Public houses, salons, enlightenment etc
Public houses, salons, enlightenment etc History 150C1
Popular in Europe in the Modern World
Popular in History
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by juan gomez on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 150C1 at University of Arizona taught by Minayo Nasiali in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Europe in the Modern World in History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Pubs Coffee Houses and Public Spheres 0 Key terms from Lecture 0 Public House One of England s oldest pubs dating to about the 12th century Social institution Social center for a village or a town 1750 there is about 15000 public houses Consumption of alcohol was really high Average was a minimum of 2 quarts of strong alcohol consumed a day Place to gather after hard day s work in the elds or city job Place were magistrates orjudges might hold court Business might be dealt here Place for men to spend time with each other Pubs were places were you could go meet people to see if you could get a job 0 Coffee House 18th century Coffee imported to Europe from Ottoman Empire in the 16th century Mostly for men to gather For a penny you could get a cup of coffee and engage in conversations or just reading any printed material 1862 rst coffee shop in London 1694 rst coffee shop in France quot Le Caf Procupequot They would speak about current events have debates and discussions Coffee houses were made meeting places as well for groups and organizations You are able to read any documents for or against the government Women were not allowed to go into coffee houses because they are supposed to be at home Women going out would not be ladylike Women to circulate freely in public might say that she was circulating her body freely in public Coffee houses provided pamphlets and newspapers because it was covered in the entrance fee Runners usually young boys would run from coffee house to coffee house yelling out what was going on Patron at a coffee house needed to be able to read Literacy increasing in 18th century Europe 0 Literacy rate for males rose from 30 to 70 percent by the mid18th century 0 Literacy rates were steadily increasing 0 4 times more books were published Print was in much wider circulation o It was much more popular Most houses had at least a bible in their house 0 People used bibles to write out a genealogical document Peoples read the same texts over and over Books began to be consumer items later on Became a source for pro t for publishers Most houses changed their reading habits Read works once then passed it to other people 0 People might read together it became a social action By the late 18th books were sold a lot People would read it only once then pass it on to other people Many more societies and clubs started appearing Having people from different social classes reading the same ideas caused hierarchies based on birth remained somewhat constant o The 0 Many people started mixing in they were sharing similar ideas 0 People started to hierarchies Wrote smart and had good ideas those ideas are more likely to be circulated Soon middle class peasants were going to classes going to plays operas as well as lecture clubs question previous Public Sphere The Public sphere is constituted by the gathering of individuals who come together freely to discuss and identify societal problems The idea of the public sphere suggests that these discussions among individuals have the potential to in uence poHUcalacUon Notion of public space where people can come together and go through with their affairs This became a zone between the private space and the government Individuals come together to nd common causes Public realm has multiple and varied rules Church and European monarchies established one precedent to enact themselves as a public existence Increased public spaces that are not easily controlled by the monarchs The media is an institution that works in the public sphere It is important for the public sphere Publishers are important too for distributing books Some of the royal societies could be associated with the public sphere Buying selling reading debating voting are things people do together outside of their homes 18705 cafes were places for people to meet 18th century is a period of questioning o The Enlightenment Enlightenment thinkers believed wholeheartedly in the power of human reason to illuminate the world rather than divine revelation Enlightenment thinkers encouraged and attitude re ection rather than an acceptance of received wisdom Freedom for art and aesthetics Broadlythinking critics about government and other deep topics Essay contest What is enlightenment 0 quotLack of determination and courage to use that intelligence without someone leading it Improved man s ability to reason Believed wholeheartedly that humans could change the world Enlightenment thinkers believed that Man had the ability to make sense of the world Criticism and thinking was the best way to make sense of the world Thinkers were interested in many things 0 Economic problems Distribution of wealth between rich and poor Justi cation of taxation Science problems Social problems Difference between individuals and the state There was also those that believed using ones thought was important but they were ambiguous