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Date Created: 09/23/15
32911 Final UNE 2 Chapter 1 History Theory and Research Strategies 0 Human Development I Changing constancies throughout the lifespan I 3 areas 0 Scientific 0 Applied o Interdisciplinary o What is a theory I Describe explain behaviors 0 Basic Issues in Development I Continuous I One course of development I Nature vs Nurture o Contexts of Development I Unique combination of genetic and environmental factors Stability and Plasticity I The perseverance or changing of certain traits 0 Development as a Dynamic System I Perpetually ongoing process I In uences on development 0 Biological 0 Social 0 Psychological o Lifespan Perspective I Lifelong I Multidimensional I Multidirectional I Highly plastic I In uenced by multiple interacting forces 0 Periods of Development I The age range for adolescence and early adulthood 0 Major Domains of Development I Physical Cognitive and Emotional and Social 0 In uences on Development I Agegraded I Historygraded I Nonnormative 0 Resilience I Ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to development I What makes us resilient O O 0 OO O 00 I Development can be very positive as a whole Key Principles of Darwin s Theory of Evolution I Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest Early Scientific Study of Development I More talk about intelligence I Normative Approach 0 Age related averages I Mental Testing Movement Psychoanalytic Perspective I Con icts 0 Biological Drive vs Social Expectations I Freud and Erikson I Emphasis on unique life history Freud s 3 Parts of the Personality I Id Ego and Superego Freud s Psychosexual Stages Erikson s Psychosexual Stages I Based on con ict Behaviorism and Social Learning I Classical Conditioning 0 Stimulusresponse I Operant Conditioning 0 Reinforcers and punishments I Social Learning 0 Modeling I ContributionsLimitations 0 Behavior modification 0 Narrow view of in uences 0 Too little emphasis on unique environmental in uences CognitiveDevelopment Theory I Piaget 0 Children actively construct knowledge 0 Adaptation to environment is made in order to achieve equilibrium 0 Piaget s Stages InformationProcessing Theory I Brought in during the 80 s I Human brain is symbolmanipulating system I Development seen as continuously changing no formal stages I Not widely accepted anymore Information Processing Flowchart Development Cognitive Neuroscience I Hot new field related to Medical I Multidisciplinary I Study of relationships between 0 Changes in the brain 0 Development of cognition behavior 0 Ethology I Study of adaptive value of behavior and its evolutionary history I Critical Period 0 More specific I Sensitive Period 0 More uid 0 Boundaries are less defined 0 Evolutionary Developmental Psychology 0 Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory 0 Ecological Systems Theory I Incorporates many aspects of child s development I Mesosystem vs Microsystem I Includes all of our environments Names to Review 0 Freud o Erikson o Piaget o Vygotsky o Bronfrenbrenner Choosing a Research Strategy 0 Research Methods and Design 0 Systematic Observation I Naturalistic and Structured Observation SelfRep orts 0 Clinical Interviews and Structured Interview ClinicalCase Study 0 Brings together a wide range ofinformation on one person Ethnography 0 Study a culture or social group General Research Designs 33111 0 Correlational I Reveals the presence ofa relationship I Does not determine causation 0 Experimental I Allows cause and effect I Lab experiments may not apply to the real world Correlation Coefficients o Magnitude I 01 I Closer to 1 or is a stronger relationship B B A I Denoted as quotrquot o Direction I Indicated by or I Direct relationship I Indirect relationship IV and DV Random Assignment 0 Increases chances that characteristics will be equally distributed across conditions 0 Researchers use unbiased procedure to assign participants to treatment conditions Modified Experiments 0 Field Experiment I Capitalize on opportunities for random assignment in natural selection I Go outside and count how many drivers are wearing a seatbelt 0 Natural or QuasiExperiment I Compare differences in treatment that already exist I Match groups as much as possible Developmental Research Designs 0 Longitudinal o CrossSectional o Sequential Problems in Conducting Longitudinal Research 0 Participants may drop out or move away 0 Practice effects 0 Cohort effects Rights of Research Participants 0 Protection from harm Informed consent Privacy Knowledge of results 0 O O o Beneficial treatments A and B genetics allows for a predisposition to certain personality traits which are then solidified or modified through caregiving experiences 4511 Journal Article Keep it to 1 or 2 slides in PowerPoint How would you do it differently My partner and I are the only ones reading our article Chapter 2 Biological