Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes PSY 320
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eden Hutzel on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Michigan State University taught by f. leong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
PSY320 Chapter 2 Systems of the Body Complex network of connected nerve fibers Voluntary nerve impulses to skeletal muscles amp skin carries involuntary impulses to muscles amp glands 0 Brain 0 Spinal Cord I Injuries to CNS can be seriously damaging o Somatic Nervous System Voluntary Movement 0 Autonomic Nervous System Control organs that operate involuntarily I Sympathetic 9 Fight or flight mobilizes body for action I Parasympathetic 9 Maintains amp restores body back to equilibrium Command center for the body o Medulla Heart rate blood pressure respiration o Pons Helps control respiration amp link bt hind amp mid brain 0 Cerebellum Coordinates voluntary muscle movement Maintenance of I Balance amp Equilibrium I Muscle tone amp Posture o Responsible for the coordination of visual amp auditory reflexes o Thalamus Recognition of sensory stimuli relaying messages to cerebral cortex 0 Hypothalamus Regulates heart function blood pressure respiration thirst hunger sexual desire human instincts amp basic needs 0 Cerebral Cortex Higher processing memory intelligence personality planning Very important role in emotional responses amp stress 0 Amygdala Threat detection amp aggression o Hippocampus Emotionally charged memories amp shortterm memory 0 Hypothalamus Emotional functioning Chemical messengers that regulate the nervous system Secretion of epinephrine amp norepinephrine by the sympathetic nervous system Messages are received by the dendrites of neurons and sent down the axon where it will be shot out of the axon terminals into the synapse the space bt any 2 given neurons where it will be received and continue the process o Affects gt 3 million people in the US marked by seizures I Often idiopathic meaning there are no specific identified causes for symptoms 0 Chronic nonprogressive disorder marked by lack of muscle control I Usually stems from brain damage caused by interruption of oxygen to the brain usually in childbirth 0 Progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia which controls motor coordination marked by tremors rigidness slow movement I Most common in people 50 or older 0 Degenerative Autoimmune disease marked by can cause paralysis blindness deafness amp mental deterioration I Effects are result of disintegration of the myelin sheath the fatty protective covering for neuron s axons Immune system fails to recognize its own tissues and attacks the myelin sheath 0 Hereditary Disorder marked by chronic physical amp mental deterioration I Symptoms include muscle spasms loss of motor abilities and personality changes Carrier gene has been isolated can determine if you one will succumb to the disease 0 Viral disease that attacks the spinal nerves amp destroys cell bodies of motor neurons 9 motor impulses unable to be carried from spinal cord to peripheral nerves muscles I Depending on severity person may have difficulties walking shrunken ineffective limbs or full paralysis 0 Serious loss of cognitive ability beyond the norm expected from aging I Could be result of brain injury or from a progressive longterm decline Symptoms involve issues with memory attention language amp problem solving o Paralysis of the lower extremities of the body result of an injury to the lower portion of the spinal cord 0 Paralysis of all four extremities results from a severing in the upper portion of the spinal cord Made up of ductless glands that secrete hormones into the blood to stimulate changes in targeted organs Works with the nervous system to control all bodily activities 9 o Nervous System fastacting short duration responses 0 Endocrine System slowacting responses of long duration Regulated by O Located at the base of the brain has 2 lobes I Posterior Oxytocin produces contractions during labor amp lactation also involved in social affiliation I Anterior Hormones responsible for growth Somatotropic Hormone 5TH 9 regulates bone muscle amp organ development Gonadotropic Hormones 9 growth of amp secretion for testes amp ovanes Thyrotropic Hormone TSH 9 growth amp development of thyroid Adrenocorticotrpic Hormone 9 controls growth of cortex region of the adrenal glands o Small glands located on top of each of the kidneys I Each consists if an adrenal medulla hormones epinephrine norepinephrine amp adrenal cortex I In response to stress 1 9 Adrenal Cortex 9 Secretion of Cortiosteriods increases protein amp fat mobilization increases access to bodily energy storage inhibits antibody formation amp inflammation regulates sodium retention 2 Sympathetic Nervous System 9 Adrenal Medulla 9 Secretion of Catecholamines Epinephrine amp Norepinephrine Heart rate amp blood pressure increases breathing diverted to muscle tissues digestion slows down pupils dilate O 0 Chronic