CDS: Week 2 Class notes
CDS: Week 2 Class notes INTS 2380
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leela Orbidan on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INTS 2380 at University of Denver taught by Leah Persky in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Comparative Development Strategies in International Studies at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Comparative Development Week 2 September 21 Discussion Questions Define the term colonialism What are some of the lasting impacts of colonialism as it pertains to development Colonialism has evolved from a physical control over a population of people by foreigners to a control of ideas shaping of culture etc 1719th century colonies had the economic dependency on their colonizers now these excolonies still greatly depend on their excolonizers economically in trade etc Exploitation of resources of people can also be seen as colonization Primarily done for economic gain Leads to loss of diversity depends from case study to case study What are the links between colonialism and current rates of inequality According to Raduan Miguel why are post colonial economies still debilitated today Colonialism lead to ow of wealth to the top continued immediately to modern inequality Strict laws and other measures of social control establishes social hierarchy which can be seen in the countries who are now struggling with development Postcolonial economies never had their economies invested in by the wealthy and much of the wealth was extracted from colonial times so wealth did not retain in the colonies Production of goods was limited to demand to colonizers no export economies were made What are some of the main points that Raduan Miguel makes in their article Dependency is established between colonies and colonizers over long time and still exist today Colonies were never fully introduced into world trade which is why most of them struggle with export economics TERMS Colonialism Political control of people and territory by foreign states can be with settlement or without Decolonization post World War II efforts for independence for previously colonized states Neocolonialism Previous power relationship continue in other ways economic dependence etc The continued belief that western ways of life are superior to others West controls events of global south Postmodernism Recognizes northern assumptions about the world and development efforts Attempts to change traditional approach see more bottomup efforts Post modernism and Development critique of past development work where the 3rd1 world was treated as a monolith and often stereotyped PostDevelopment most development problems created by west post WWII poverty External norms were imposed on less economically developed societies Awareness of Eurocentric assumptions to much development work still today Keen awareness of power relations and values in development discourse controversial do these problems really exist or is suffering of the developing countries only a perception of the west Dependency theory ow of wealth from periphery countries to core countries in form of raw resources Core countries depend on peripheral countries for these raw materials while periphery countries depend on the business of the core countries Modernization theory dependency theory is backlash of modernization theory Idea that if practice of capitalism is fully endorsed by countries these countries can then be modern Washington Consensus thought American Euro centrism neoliberalism thought economic Face of poverty has shifted Where do people live most to least India China Nigeria Bangladesh etc A lot of poverty now in middle income countries Intersectional See Crenshaw 1989 individualism Concluding Questions What does geography have to do with poverty Geography can either help out or hurt agriculture which leads to either fueling or deterring the economy as agriculture is a direct tie to wealth Coast regions tend to be more wealthy due to easier access of transportation water cheaper than air or land travel Tropical climate is difficult on agriculture and disease spread easy What does Sachs mean when he asserts that man is not a prisoner of nature Human societies need to take large scale action to ensure that the curse of bad geography is lessened over time Institutions matter and resources can still be obtained without agriculture or other resources Should geographic variables in uence development policy How Yes because larger percent of world poor are in accumulated in certain geographical regions Development has to use a region s geography to come up with lasting development effort However other variables need to be considered such as history and levels of poverty since those can vary in a geographical region among countries communities and individuals September 23 Discussion Questions What is a participatory poverty assessment What are some of the differences between this inductive approach to measuring and understanding poverty to the more quantative measures that are often used to capture poverty Which measures are more important and why PPA is a collection of experiences of people that are in poverty It is the voice of impoverished people The collection of data is contact specific person to person It varies too much compared to the quantified data that is more solid This PPA is good for assessing aid because it registers with more people After reading Ch2 on the definitions of poverty how do you think poverty should be defined Is there one definition that can help guide development work Poverty means something different to every person Most people who haven t seen poverty cannot fully define it and what people do see varies from other forms of poverty so overall there cannot be one concrete definition Therefore development work needs to vary as much as poverty does so that it can address problems at the core of poverty in any given areas or perceptions or experiences of poverty Explain why many poor people focus on assets instead of income in their definitions and understandings of poverty Income can change and it can come go But assets are the base resources that fuel wealth therefore the lack of assets correlates more directly to poverty than income Livable income is different around the world but most can agree on the key assets to avoid poverty Assets human physical environmental social In what ways do poverty and elements of gender interact What are some reasons why women tend to be worse off than their male counterparts Women tend to be the most impoverished out of the poor Generally speaking when a crisis hits women suffer first and possibly the most Their duties that are the backbone of humanity can not always be quantified into an income so if income is a measure of poverty then women are often so impoverished that they do not have one Besides this because of liberalism many countries have taken on to get infrastructure while also creating and export market to increase GDP Often it is the men who go to get work in the cities for infrastructure while women stay in agricultural areas to tend to household while also bringing up and raising resources for the markets What is the impact of poverty on psychological wellbeing Why do you think that most measures of poverty neglect this element of the experience of poverty People who are impoverished tend to feel insecure and ashamed Most people would see these emotions as a biproduct of poverty but not necessarily the cause Generally it can be assumed that as poverty is diminished then psychological well being is increased What do you make of the finding that many poor people value literacy but place less value on schooling and education Many people correlate literacy to education but many times this is actually not a true relationship Being literate definitely helps increase income ow etc But on the other hand schooling and education takes time specifically the time allotted to education and schooling is seen more valuable for manual work that can immediately increase wealth where as education is more a longterm possibility of wealth that is more uncertain Feminazation in poverty women tend to be more impoverished than men but they put in 70 of work effort into economy there is not always access to wage jobs for women because men are preferred patriarchy skills manual labor strength etc seen more as care takers rather than men responsibilities for women are in agriculture no wage opportunity Urban poverty Less availability of food and water Easier transportation to possible resources Sometimes cannot afford the resources available Rural poverty More plentiful access to water and food No access to hospitals other goods Less wage employment TED TALK Collier Bottom Billion 4 traps for cycle of poverty violent con ict wars civil wars etc too much natural resources crop based economy reliant on resources that can disappear corrupt government bad forms of government nonefficient governments landlocked geographical location and bad neighbors billion people stuck in stagnant economies how do we give hope Last time that America was serious about development was right after WWII in Europe Aid Reversed trade policy opened markets Reversed security policy isolationist gt direct involvement in Europe got rid of sovereignty Strong governments are of upmost importance because they facilitate the ow of wealth Revenues that nations can create will dwarf any aid ever given to them so that should be the focus The output drive is a short run and some companies can be in worse shape when their output resources gone than when they first started Spread of democracy may help bad governing Need more checks and balances International standards of development will help everyone understand where they are and where they need to be We cannot change society but we can help the people
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