and Environmental Foundations Genotypes vs Phenotypes Genetic Foundations 0 Chromosomes 0 Genes I Segments ofDNA located along chromosomes 0 DNA DNA and mitosis o Karoytype Autosomes SeX Chromosomes Gametes Zygote 0 1st development Twins 0 Fraternal I Dizygotic o Identical I Monozygotic Alleles o Appear at the same place on both chromosomes in a pair 0 One inherited from each parent 0 Homozygous vs heterozygous DominantRecessive inheritance Xlinked inheritance Incomplete Dominance and Polygenetic Inheritance O I Both alleles are expressed I Combined trait or intermediate trait 0 PH I Many genes combine to create one trait Genetic Imprinting 0 Chemical marker that activates either father s or mother s gene 0 Often temporary Mutation o Sudden permanent change in a DNA segment Chromosomal Abnormalities 0 Down Syndrome I 3 copies of chromosome 21 I Trisomine 21 0 Sex Chromosome abnormalities I Problems with the X or Y chromosomes Reproductive Choices 0 Genetic counseling 0 Genetic testing 0 Prenatal diagnosis I Fetal medicine 0 Adoption Reproductive technologies 0 Donor insemination o In vitro fertilization o Surrogate mother 0 New tech Genetic Counseling 0 Helps couples I Assess chances ofhereditary disorders I Choose best course ofaction I Recommended when 0 Couples has had difficulties with conception o Aware of genetic problems 0 Woman is over 35 Prenatal diagnostic methods 0 Amniocentesis o Chorionic villus sampling 0 Fetoscopy 0 Ultrasound Adoption 0 Trends I Internationaladoption I Older children I Developmental issues 0 Exhibits some difficulties 0 Most families fare well Environmental Conteth for Development 0 Family 0 Socioeconomic status and family functioning o Af uence 0 Poverty 0 Neighborhoods 0 Culture Family in uence on development 0 Direct I 2 person relationships 0 Indirect I 3ml parties 0 Adapting to change I Changes from within and outside the family Socioeconomic Status 0 Social status I Years of education I Iob prestige and skill required 0 Economic status I Income Socioeconomic status and family functioning 0 Timing and duration of family life cycle Values and expectations Education and status ofwomen Communication a disciple styles Child s cognitive development s ofAf uence upper to middle class economic demographic Alcohol and drug use Anxiety Depression Unavailable parents I Overscheduled I Demanding Importance of Regularly Eating Dinner as a Family Who is poor 0 125 in US I Parents under age 25 with young children I Elderly living alone especially women I Ethnic minorities OOOO Ri m w O O O O I Women I Children Homelessness o 23 homeless in US are families with children I Majority are with children under age 5 I Poor school attendance I Home issues Benefits of Strong Community ties for Children and Adults 0 Social interaction activities 0 Cooperation to provide clean safe environment Extended Families 0 3 generations living together 0 More common in minority cultures 0 Benefits I Reduces stress ofpoverty I Assistance for all generations I Emotional bonds support Individualist and Collectivist Societies o Individualist I People define themselves as separate from others I Largely concerned with personal needs and goals I Whites in US 0 Collectivist I People define themselves as part of a group I Stress group goals over individuals goals I Minorities in US Indicators of Children s Health and WellBeing 0 Childhood poverty 0 Infant death in the lstyear oflife 0 Teenage birthrate Of Elderly living in poverty 0 US is high relative to other industrialized countries How much does heredity contribute to behavior 0 Heritability Estimates I Portion of individual differences attributable to genetics I Ranges from 0100 o Kinship Studies I What of the time do family memberstwins show a trait I Ranges from 0100 The Epigenetic Framework 4711 Chapter3 Conception and Implantation Periods of Prenatal Development 0 Zygote I 1st 2 weeks 0 Embryo I Week 28 0 Fetus I Next 30 weeks Period of the Fetus o Begins at month 3 0 Second trimester I Fetal movement felt o 3ml trimester I Age of viability 0 Weeks 2226 Sensitive Periods in Prenatal Development 0 Don t need to know in great detail but should know 0 Figure 32 Factors affecting Harm from teratogens environmental in uence that can effect the babyfetus 0 Dose 0 Heredity o Other negative in uences 0 Age at time of exposure Teratogen substances 0 Drugs I Prescription I Others 0 Alcohol o Pollution Maternal factors in healthy Prenatal Development 0 Infectious diseases 0 Nutrition 0 Emotional stress 0 Rh blood factor 0 Age Birth Weight and Adult Breast Cancer Risk 0 More women with breast cancer have babies that weigh more 0 Suggests link amount of estrogen Complications and Maternal Age 0 Women can still conceive in their 50 s 0 Complications chances of increase with the mom s age Prenatal Care Important 0 Maternal health monitoring 0 Early care I Situational barriers I Personal