endocrine disorder in which the body is not able to manufacture or properly use insulin I Type Autoimmune disorder born with it I Type II Developed from poor lifestyle choices not enough exercise too much carbs sugar too much stress obesity Usually occurs after age 40 Every disease with have a different outcome and course depending on multiple complex factors including race gender culture and age Comprised of the heart blood vessels amp blood acts as the transportation system of the body Functions as the pump circulating blood throughout body 0 Left Atrium amp Ventricle Takes in oxygenated blood from lungs amp pumps out into the aorta 0 Right Atrium amp Ventricle Pumps blood back to the lungs via the pulmonary artery I Cardiac Cycle Regular rhythmic phases of contraction amp relaxation 9 Phases Systole Blood pumped out blood pressure in vessels increase Diastole Blood taken in muscles relax blood pressure drops 0 Chronic or excessively rapid heart rate decrease in heart s strength 9 reduced volume of blood pumped Arteries are narrowed hardened by plaque build up formed by deposits of cholesterol amp other substances 0 Reduces the flow of blood interferes with the passage of nutrients from capillaries Potential sites of blood clots cutting off the flow of blood I Angina Pectoris Heart has insufficient supply of oxygen inadequate removal of C02 amp other waste substances I Myocardial Infarction Ml Heart attack clot in coronary vessel blocking flow of blood to heart I lschemia Lack of blood flow amp oxygen to heart 34 million Americans have silent episodes wo knowing amp may consequently have a heart attack with no prior warming I Congestive Heart Failure Heart s delivery of oxygenrich blood is inadequate to meet the body s needs I Arrhythmia Irregular heart beating most severe cases can lead to loss of consciousness amp death Bacterial Infection originating in connective tissue can spread to heart affects heart valve functioning 0 People w this are vulnerable to endocardinitis the inflammation of the membrane lining the cavities of the heart o Force that blood exerts against the blood vessel walls 0 Highest 9 Systole 0 Lowest 9 Diastole I Influenced by Cardiac Output Pressure against arterial walls gt as volume of blood flow increases Peripheral Resistance Resistance to blood flow in the small arteries of the body arterioles Structure of Arterial Walls If damaged by clogged deposits walls will lose their elasticity 9 higher blood pressure 0 Adult contains quot 5 liters of blood consisting of plasma amp cells I Fluid portion of blood 55 of blood volume Contains plasma proteins electrolytes amp substances transported by the blood I Manufactured in bone marrow blood cells suspended in plasma White Important role in healing amp absorbing removing foreign substances 0 Elevated sign of infection Red Contain hemoglobin which carries oxygen amp C02 throughout the body 0 Anemia belownormal of red blood cells Lymphocytes Produces antibodies that destroy foreign substances important part of the immune system Platelets Clump together to block small holes that develop in blood vessels VERY important in blood clotting o Clots or Thromboses develop in blood vessels I Most likely to occur if arterial or venous walls have been damaged or roughened because of buildup of cholesterol Death is common with these conditions Brings in in Oxygen amp eliminates Carbon Dioxide 3 main functions taking in oxygen excreting carbon dioxide amp regulating the composition of the blood 0 Inspiration Bringing in of 02 9 lungs expand o Expiration Eliminating of C02 9 lungs volume reduces Severe allergic reactions caused by foreign substances 0 During attack muscles surrounding muscles around air tubes constrict inflammation amp swelling of the of the lining of the air tubes mucus secreted clogging the air tubes I Rising rates of prevalence Seasonal allergic reactions to foreign bodies enter the lungs o Prompt the body to produce histamines 9 release of mass amounts of fluids 9 Violent sneezing among other symptoms Respiratory system vulnerable to infections of the upper amp lower respiratory tract common cold etc o Discomfort congestion mucus o Incubation period 1272 hours I 2ndary bacterial infections may complicate illness as the person is more vulnerable Also very vulnerable strep whooping cough diphtheria 0 Can cause permanent damage to other tissues including the heart chronic Bronchitis emphysema 4 leading killer of of people in US 0 Not curable but preventable 0 Chief cause is smoking 80 of cases 2 Main Types 0 1 Lobar Primary infection of the entire lung 9 can spread to other organs MORE SERIOUS o 2 Bronchial Confined to the bronchi 9 typically a secondary infection 0 Tuberculosis Infection caused by bacteria that invade lung tissues 9 Caseation center of tubercle turns into cheesy mass 0 Pleurisy Inflammation of pleura the membrane that surrounds the organs in the thoracic cavity 9 produces sticky fluid usually a consequence of Pneumonia or Tuberculosis Disease