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Art History Final Exam Review Archaic Greek 700500 BC Kore 630 80 Greek for maiden statue purpose but many made life size marble some oforiginal painting big staring eyes long hair braided archaic smile Kouros male counterpart 600 BC boy nude not modest a unlike Egyptian culture nudity for slaves probably represent young athlete very frontal stepping fonNard Egyptian influence enlarged eyes detailed hair mesopotamia Parthenon temple looks symmetrical gt actually not curved lines a optical correction illusion of perfection b all columns lean inward slightly 3 orders gt style of architecture a enables architect to have choices bdonc c ionic 500400 80 d corinthian 300 BC style is objective Parthenon doric a has no base b columns are short amp squat 1 columns not evenly spaced c capital head of column dish shaped d frieze horizon decorative band 1 triglyphs metal ps square 2 covered w relief sculpture Erechtheion ionic a designed to commemorate ruler ofAthens amp where they thought mythological games took place b irregular c meant to have another wing d has base 1 curvilinear transition horizontal gt vertical e proportions more slender diameterX 8 height f capital has scrolls side gt horizontal bar g frieze of sculpture h pilaster column in relief i caricat sp large female sculptures daughter of carie j ex Temple ofAthena Nike Corinthian a Roman preferred more decorative b cylindrical cbase d more slender 101 h Youthful Dying Warrior from Temple of Aphaia 490 BC late archaic Athena in the center larger height is triangular two different interpretations more variety more movement more naturalistic fig leaves covering genitals added later looks like kore archaic smile a armed w helmet amp shield b aegis Classical Greek 450 BC Doryphorous spear holder used to celebrate javelin thrower nude very naturalistic gt muscles blood vessels contrapposto gt formula for more naturalistic stance a one foot bearing weight head above that foot b upper body goes the other way Riace Warrior original Greek bronze similar anatomy amp stance bearded archaic repetition found ofthe coast of southern ltlay Discobolos disc thrower Roman copy originally bronze Greek ideal gt same face same body type geometric quality Dying Niobid Daughter of Naiobi hubris cocky gt said her children were more beautiful than gods hand behind head gt dying almost nude gt gure from a myth okay gods shoot down sons amp daughters part ofa group acting out myth no expression Zeus or Poseidon powerful god gt not sure which one naturalisticidealized repetitious curly hair Stele of Hegeso his tomb stone idealized no portraiture no expression shows her seated in chair feet on foot stool a chair has no back back throne servant girldaughter bringing jewelry box a taking out trinket evokes emotion through connotation not expression Balustrade of Nike from Temple of Nike damaged gt head broken off figure wearing tightened sheet reaching down amp tugging at sandals a not as graceful as artist makes it look Greeks took off shoes when entering houses coming home a work is done Greek sculptures are very subtle Transitional Greek Apollo Belvedere 400 BC sun god femininesensual gt Helenistic fashion plate hairpretty facesoft body contraposto amp fine lines gt classical carrying arrows Chlamis gt wearing tree trunk holding it up Farnase Hercules 400 BC idealized strength has a club Helenistic Greek Mausolus 350 BC portrait from tomb drapery not idealized more naturalistic Nike of Samothrace 200 BC goddess of victory headlessarmless parts never found celebrate naval victories ship monument a prowl of warship powerful moving drapery gt very naturalistic pressed by the wind The Dying Trumpeter dropped his trumpet gal gt barbaric tribal male not civilized a Greeks had respect for noble death struggle tired weak feel sympathy for gt pathos a expression blood vessels popping out Laocoon 100 BC myth from War of Troy Greek priest on the side attacking the Trojans was going to tell the Trojans about horse plot a gods had serpents come out of the sea amp kill him and sons powerful naturalism movement expression best example of Helenistic most frequently copied can see the pain discovered in 1506 went into pope s collection The Boxer 50 BC lifesize bronze thought to be original sits low on rock formation more like gladiator sport meant to kill opponent scars broken nose beard gt cushions the blow leather wrap around hands Greek Painting Dipylon Vase 800 BC name of cemetery outside Athens grave monuments hole allows liquid offerings libations geometric style gt straight lines parallels etc figures composed of abstractgeometric shapes funeral scene deceased driving chariot life being depicted no perspective no