barriers 3 stages of Childbirth 0 Stage 1 I Cervix dilates to 10cm I Can go for a long time 0 Transition I Contractions are at peak 0 Stage 2 I Dilated 10 cm I Can now push Pushing phase I Can last minutes to hours 0 Stage 3 I Delivery ofplacenta I 5 20 minutes after last phase The Apgar Scale Appearance Pulse Grimace Activity 0 Respiration Elements ofNatural or Prepared Childbirth 0 Classes 0 Relaxation and breathing techniques 0 Labor coach I Social support Birth Complications 0 Oxygen deprivation anoxia o Breech position butt first not head 0 O O O O o Rh factor incompatibility Medical Interventions in Childbirth 0 Fetal monitoring 0 Medication I Analgesics I Anesthetics o Cesarean delivery Preterm and SmallforDate Babies 0 Preterm I Born weeks before their due date I May be appropriate weight for length ofpregnancy o Smallfordate I May be born at due date or preterm I Below expected weight for length of pregnancy Pregnancy Length and Infant SurvivalDisability o Chances of disability decreases as pregnancy goes on Interventions for Preterm Infants 0 Isolette I Respirator I Feeding tube I Intravenous medication 0 Special infant stimulation I Kangaroo care 0 Mom disrobes and places the baby skintoskin contact to warmup baby 0 Parent training in caregiving Infant Mortality Around the World 0 US leads in infant mortality I Ranked 3 I Due to lack of health care 0 Moms don t get enough time off of work 0 Mom doesn t have health care so she can go to check ups Birth Complications 0 Severe trauma I Longterm difficulties 0 Mild to moderate trauma I Dependant on environment 0 Resilience factor Newborn Re exes 0 Eye blink o Rooting o Sucking o Moro o Palmar grasp o Tonic neck 0 Stepping o Babinski Infant States of Arousal 0 Regular Sleep 0 Irregular sleep 0 Drowsiness 0 Quiet alertness o Waking activity and crying Ways to Soothe a Crying Baby 0 Hold on shoulder and rock or walk 0 Swaddle 0 Offer a pacifier 0 Go for a ride 0 Massage 0 Combine methods 0 Let cry for short time I Letting the baby cry for a short time makes the lungs stronger 0 Myth doesn t work Newborn Sense ofTouch o Sensitive to touch on mouth palms soles genitals 0 Highly sensitive to pain I Relieve pain with anesthetics sugar solution gentle holding I Physical touch releases endorphins 0 Can help with pain Newborn senses of taste and smell 0 Prefer sweet tastes at birth 0 Quickly learn to like new tastes 0 Have odor preferences from birth 0 Can locate odors and identify mother by smell Differences in Newborn s Smell Sensitivity Newborn Sense of hearing 0 Can hear a wide variety of sounds at birth 0 Prefer complex sounds to pure tones I Let your kids listen to any kind of music not just classical 0 Learn sound patterns within days 0 Sensitive to voices and biologically prepared to learn language Newborn sense ofvision 0 Least developed sense at birth I Visual structures in eyes and brain not fully formed I Can determine patterns but not notice pink or blue 0 Limited acuity 0 Scan environment track moving objects 0 Color vision improves in first 2 months Neonatal behavioral assessment scale NBAS o Evaluates newborn I Re exes I State changes I Responsiveness to physical and social stimuli I Other reactions 0 Uses include I Discovering individual and cultural differences 0 Not very accurate New family adjustment 0 Hormones facilitate caregiving I Oxytocin I Prolactin I Estrogen I Hormone release and effects may depend on experience 0 Change of early weeks I New roles I Change schedules 0 Postpartum depression 41211 Chapter 4 Physical Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood 0 Body Growth Gain 50 in height from birth to age 1 o 75 by age 2 I Grow in Spurts o Gain quotbaby fat until about 9 months then get slimmer Girls slightly shorter lighter than boys 0 0 Body Growth During 1st 2 years 0 Growth Differences I MaleFemale I Ethnic I Individual rate 0 Skeletal age 0 GrowthTrends I Cephalocaudal 0 Head to tail Lower part ofbody grows later than the head 0 I Proximodistal 0 Near to far 0 EXtremities grow later than head chest and trunk o Neurons and Connective Fibers 0 Major Milestones of Brain Development 0 Methods for Measuring Brain Functioning I EEG o Electroencephalogram I ERP o Evenrelated potentials I fMRI 0 Functional MRI 0 NIROT vs fMRI I Infant research 0 Regions of the Cerebral Cortex I FPOT o Frontal Lobes o Parietal Lobes o Occipital Lobes 0 Temporal Lobes o Lateralization of the Cerebral Cortex I Left Hemisphere o Sensory information and control of the right side of the body Verbal abilities Positive emotions o Sequential analytical processing I Right Hemisphere o Sensory information and control of the left side of the body 0 Spatial abilities 0 Negative emotion 0 Holistic integrative processing 0 Brain Plasticity I In infants and young children parts of the brain are not yet specialized I Recover better from brain injury 0 Language recovers better