of uncontrollable cell growth in the tissues of the lung 0 Divide amp rapidly produce a tumor Malignant cells grow faster 9 Metastasis spread to other parts of body I Shortness of breath coughing blood sometimes weight loss Smoking is one of the primary causes Converts food into energy through the process of the metabolism Route of Food in Digestive Tract o 1 Enters mouth saliva creates rounded lump called bolus o 2 Moves down esophagus through peristalsis o 3 Stomach produces to help with the digestion of food 0 4 As it moves through the pancreas secretes juices to breakdown proteins carbs amp fats Pancreas 9 Insulin facilitates the entry of glucose in body 0 5 Liver also helps by producing bile stored in gallbladder to break down fat 0 6 primary place of absorption produces to complete the breakdown of amino acids 0 7 largely acts as a storage organ for accumulation of food residue amp helps the reabsorption of water 0 8 Entry of feces into rectum 9 expulsion of solid waste Acid reflux due to changes in barrier bt esophagus amp stomach o Gastroenteritis Inflammation of the lining of the small intestine amp stomach I May be caused by excessive food or drink or food poisoning o Diarrhea Watery frequent bowl movements when lining of large intestines can t properly absorb water or digested food I Chronic 9 Serious disturbances of fluid electrolyte balance 0 Dysentery Similar to Diarrhea but mucus pus amp blood are also excreted I May be caused by a protozoan that attacks the large intestine in undeveloped countries among most common cause of death Open sore in the lining of the stomach duodenum 0 Results from hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid 9 Pepsin secreted into stomach digests portion of wall Occurs when wastes amp bacteria accumulate in the appendix 0 If ruptured amp bacteria is released into abdominal cavity or peritoneum can cause further infection or death Inflammation of the liver 9 swelling tenderness sometimes permanent damage Fatigue muscle joint aches nausea vomiting loss of appetite fever etc o Jaundice Yellowing of skin 0 Several types amp modes of transmission I HEP A Viruses transmitted through unsanitary or uncooked food I HEP B More serious form virus transmitted by transfusion of infected blood sexual contact unclean needles amp motherinfant contact I HEP C Spread via blood amp needles most commonly by blood transfusions I HEP D Mainly found in intravenous drug users who also carry HEP B which is necessary for D to spread I HEP E Resembles A but caused by different virus Consists of kidneys ureters bladder amp urethra I Chiefly responsible for regulation of bodily fluids 9 produce urine 0 Maintains water balance blood pH amp electrolyte balance Moves urine to the bladder through muscle peristalsis Reservoir for urine Conducts urine from bladder out of the body I Urine 9 Offers important diagnostic clues to many disorders I Pain especially during urination women higher susceptibility I Inflammation of the glomeruli in the nephrons of the kidneys that filter blood 0 Caused by infections toxins amp autoimmune diseases especially Lupus I Serious condition 9 Large of deaths worldwide I Destruction of the epithelial cells in the tubules of the kidneys o Poisons that destroy tubular epithelial cells amp severe circulatory shock most common causes I Severe disorder because of the inability to produce an adequate amount of urine causing waste products of metabolism to be retained in the body 0 Could require a transplant artificial kidney or dialysis I Cleanses the blood to remove excess salts water and metabolites Development of is controlled by the pituitary gland Anterior lobe produces gonadotropic hormones control development of Ovaries amp Testes I 2 located in pelvis each produce 1 ovum egg per month 9 discharged during ovulation into the fallopian tubes 0 Ovum remains in the uterine cavity for 14 days I If fertilized will develop into human if not will be flushed out w the uterine endometrium amp its blood vessels menstruation o Leads to development of secondary sex characteristics 9 breasts distribution of body fat body hair 0 Produced in the second 12 of the cycle to prepare body for pregnancy amp declines if pregnancy fails to occur I Interstitial cells produces Testosterone Also develops secondary sex characteristics 0 Produces sperm 9 pass through the uterus into fallopian tubes to fertilize ovum Sexually transmitted diseases 9 herpes gonorrhea syphilis genital warts chlamydia amp AIDS 0 Women Risk from STDs is chronic pelvic inflammatory disease 9 produces severe abdominal pain amp infections that can compromise fertility I Amenorrhea absence of menses Oligomenorrhea infrequent menses 0 Men 9 Testicular Prostate 0 Women 9 Gynecological Cervix Uterus Ovaries I Endometrial most common Ovarian most lethal Every 6 minutes a woman is diagnosed w a gynecological cancer in the US American Cancer Society 2012 I Inability to conceive after 1 year of regular sexual intercourse without contraception o