foreshortening Achilles amp Ajax Playing Dice 500 BC black figure gt went out of style in 525 80 by Exekias amphora two figures create symmetry around table pointy beard fits in w archaic repetitious pattern tension relaxation during the war a yet heels up ready to spring into action Eos amp Menmnon 500 BC by Douris red gure gt less outline Eos gt goddess of dawn Memnon gt holding dead son killed by Achilles tears dew Archaic repetition stiffness in body Memnon s limp body contrasts w lift of Eos wings looking down into bowl Roman Imperial Art 100 BC500 AD Temple of Portunus 80 BC Portunus god of port not distinctly different from Greek ionic base 8 d tall Portrait of Constantine early 4th C marble head gure abstract not a portrait Augustan classicism fragment of seated portrait in Basilica of Constantine head gt 8 ft tall disproportionatedeeply carved eyes stiff frontality iconic quality soft modeling of cheeks and mouth naturalistic full cap of hair amp absence of beard gt Trajan amp Augustus Arch of Constantine 320 AD triumph parade a highest recognition that could be given to a general Constantine 300 AD a 1st Christian Emperor b divine inspiration pilasters of corinthian style barrel vault composed of wedges shaped stones a key stone sculpture b formula for doors amp windows more is better gt richly decorated sculpture barrel vault gt round arch extended horizontally Maison Carree Square House 2nd C BC Nimes French Corinthian order stands on high podium deep porch exactly like Greek Pont du Garde aqueduct gt flow of water from source rows of barrel vaults distinctively Roman gt engineering practical Colosseum 7080 AD Nero gt statue nearby Colosso amphitheater gt for gladiator games amp mock sea battles 159 ft high held over 50000 spectators concrete rows amp columns of barrel vaults arches surrounded by columns order a super imposed orders 1 tuscan doric corinthian Pantheon 7080 AD based on Greek words pan across amp theon theistic temple of all the gods gt Helenistic concept pedimented porch corinthian dome w 27 ft hole oculus plain exterior lavishdecorative interior by Agrippa stood and raised on a podium porticoes framed the three sides of the court Augustus of Primaporta 20 CE emperor turned to Helenistic style portraits depict his ageless youth wearing battledress smooth features Greek imitation Doryphoros cupid next to ankle riding a dolphin a used as strut to strengthen marble b Cupid son of Venus symbolized Augustus claim of descent from the goddess of love through ancestor Aeneas b dolphin sea prevailed over Mark Anthony amp Cleopatra c project image of earthly amp divinely ordained power breastplate evokes event a Parthians returned standards they captured to Roman shame b Tiberius accepts the standards c cosmic and eternal signi cance emperor barefoot divine status Vespasian 75 CE veristic style of portrait emperor harsh matteroffact image Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aureleius 120 BC emperor general important stoic philosopher a Meditation surrounded by fools amp learn to endure fought against barbarians longest surviving Equestrian bronze very naturalistic him amp horse arm stretched in mercy bearded abstract a eyelids fall in languid fashion remote quality Ara Pacis 13 AD marble two entrances allegorical something abstract represented in concrete form figures b personification represented by people 0 amp people from Rome s legendary past west end gt shewolf suckling infants Romulus and Remus under watchful eyes of shepherd a amp Aeneas makes sacri ce at an altar east end gt Tara Mother Earth seated on weapons balances a panel a Earth in times of peace beautiful amp fruitful 1 children fruit wellfed animals b meant to imagine contrast between peace amp war b classical form c winds ride on dragons d pitcher spilled over amp pouring out water river Imperial Processions Ara Pacis 13 AD north and south sides friezes dimension control portraiture of imperial family priests and senators record of day ofaltar s dedication preference for Greek styles Arch of Titus 80 AD commemorates Titus victory against the Jews a put down Jewish rebellion for economic practicality b destroyed The Temple Jerusalem left side emperor pulled in chariot by 4 white horses a victory is supposed to follow amp whisper in his ear Remember you are only mortal right literal depiction brought back menorah amp other sacred furniture from the Temple men wearing victory wreaths advanced in naturalism rhythmic movement layenng impression of depth Column of Tr jan 120 AD 125 tall r099 v street level has risen spiraling band of relief sculpture probably didnt have high buildings around it appears to have same hands of execution a no artistic individuality latin inscriptions on base