towards this Very religious men thought they had the ability to question God Public Spheres and the Enlightenment part 2 0 Key terms from lecture o The Philosophes Referred to the French enlightenment Lovers of knowledge Men and women took all elds of knowledge under their charge Built on scienti c revolution thinkers laws Believed that they could come up with a unifying principle to make sense of the scienti c natural and social world Their main tool was reason Encouraged an attitude of critical examination and doubt They adopted a popular and accessible form of exposition o Wrote in German or English Wrote philosophy to t tastes of the middle class 0 Wrote injournals o Wrote satires ction plays re ection 0 L Encycopedie Parisian publishers attempting to create an encyclopedia Denis Diderot 17131784 0 Editor of L Encycopedie 17511772 Commissioned to create a comprehensive book containing information of the world 0 Come up with a set of books that will address every single thing in the world 0 Published from 1751 to 1772 o It had 17 volumes of information and 11 volumes of pictures 0 Overall it contained 18000 pages 0 Sold about 4000 books Encyclopedia s aim was to change how people think Hoped that the text would give information to the public and the generations They felt that people needed knowledge that could be applied to everyday life It caused controversy because of the stand the encyclopedia took on Catholicism and religion Organized alphabetical Considered to be an attack on religion Theology put under philosophy Theology is the study of religion 0 Philosophy is the study of ideas 0 Made people assume that religion was a random set of ideas 0 Religion was also set near black magic which might have also been seen as an attack 0 Voltaire FrancoisMaria Arouet 16941778 Wrote plays novels essays poetry and history Gathered his knowledge from Emilie Du Chatelet 0 Emilie du Chatelet Translated works of newton into French They became lovers and lived together along with her husband in the eastern estate in France Justi ed their behavior with natural law Voltaire cultivate a commitment to women s education and equality Laid the foundation for his attacks on Christianity Voltaire condemned the Catholic Church for millions of slaughtered natives in the Americas Condemned the persecution and execution ofJews and other heretics in Europe Voltaire becomes an admirer of England institutions during his exhile of 3 years In Candide Voltaire says that even the most innocent person will learn something by observing Candide s theme is selfexamination legal 0 The Spirit of the laws Baron Charles Secondat de Montesquieu 1689 1755 is the author of the spirit of the laws 1748 What spirit animates different forms of government a Republic founded on virtue 0 Rested on the citizens a Monarchy founded on honor 0 Pursuit by individual of distinction o Despotism based upon fear 0 An allpowerful ruler whose will is unchecked by any competing institution 0 Negation of good government Believed monarchy was the best government for France Political liberty had nothing to do with virtue or honon Political liberty he believed could only exists where political forces existent Balance of powers had to be 3 fold a The Balance and Separation of Powers 0 Execque 0 Legislative 0 Judiciary Right to a fair trial in uence of the government form of without 0 Salons Salon Society Frequent special guests and participants at salons Literary gatherings hosted by aristocratic women Prominent women would gather a circle of individuals for an evening of debate and communication Central idea was that the salon itself was part of the learning process Most brilliant thinkers were sought after to be in salons Madame Geoffrin s salon 0 Famous thinkers were part of this salon o Brought aristocracy and an intellectual aristocracy together Contributed big ideas about the world together 0 JeanJacques Rousseau Author of Emile 1762 The Social Contract 1763 Thought men would play peacock and try to get women Women must be con ned to the private sphere where they raise the children but do not concern themselves with public affairs Men were supposed to follow their reasons rather then follow their passions to attempt to get women Separation between the public and masculine world of politics Believed that segregating and creating private and public sphere would conducting oneself rational would work Described his ideal society were people summit to a regime of laws Talks about a social Locke s social contract a Locke believed that society became a group of individuals seeking protection of their personal properties Rousseau had a more radical idea of a social contract 0 Property was not a given right a People had to give up their freedom for the greater good a Choice to enter a society to become part of a calm and collected will contract similar to Acted rationally and enter a social contract naturally everyone s will would become the natural will of the society 0 Mary Wollstonecraft Vindication of the rights of Women 1792 Became a professional writer Enlightenment critique of monarchy should also be applied to the family Very critical of enlightenment writers Although she supported Rousseau she criticized his notion of women in the public sphere Question of Human Nature Was it universal If so what did all humans shares