quot10 of US couples experience 9 In Vitro Fertilization 33 success rate I Menopause not a disorder but woman s reproductive life ends no longer able to conceive Symptoms Sleep disturbances hot flashes forgetfulness dizziness joint pain 0 Hormone Therapy Helps treat symptoms but now is believed to correlated with diseases amp cancers developing I Determines gender 46 total 0 XX Female XY Male I Provides valuable information about inheritance susceptibility to disease amp much more 0 Family Studies Determines which genes are inherited between blood relatives 0 Twin Research If genetically transmitted identical twins will more commonly share it than fraternal because they share the same genetic makeup 0 Adoption Studies If genetically inherited adopted children should share more genes heritability with biological parents vs adoptive I Environment Genes 9 Behaviors amp Development of Disease Disorders o Health Psychologists play very important roles with counseling of those who have been determined to have a disorder or prenatal diagnoses I Higher Risk if runs in family 9 Should people get tested amp be aware Been shown that those who are genetically tested for treatable disorders diseases benefit amp do not suffer from longterm psychological stress Body s defense against invading microbes amp infections I 4 Types of Transmission 0 Involves bodily contact hand shakes kisses sex etc Ex Genital Herpes Microbes passed through airborne particles dust water soil or food Example Flu Occurs when transmitting agent such as mosquito picks up microbes amp changes them into a conducive form that will grow in the human body Example Yellow fever Passage of microbe by carrier that is not directly involved in the disease process Example Dirty hands bad water rats flies I May be localized focal or systemic o 3 Factors that determine if a Microbe will produce Infection I 1 of Organisms I 2 Virulence of the Organisms I 3 Body s Defensive Capacities o 1 Incubation Period 9 Before symptoms appear but infection has entered o 2 Nonspecific Symptoms Period 9 General discomfort precedes onset of illness 0 3 Acute Phase 9 Illness symptoms at its height I Body s resistance to invading organisms 0 Natural Immunity Acquired through disease or passed from mother to child at birth or through breastfeeding 0 Artificial Immunity Acquired through vaccinations amp inoculations I General set of responses to any infection or disorder 0 Anatomical Barriers 9 Prevent passage of microbes from one section of body to another Example skin or mucous membranes in mouth nose 0 9 Process by which white blood cells call phagocytes ingest microbes Overproduced when body is infected so a large of them can be sent to the site of infection 0 Antimicrobial Substances 9 Chemicals produced by body to kill invading microorganisms Examples Interferon Hydrochloric Acid Enzymes o Inflammatory 9 Local reaction to infection blood capillaries enlarge and histamine is released allowing white blood cells amp fluids to leave capillaries and enter tissues I Temperature increases at inflammation sites due to increased blood flow Acquired immune mechanisms that fight specific microorganisms their toxins 0 Acquired after birth by contracting a disease or through vaccinations operates through antigens amp antibody reaction I Slower process than natural Work together to fight infections though I B Lymphocytes confer immunity by the production and secretion of antibodies I T Lymphocytes kill invading organisms amp infected cells 0 Caregivers have lower Tcells because of the stress they are experiencing I Drainage system of the body Drainage system involved in many important immune functions I Lymphatic tissue throughout the body I See figure 211 Pg 34 for information about Lymphocytes amp Auxiliary cells I Wolf because of the horrible skin rash that can appear on the face 0 Affects 2 million Americans mostly women 0 Symptoms 9 Chronic inflammation producing pain heat redness swelling amp can be lifethreatening when it attacks the connective tissues of the body s internal organs I Inflammation of the tonsils that interferes with the ability to filter out bacteria I Viral disorder marked by an unusually large number of of monocytes 0 Causes the lymph nodes amp spleen to be enlarged as well as a fever sore throat and extreme fatigue I Tumor of the lymphatic tissue 0 Example Hodgkin s a malignant lymphoma 9 chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes spleen amp lymphatic tissues I Nodes can t effectively produce antibodies and phagocytic properties of the nodes are lost if not treated fatal Believed to play an important role in several disease of aging including Heart Disease Stroke Diabetes Alzheimer s Cancer Osteoporosis amp Depression Body attacks its own tissues thinking it is an invading microbe 9 produces antibodies 50 million Americans suffer from autoimmune disorders I Multiple Sclerosis some forms of Arthritis Systemic Lupus Erythematosis
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