detailed gt Roman army marching over the river a river god watching b made boat bridge c naturalistic d one event to another narrative detail 2 gt a throwing spears out b Romans in lockstep formation 1 when they get close enough they drop it amp throw their weapons Early Christian Old St Peter s Basilica 329 AD Rome Italy built on Vatican Hill gt directly over St Peter s grave apostle s martyrium building that housed sacred relicsremains of holy person basilicas gt most important Constantinian church structure long nave flanked by side aisles lit by clerestory windows in upper part of wall apse at west end trussed wooden roof spacious interior needed to accommodate large number of people enter through atrium colonnaded court nartheX entrance hall triumphal arch separates the nave from the apse transept separate space placed perpendicular to the nave and aisle altar gt focal point long end of nave 4 courts gt enable transition from citylife to church a open in middle b surrounded by 4 porches Santa Costanza 350 AD roundpolygonal shape capped by dome gt funerary function mausoleum of Constantine s daughter Constania built over catacomb focus gt central space clerestory windows dome supported by 12 pairs of columns 4 ofthe arches ofthe colonnade stand slightly higher a suggest cross inscribed in circle ambulatory gt encircles the building ringshaped aisle a covered by barrel vault ater gt inlay in wall covered by arch more decorative interior Roman a double columns b Corinthian capitals Mausoleum of Galla Placida 450 AD named after Honorius sister ruled the empire as regent a believed she was buried there behind San Vitale central plan gt form of Greek cross arms of equal length plain exterior brick walls rich interior a analogous ofthe Kingdom of God b simple in external body glorious in inner spirit barrel vaults amp dome covered w leaflike decorations and stars vaults gt apostles ank pair of doves and fountain one lunette gt St Lawrence shown beside flameracked grill a story of martyrdom b cabinet holding books gt 4 Gospels 1 martyred for refusing to surrender riches of Church to authorities another lunette gt The Good Shepherd a seated in full landscape b young man w attributes adopted from imperial art c halo gt sun king d gold robes amp purple scarf gt royal stature e realistic face owing hair amp garments f paradox gt Christ once human imperial and yet beyond it existing within glimmering realm gold Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus 359 AD marble Christian iconography prefect of Rome gt newly baptized inscription says classicism a deep space lled niches b figures seem capable of distributing weight c drapery reveals bodies beneath d narrative clarity divided by columns into 10 compartments a OT amp NT stories b typography gt story in OT referencing something in NT c use of St Peter and Paul 1 veritable saints of Rome Junius Roman of cial d Upper register 1 sacrifice of Isaac 2 St Petertaken prisoner 3 Christ enthroned between St Peter amp St Paul feet resting on Coelus Roman pagan god of heavens dispenses laws of disciples Junius acting for emperor 4 Jesus before Pontius Pilate 2 compartments cLower register Early Byzantine 1 Suffering of Job 2 Temptation ofAdam and Eve 3 Jesus entry into Jerusalem 4 Daniel in the Lion s Den 5 St Paul led to his martrydom San Vitale 547 AD Ravenna ltaly derived from Constantinople octagonal w circular core ambulatory brick exterior larger amp richer in spatial effect than Santa Costanza below clerestory gt nave wall turns into a series of semicircular niches that penetrate the ambulatory amp link the surrounding aisle to the nave aisle gt has 2nd story galleries gt reserved for women central axis asymmetrical church faces the east choir gt recessed alter in the center aisle covered by vaults free space under dome very colorful gt mosaics everywhere a Justinian Byzantine emperor wearing gold amp purple wears crown halo in pagan context w church men states men etc chirao gt sacred symbol of Christ Byzantine style gt frontal amp flat lFDFnPFDNf b Theodora 1 life size 2 flying symmetrically by lieutenants 3 noble women 4 maji gt at her feet worthy rulers 5 modeling gt chin darker stones 6 tall amp thin figures w huge eyes Hagia Sophia 537 AD Istanbul Turkey Church of Holy Wisdom gt Mother ofthe Universe architects Anthemius of Tralles amp lsidorus of Miletus Greek Pantheon on top of the Basilica of Constantinople Roman techniques gt columns barrel vaults etc longitudinal axis w dome in center half domes at either end a attached are semicircular apses w open arcades series ofarches dome rests on 4 arches a carry weight to piers large upright supports at corners of the square gold mosaic walls below arches pendentives gt triangle