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Date Created: 09/23/15
Forensic Anthropology MFSP 507 Dr H Goldman Winter Term 2006 Review Sheet The Skull Major Landmarks on the Skull may be composed of more than one bone Nasal aperture External auditory meatus Foramen magnum Zygomatic arches Sinuses Sutures Immovable joints found between skull bones 1 Coronal suture Between frontal and parietals rs 990375 2 Sagittal suture Between two parietals 3 Lambdoidal suture Between parietals and occipital 4 Squamosal suture Between temporals and parietals ll Bones of the Cranium A Frontal Bone Forms the forehead the anterior part of the cranium the roofs of the orbits eye sockets and most of the anterior part of the cranial floor Two sides of the frontal usually completely fuse early in life by age 2 although sometimes a metopic suture persists 1 Features Temporal lines Supercilliary arch or brow ridge Supraorbital notch or foramen Glabella Frontal Sinus Meningeal grooves 2 Articulations Sphenoid ethmoid parietals nasals maxillae lacrimals zygomatics 3519 B Parietal Bone These are paired bones that form the greater portion of the sides and roof of the cranial cavity The inner surfaces contain many protrusions and depressions to accommodate blood vessels supplying the superficial coverings of the brain dura mater 1 Features a parietal eminence or boss b temporal lines superior and inferior c ooves for middle meningeal vessels 2 Articulations opposite parietal frontal occipital temporal sphenoid C Occipital Bone This bone forms the posterior part and most of the base of the cranium At the base the foramen magnum is found with the occipital condyles at either side for articulation with the first vertebra 1 Features a external occipital protuberance b superior and inferior nuchal lines c occipital condyles d hypoglossa canal e Foramen magnum f Sagittal sulcus 9 Transverse sulcus h Internal occipital protuberance Articulations Parietals temporals sphenoid atlas i D Temporal Bone These are paired bones that form the inferior lateral aspects of the cranium and part of the cranial floor The bone has a squamous portion that is thin and flat forming the anterior and superior part of the temple The zygomatic process extends from this portion of the bone The petrous portion of the bone forms part of the floor of the cranial cavity and houses the internal and middle ear t Features a Squamous portion b Petrous portion c zygomatic process d external acoustic meatus e glenoid fossa mandibular fossa f mastoid process 9 internal acoustic meatus h styoid process i carotid canal 2 Articulations occipital parietal sphenoid mandible zygomatic E Sphenoid This butterfly shaped bone lies at the middle part of the base of the skull and articulates with all other cranial bones holding them together On the body of the sphenoid it is possible to see a depression called the sela turcica upon which the pituitary gland sits On and between the wings are a variety of foramina and fissures through which nerves and vessels pass 1 Features Corpus or body optic groove optic canal seIIa turcica Greater Wings Lesser Wings Superior orbital ssure optic foramen foramen rotundurn foramen ovae foramen spinosurn Pterygoid Processes with medial and lateral pterygoid plates 77 Clinoid processes A 39gt39P srsnp0vp 2 Articulations Vomer ethmoid frontal occipital parietals temporals zygomatics palatines F Ethmoid This light sponge like bone is located on the midline in the anterior part of the cranial floor just anterior to the sphenoid and posterior to the nasal bones This bone forms the anterior part of the cranial floor the medial wall of the orbits the superior parts of the nasal septum and forms a partition that divides the nasal cavity into right and left sides Note the cribriform plate and crista gall G Facial bones l Nasal The paired nasal bones meet at the midline and form part of the bridge of the nose 2 Maxilla Paired maxillae form the upper jawbone They also form part of the floors of the orbits and parts of the nasal cavity and most of the hard palate Look for the maxillary sinus and the aIveoIi See if you can find the frontal process infraorbita foramen and anterior nasal spine 3 Zygomatic Paired cheekbones forming the prominences of the cheeks and part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbit The temporal process on the zygomatic articulates with the zygomatic process of the temporal forming the zygomatic arch 4 Lacrimal Paired small thin bones that are located posterior and lateral to the nasal bones They form a small part of the medial wall of each orbit They contain tear ducts 5 Palatine Paired bones forming the posterior portion of the hard palate 6 Inferior These paired turbinate bones are scroll like in appearance sal forming part of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity Along Conchae with the conchae of the ethmoid they help to circulate and filter air before it passes to the lungs 7 Vomer Triangular bone forming the interior and posterior part of the nasal septum at the midline H Auditory Ossicles 1 Incus 2 Malleus 3 Stapes Mandible Lower jaw bone Consists of a body and vertical portions called the rami Each ramus has condyle that articulates with the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone forming the temporomandibular joint Note also the coronoid process mandibular notch neck angle the alveoli tooth sockets mandibular foramen mental foramen mental eminence and mental spines
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