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Date Created: 09/23/15
Drexel University MFSP 507 Dr HM Goldman February 16 2006 Bone Biology Introduction a Why study bone biology To make interpretations of skeletal remains we need to know more than just the external morphology of the bones Need to understand 39 anatomy at all levels of structure 39 the mechanical properties of bone ii39 related softtissue structures ofthe musculoskeletal system and their interaction with bone iv growth and development v morphology and functions ofthe joints b Bone Structure reflects its function c A bone is an organ that is formed in part by bone tissue d Bone has a hierarchical organization e Bone has a dynamic structure during life Bone Function a Structural Functions I ii movement iii support of soft tissues iv protection of internal organs b Metabolic Functions i provides a location for marrow for hematopoiesis ii Storage and metabolism of minerals eg calcium and phosphorus Bone Properties IV Bone Mechanics a Bone is subject to forces by everyday loads owing to its function in locomotion i Gravity ii Muscleligament pull b Bone are capable of sensing mechanical loads and modify their structure to accommodate these loads i Wolff s law every change in the form and function ofbones or oftheir function alone is followed by certain definite changes in their internal architecture and equally definite secondary alterations in their external conformation in accordance with mathematical lawsquot J Wolff as quoted by Keith 1918 c Mechanical Properties of Bone i Bone is viscoelastic ii Bone will therefore deform under FORCE Tens39 1 Ion 2 Compression 3 Shear 4 Torsion 5 Bending V Bone Composition a Bone is a composite material b Extracellular matrix has an organic component and an inorganic mineralized component i Organic collagen Gives flexibility and tensile strength ii lnorganic Mineral hydroxyapatite crystals Gives rigidity and compressive strength Vl Bone as an Organ vs Bone as a Tissue a What is a tissue A group of cells and their extracellular matrix that perform a similar function i Four tissue types 1 Epithelium 2 Connective Tissue 3 Muscle 4 Nerve ii Bone tissue is a specialized kind of connective tissue b What is an organ i A group of tissues which perform a specific function or group of functions c Bone at the organ level includes bone tissue along with other tissues i Cartilage ii Connective tissue coverings iii Marrow and vasculature d Bone organs function as part ofthe musculoskeletal system i In conjunction with muscles via tendons and ligaments ii Joined to one another via joints of various kinds Vll Bone Macrostructural Organization a Macrostructure i Bone size shape proportions joint surface areas muscle attachment areas etc ii Connective tissue coverings Periosteum and Endosteum iii Trabecular Cancellous bone vs Cortical Compact bone 1 Differentiate based on the amount of space porosity in the bone b Cancellous trabecular bone i thin plates of bone organized into interconnected vertical and horizontal struts ii found primarily in the flat bones of the skull the ends of long bones and other spongy bones such as the vertebrae c Cortical Compact bone i densely packed bone matrix consisting of much more bone than space ii Forms the outer cortex of all bones and is found in abundance along the shafts of long bones VIII Bone Microscopic divisions Each of the above bone types can have a variety of different microstructural appearances a Woven bone i deposited quickly during growth and in fracture repair ii First bone to appear during bone development 1 Can be laid down de novo where no bone has previously existed iii randomly oriented collagen fibers iv poorly organized mineral v highly cellular b Lamellar bone i Bone organized into sheets of aligned collagen ii Slow deposition rate 1 Circumferential Lamellar Bone 2 Secondary Osteons Haversian Systems a Bone organized in concentric rings of Iamellae around a central canal b Forms through the process of secondary remodeling c Functions 39 Repair of damaged bone Reorganization of bone matrix in response to mechanical loads ii39 VascularNerve supply d Important components of the Haversian System 39 Haversian Canal housing vasculaturenerve supply 39 Concentric Lamellae 39 Osteocyte lacunae iv Canaliculi v Cement Line v39 Interstitial Iamellae remnants of old Haversian Systems or remnant circumferential Iamellar bone c Other primary bone tissue types i Variety of tissue types form during growth and development vary from element to element and from species to species depending on whether animal is fast growing or slow growing large in body size or small 1 Example Plexiform Bone Xl Bone cells a Osteoblasts i Cells responsible for the formation of bone ii Lay down bone in the form of unmineralized osteoid which slowly accrues mineral over time iii Contains a single nucleus and are cuboidal in shape iv Derive from mesenchymal stem cells b Osteocytes 39 Mature differentiated osteoblasts that have become buried in mineralized bone matrix Responsible for the maintenance of bone involved in mineral homeostasis and may have mechanosensory role in the stimulation of remodeling Reside in small cavities called lacunae and communicate with one another through cell processes called canaliculi c Bone lining cells i Quiescent osteoblasts that line the surfaces of a bone formation region after osteoid production is complete ii Functions are similar to osteocytes d Osteoclasts 39 Cells responsible for removal resorption of bone Large multinucleated cells Closely related to macrophages iv Found in resorption bays howship s lacunae along the surfaces of bone A little bit about Cartilage a Functions i Flexibility and cushioning ii Covering of joint surfaces iii Developmental precursor of bone b Structure i Extracellular matrix ii Cells c Growth i Appositional ii Interstitial 1 isogenousgroups Introduction to Bone Formation Modeling and Remodeling Processes a lntramembranous Ossification b Endochondral Ossification c Modeling d Remodeling
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