w curved concave sides a transition from square arches to circle dome Christ from Mt Sinai 6th Century AD icon freshness of color amp vibrancy of brushstroke linked w GraecoRoman portraiture a use ofencaustic b gradations of light amp shade in face amp neck frontal un inching gaze David Composing the Psalms 950 AD 1 of8 full page scenes landscape roman murals figures Roman models companions gt allegorical figures a woman gt personi cation of Melody b behind pillar gt mountain nymph Echo 0 male gure w tree trunk gt personi es mountains of Bethlehem crowded composition of space consuming figures abstract zigzag pattern of drapery Melody s legs Islamic Prayer Hall Great Masque of Cordoba 10th Century AD Spain typical Arab hypostyle hall rows of columns horseshoe arcades a arches alternating red amp white stone no centralized space mosque interior gt lavishly decorated w mosaics amp carved stone marble grilles gt geometric arabesque a carved out marble creating screen of stars and polygons Court of the Lions Alhambra Mid14th Century AD Granada Spain elegance beauty amp luxury center of court large stone basin carried on the backs of 12 lions a fountain a pressurized water coming from distant mountains 4 water channels 4 rivers of Paradise carry water into 4 pavilions on sides elaborately carved stucco Taj Mahal 1650 AD India royal tomb commissioned by Shah Jahan in memory of deceased wife Mumtaz Mahal white marble lavishly inlaid w color stones in the form of flowers vines amp inscriptions quadripartite formal garden w 4 axial pools in Persian style Dark Ages Sutton Hoo ship burial 1st half of 7th Century AD purse cover Gold enamel amp garnet 3 hinges attached to leather straps ivory or bone background 4 pairs of symmetrical motifs man between facing animals in lower row upper design gt fighting animals whose tails legs amp jaws are elongated into bands that form complex intenNeaving pattern top left amp right interlacing bands ornamental device Cross Page Lindisfarne Gospels 700 AD Bishop Eadfrith decorated manuscript geometric frame gt animal interlace must have been drawn before painting Chi Rho lota Book of Kells 800 AD Book of Matthew illustrates Christ s initials XPI in Greek along side Christi autem generatio a now this is how the birth of Christ came about swirling design images ofhumans of natural world mice butter ies etc incorporated St Matthew Gospel Book of Charlemagne 800 AD found in Charlemagne s tomb golden halo conversant with Roman tradition a modeling of the forms b shading of face hands amp feet c bodyrevealing drapery d acanthus ornament on the wide frame gt appears like window Roman capital lettering rhythmic quality literally visualizing psalms St Matthew Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo 830 AD reliant on classical models similar pose to Gospel Book of Charlemagne filled with vibrant energy thickly painted drapery hills heave upward architecture and vegetation gt tossed about by whirlwind acanthus pattern gt window frame flickering line Utrecht Psalter 830 AD energetic form expressed with pen drawings conceptual parallel gt writing amp scenes represented St Michael s Hildesheim 1000 AD Ottonian age 2 choirs amp side entrances symmetrical 2 identical transepts each w tower gt where the transept amp nave cross supports of the nave arcade gt pair of columns separated by square piers a divides arcade into 3 equal units each w 3 openings harmonious balance between longitudinal and horizontal axes damaged by WWII gt restored in 1950 frescoes originally decorated wall space between arcade amp clerestory arched openings between crypt amp ambulatory Doors of Bishop Bernward Hildesheim cathedral 1015 AD bronze 1st monumental sculpture made by lostwax process over 16 ft in height 1st doors decorated w stories inlaid letters Roman characters 0T Themes NT Formation of Eve Paradise Lost then Noli Me Tangere Paradise Gained Eve presented to Adam Salutations 3 Mary s at the tomb Temptation amp the Fall Tree of Knowledge sin Crucifixation vs Tree of Life salvation Accusation amp judgment Judgment Judgment of Jesus of Adam and Eve by Pilate Expulsion from Paradise Separation from God vs Presentation of Reunion w God Jesus in Temple 0T Themes NT Adam amp Eve working first born sons Adoration of Magi Offerings by Cain amp Abel Abel s sacrificial lamb vs the Nativity Jesus Lamb of God Cain Slaying Abel Despair sin murder vs The Annunciation hope amp everlasting life St Luke Gospel Book of Otto Ill 1000 AD miniature symbolic image of ovenNhelming grandeur Gospel lies completed on lap gt the presenter holds of cluster of clouds gt tongues of light radiating a in it gt ox Luke s symbol 5 Hebrew prophets amp outer circle of angels bottom two lambs drinking