment sustainable development 7 refers to economic growth that don t deplete resources or destroy ecosystems Eg 1992 Earth Summit produced overall plan whereby large states in global south promise to industrialize along cleaner lines epistemic communities 7 communities of exports from various sates that structure the way states manage environmental issues eg the transnational community of experts and policy makers concerned with pollution in the Mediterranean ExxonMobil 7 one of the top multinational corporations Federal Reserve 7the central bank of the united states affects economy by releasing or hoarding its money internationally it does this by intervening in currency markets foreign direct investment General Motors GM 7 multinational corporation Grameen Bank 7 in Bangladesh won the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize successful model for using microcredit Greenpeace 7 convinced signers of the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 to turn Antarctica into a world park Group of Seven G7 7 worked on economic issues in world Guinea 7 coup d etat seizure of political power by military forces when military leaders took control of guinea after the death of the civilian president politicians and uncooperative military officers were killed LA m N LA L U A LA UI U 0 U 1 LA 00 U 50 A o A A N A U A A A u A ON A 1 A 00 Haiti 7 UN troops there trying to maintain stability after a military coup considered to one of the top 5 corrupt nations HawleySmoot Act 7 developed in 1930 and imposed tariffs on imports contributed to the severity of the depression and the setback of the world economies and reduced world trade health and healthcare 7who cares Hong Kong 7 l of 4 most successful newly industrializing countries four tigers Human Rights Watch 7 group that also monitors and tries to rectify glaring abuses of human rights just like Amnesty International but works with a more regional or national focus India economic development 7 starting to rise out of poverty and into relative prosperity as an NIC could be a repetition of China s rise out of poverty niche is in the service and information sectors of the world infant industry 7 new industries that states will try to protect before they can move into the world market in ation 7 shit happens information technologies 7 intemet tv radio etc etc Inter PanelClimate Change IPCC 7 International Olympic Committee IOC 7 NGO for a cultural purpose Internet 7 some bullshit Japan automobiles 7they make cars Kimoon Ban 7 secretary general of the UN as of 2007 from South Korea focused on UN reform economic development human rights terrorism proliferation environmental problems and HIVAIDS Kosovo UN in laws of war 7 war crimes crimes against humanity genocide international criminal court Red Cross etc literacy 7 being able to read bitch malaria 7 disease in Africa comes from mosquitoes VI 0 UI UI UI UI U U N UI ON UI UI VI 0 00 ON 0 IO 00 Malaysia 7 democracy has rain forests economic development Mexico 7 NAFTA settled dispute in World Court oil exports from income Millennium Challenge Account 7 increases US aid but only to governments with certain policies such as rule of law control of corruption investment in education and sound scal management MorenoOcampo 7 chief prosecutor for the International Criminal Court Nigeria oil 7 major oil exporter Nike 7 accused of use of sweatshops but adopted program to end the worst abuse Obama on global warming 7 vowed to redirect US policy and work more closely with other countries to tackle global warming Peacekeeping 7 UN shit permanent members 7 ve members of UN Security Council US Britain France China Russia pollution 7 poverty 7 being broke prisoners of war POWs 7 see de nition resolutions of Security Council 7 shit the UN passes Rwanda war crimes 7 tribunal held for genocide that took place here Russia oil Saudi Arabia oil 7 OPEC South Korea economic development 7 one of the four tigers countries Sudan peacekeeping force Thailand economic development 7 UN High Comm for Refugees UNHCR United States Kyoto UN 7 US didn t sign Kyoto Protocol WalMart 7 multinational corporation 25 50 Multiple Choice 7 Goldstein Study Guide 6 out of8 30 Short Answer 7 9 Articles 6 videos 3 maps and 3 tables gures l of 2 20 Short Essay 7 What are some examples of how states have cooperated to get something done Also show something they have failed to cooperate on 7 h for EC Kyoto Montreal Limiting Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases DAC Possible Short Answers Name Members on the G20 the OGs Brazil Argentina US UK China India Russia France Italy Germany What was the woman in the Kiva video making peanut butter The video shows an NGO Kiva who helps out Zimbabwe was a failed state where money didn t need to go Bio Diversity and IMF conditionality know it World Bank and IMF make up the Bretton Woods System Name a country who devalued because of dropping currency value Russia Brazil acted really quickly and avoided the nancial crisis


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