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This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Zoe Lipner on Wednesday September 17, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Biology of Nutrition & Health in Biosystem Engineering at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/17/14
Water 91714 509 PM The Special Properties of Water Water sustains all life as we know it The average cell is about 70 water by weight Almost every chemical process associated wlife occurs in water Water is a Polar Molecule Water 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom Polar molecules contain an uneven distribution of electrical charges that make one end of the molecule slightly negative and the other end slightly positive Hydrogen bonds form btwn positively charged hydrogen atoms amp adjacent negatively charged atoms Take home water sticks to itself but these aren39t permanent bonds Aqueous Solutions Solute solvent o Solute 9 substance that dissolves o Solvent 9 liquid substance like water What likes water o Hydrophilic molecules are polar and interact wwater o Charged substances ie ions What hates water o Hydrophobic molecules are typically nonpolar and do not associate wwater o Unchargedneutral substancesie lipids What is a mixture of 2 solutions which can39t dissolve 0 An emulsion Water39s Unique Properties The hydrogen bonds btwn water moleculesother substances generate an attractive force called cohesionadhesion Surface tension results from the pull of hydrogen atoms on the water molecules at the air water boundary Temperature regulator due to high heat capacity and evaporative cooling Ice is less dense than liquid water and floats An Q lots of hydrogen ions A E removes hydrogen ions A pH scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions on a scale of 014 Pure water is a neutral solvent amp has a pH of 7 What Do We Really Need to Survive 4 major classes of molecules are essential to life Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids Each of these molecules is made up of varying combinations of carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur OOOO Hydrocarbons An gganic molecule is one that contains at least one carbon hydrogen bond The backbone of all macromolecules Fossil fuels are old organisms Diamonds come from a variety of carbon sources 610 carbons in a chain Diamonds are just carbon atoms crushed together Bigger is Better Monomers 0 Individual units of a macromolecule Polymers o Chains of monomers bonded together How are they linked o Dehydration synthesis monomers 9 polymers Removing water from monomers to create the covalent bonds that link together to create polymers The Chemical Building Blocks of Life The properties of organic macromolecule depend 0 Their monomers o Clusters of atoms covalently bonded together called functional groups Carbohydrates Food Labels 0 Sugars Monosaccharide Glucose amp fructose sweeter Disaccharide Table sugar sucrose formed when 2 monosaccharide glucose amp fructose are covalently bonded Polysaccharides are large polymers built by linking many monosaccharides together 2 Depends on the type of polysaccharide Cellulose is the most common carbohydrate on earth Glucose is monomer for most common polysaccharide Cellulose can39t be broken down in our bodies amp starch plant energy are both found in plants amp Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide that stores energy in animal cells for rapid release when needed Chitin is produced in fungi and invertebrate for structural purposes Confusing SugarCarb Labeling Total carbs 20g 0 Fiber separate from other carbs has own recommended daily values 0 Sugars mono and di 0 Starch not listed 0 Sugars Fiber Starch 25g of carbs
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