lifegiving waters beneath his feet inscription Fonte patrum ductas bos agnis elicit undasquot a From the source ofthe fathers the ox brings forth a flow of water for the lambs Romanesque Portal SaintPierre Moissac 1115 AD Church of SaintPierre elaborately sculptured portal tympanum lunette above the lintel ofthe portal a Christ in Majesty in center 1 2nd coming gt judging mortals b Christ attended by 4 beasts accompany 2 angels amp 24 elders awe 0 style of carving abstraction amp activity 1 quivering lines borders of meandering ribbon patterns fluttering drape trumeau the center post supporting the lintel amp jambs sides of doors treated sculpturally a borrowing forms from Islam b human and animal forms treated w exibility Portal Autun 1120 AD Cathedral of SaintLazare sculptor gt Gislebertus tympanum of west portal gt Last Judgment a separates those saved from damned b Christ gt much largerthan any other figure 0 left apostles observing the weighing of souls on right d bottom dead rise from graves e far right Hell Eve Autun 1120 AD fragment ofthe lintel on north portal balanced by representation of Adam delicate gestures of grasping the fruit amp touching her cheek a sensual silhouette posture gt emulates slithering earthbound serpent a temptress as well as tempted Abbey church of SaintSavinsurGartrempe 1095 AD hall church nave vault lacks transverse arches nave gt well lit a 2 aisles carried almost to same height The Building of the Tower of Babel Saint Savin Early 12th Century part ofan extensive cycle of scenes from the OT on the vault dramatic design crowded w strenuous action God far left participates w narrative gt addresses the builders counterbalanced by Nimrod far right amp leader ofthe project scene of test of strength between God and mortals easy to read gt heavy dark contours amp emphatic gestures St John the Evangelist Gospel Book of Abbott Wedricus 1147 AD miniature style linked to northern France amp England ropelike loops of drapery energetic rhythm gt unifies composition controlled dynamics of every contour Pisa Cathedral and Baptistery 1053 AD fame poor foundation campanile freestanding tower separate baptistery gt early Christian precedents round form amp cone vault of tower gt Rotunda in Jerusalem plan early Christian basilica a transformed into Latin cross 3 equal lengths one longer b addition oftransept arms c dome marks crossing wooden roof groin vaults 2 barrel vaults intersect taller proportions gt galleries over aisles amp clerestory classical columns support nave amp aisle arcades Baptistery of Florence 1060 AD Baptistery of San Giovanni attempting to outstrip Pisa domed octagonal building long tradition of baptistery design a green amp white marble paneling b severely geometric lines triple arches on 2nd story Bayeux Tapestry 1066 AD complex relationship between the Normans and English embroidered linen frieze 230 ft long Harold accepted English throne gt William the Conqueror retaliated Gothic Choir St Denis 1100AD choir is rationally planned amp constructed a held together in new geometric way 7 wedgeshaped units fan out from center of apse a double ambulatory continuous space b outlined by network of slender arches ribs amp columns that sustain vaults ribbed groin vaultings based on pointed arch lightness a architectural forms gt graceful 1 slim columns spaciousness 2 large windows gt translucent walls stained glass heavy buttresses gt jut out between the chapels to contain upward pressure of the vaults regulated to exterior Chartres Cathedral 1200 AD surviving west facade spires gt tall towers w tapering roofs jamb figures gt essentially statues each w own axis a form continuous sequence linking 3 portals solemn spirit of gures amp increased physical bulk portals gt prophets kings amp queens of OT a harmony of spiritual and secular rule above door 4 evangelists flank Christ a below apostles amp 24 elders rebuilding gt re in 1194 Notre Dame Cathedral Paris 1155 AD transept barely exceeds width of facade adjacent to Seine River double ambulatory of choir continues directly into aisles sexpartite vaults no alternating system of supports originally fourpart elevation a oculi were inserted in place of the arcade triforium large clerestory windows amp slender forms vertical emphasis gt gothic trait west facade a original appearance except sculpture b lacelike arcade Amiens Cathedral 1220 AD high gothic style climax nave gt great height 70 ft a complete 4story elevation 140 ft narrower width 1 3 increased vertical integration gt use of shafts that rise directly through the capitals of the piers triforium and clerestory are connected visually vaults gt taut amp thin Jamb statues Reims Cathedral 1230 AD coronation cathedral of the kings of France broad transepts extend out portals on west facade a project fonNard as gabled porches b windows in place oftympana above doonNays c gallery raised until merges w 3rdstory arcade d rose windows e pinnacles small pointed elements capping piers buttresses etc 1 accentuate upward movement f sculptural decorations gt most lavish 1 sculptures not in original positions 2 gothic classicism 3 Annunciation amp Visitation sculptures interacting contrapposto 4 horizontal folds of cloth across women s abdomens emphasize physical bulk St Chapelle 1240 AD 2story building gt ground floor low chapel for court officials amp upper floor royal family had direct access rich colors elaborate patterns extensive amounts of gold stained glass complements covers most of the surface a historical amp biblical scenes that pre gure the sacred kingship of French monarchies above alter gt space left open tall thin lancets accentuate verticality exterior buttresses gt relatively modest a great amount of glass amp large size of windows b buttresses close to windows gt minimum shadow c 2 horizontal iron chains pass across the chapel s windows to reinforce Master Honore David and Goliath from the Prayer Book of Philip the Fair 1296 AD secular illuminations designed for use in SaintChappelle working in style derived from the Psaferofo Lous framework no longer dominates the composition larger gures amp more pronounced relieflike modeling a gentle shifts of color amp modulated white highlights figures dont appear to stand comfortably turneddown feet figures overlap frame gt depth Hours of Jeanne d Evreux 1330 AD depicted sculptural gures gt interest developed by Jean Pucelle book of hours gt prayer book illuminated for Jeanne d EvreuxQueen of France used for private prayer Annunciation on right Betrayal of Christ on left delicate grisaille painting in grays adds soft roundness to forms a enhance shading conveying heightened sense of relief Ekkehard and Uta 1250 AD from Naumburg Cathedral stone individual amp realistic a hand gestures handling ofdrapery xed gazes gt communicate human qualities w subtlety naturalism gt concern for personal identity gt social changes historical figures in sacred space painted ltalian Protorenaissance St Francis Preaching to the Birds 1290 AD from Basilica of San Francesco anonymous part of cycle of images from St Francis life saint s veneration of nature as manifestations of divine workmanship a all creatures are created equal Francis speaking to ock of birds astonished companion outdoors scene framing w trees amp blue background narrow earth ground naturalistic Francis gt focal point a central position amp halo body language gt expresses intense engagement w birds a bentover stance b hand movements Nicola Pisano Pulpit in the Baptistery of Pisa 1260 AD marble hexagonal pulpit 15 ft high colored marble columns classically inspired capitals carved leaf shapes gures symbolizing virtues a between cusped arches prophets sit in the spandrels area above the curve ofarches one nude male w lion cub on his shoulder amp a lion skin over his arm a Hercules b Daniel biblical faith allowed him to survive lion s den c Fortitude d contrapposto gt suggest movement Nativity scene densely crowded composition combines the Annunciation w Birth of Christ a relieftreated as a shallow box b Mary overpowers all other elements c midwives washing the child amp Joseph human touch d classicizing draperies Giovanni Pisano Nativity Pulpit in Pisa Cathedral 1300 AD same size amp material Nativity sheep amp trees fill right edge Mary dominates composition a younger mother attention to newborn b elongated proportions elegance amp detailed observation of nature swaying gures gt move more comfortably Andrea Pisano Bronze doors Florence Baptistry 1330 AD 28 separate panels mostly represent scenes from life of John the Baptist each vignette framed by Gothic quatrefoil ledge to support gures detail Baptism of Christ a Christ in center framed by John on right Cimabue Madonna 1280 AD depicting Madonna Enthroned sitting on altar 12 ft high occupy a heavy golden throne anked by rows of angels on either side Hebrew prophets holding scrolls below gesture gt presence of her son severe design amp solemn expression gt appropriate to the monumental scale Giotto Madonna 1310AD for Church of All Saints in Florence depicts Queen of Heaven amp son enthroned holy gures in the background figures appear in the light gtsolid gradual movement from light into dark angels kneeling at the throne gt dimension Giotto Arena Chapel frescoes 1305 AD blue eld w gold stars gt Heaven a dominates barrel vault b walls divided into 3 registers horizontal rows 1 narrative scenes representing Christ amp Mary 2 Annunciation appears at the altar 3 end of chapel gt Last Judgment