than spatial skills 0 Still have some problems with complex mental skills I Older children even adults have some plasticity o Sensitive Periods in Brain Development I Stimulation is vital when brain growing rapidly I Experienceexpectant growth 0 Ordinary experiences expected by brain to grow normally I Experiencedependant growth 0 Additional growth as a result of specific learning experiences 0 Changing States of Arousal I Sleep moves to an adultlike nightday schedule during the first year I Sleep needs decline from 18 to 12 hours a day by age 2 OO 00 I Affected by social environment cultural values In uences on Early Growth I Heredity I Nutrition 0 Breast vs bottlefeeding I Malnutrition I Emotional wellbeing 0 Problems can cause nonorganic failure to thrive Benefits of Breastfeeding I Correct fatprotein balance I Nutritionally complete I More digestible I Better growth I Disease protection I Better jaw and tooth development I Ensures digestibility I Easier transition to solid food Malnutrition I Consequences 0 Physical symptoms 0 Learning problems 0 Growth and weight problems Emotional WellBeing I Nonorganic failure to thrive 0 Symptoms similar to marasmus o Nonbiological cause 0 Can be corrected if treated early The Steps of Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Terms I Reinforcer o Increases probability of behavior occurring again 0 Presenting desirable stimulus o Removing unpleasant stimulus I Punishment 0 Reduces probability ofbehavior occurring again 0 Presenting unpleasant stimulus o Removing desirable stimulus Using Habituation to Study Infant Memory and Knowledge Imitation I Newborns have ability to imitate o Re ex or voluntary capacity I Mirror neurons offer biological explanation I Powerful means of learning I Helps facilitate positive relationships Facial Expressions and Imitation O 0 Motor Development Sequence and Trends I Gross motor development 0 Crawling standing and walking I Fine motor development 0 Reaching and grasping I Sequence is fairly uniform though individual rate ofmotor progress differs I Cephalocaudal and proximodistal trends Motor skills as Dynamic Systems I Increasingly compleX systems ofaction with each skill I Each new sill is joint product of o CNS development 0 Body s movement capacity 0 Child s goal 0 Environmental supports Early Motor skills Cultural Variations in Motor Development I Rates and patterns of development affected by 0 Early movement opportunities 0 Environmental stimulation 0 Childrearingpractices Milestones of Reaching and Grasping I Prereaching I Reaching 0 With 2 hands then 1 I Ulnar grasp 0 Adjust grip to object 0 Move objects from hand to hand I Pincer grasp Developments in hearing I 47 months 0 Sense of musical phrasing I 68 months 0 Screen out sounds from nonnative languages I 79 months 0 Recognize familiar words natural phrasing in native language Improvements in Vision I Supported by rapid maturation of eyes and visual centers in brain I Improvements 0 2 months 0 Focus and color vision 0 6 months 0 Acuity o Milestones in Depth Perception I 34 weeks Sensitive to motion sues o 23 moths 0 Contact Sensitivity o Milestones in Face Perception I Birth1 month 0 Prefer simple face like pattern I 24 moths o Prefer complex facial patterns to other complex patterns 0 Can distinguish strange from familiar faces 0 Prefer mother s face over stranger I 512 moths o Milestones in Intermodal Perception I Birth 0 Detect amodal sensory properties I 34 months Relate Speech sounds to lip movement I 46 months 0 Perceive unique facevoice pairings of unfamiliar adults 41411 Chapter 5 Cognitive DevelomentinInfanc an d Toddlerhood o Piaget s Theory Schemes I Psychological structures 0 Organized ways of making sense of experience I Change with age 0 Actionbased sensorimotor patterns 0 Later move to thinking before acting patter o More creative deliberate 0 Building Schemes I Adaptation 0 Building schemes through direct interaction with environment I Assimilation 0 Using current schemes to interpret external world I Accommodation 0 Adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment I Block example 0 Using assimilation and accommodation I Equilibrium and disequilibrium 0 Use assimilation during equilibrium 0 Disequilibrium prompts accommodation I Organization 0 Internal rearranging and linking schemes 0 Sensorimotor Stage I Birth2 years I Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration I Circular reactions 0 Baby drops a rattle picks it up and drops it again 0 Sensorimotor Substages I Be able to reconize them and when they occur 0 Object Permanence I Understanding that objects continue to eXist when out of sight 0 Piaiet develois in Substage 4 I Not yet complete 0 AnotB search error 0 Mental Representations I Internal mental depictions of objects people events and information 0 Can manipulate with mind 0 Permits deferred imitation and makebelieve play 0 Deferred imitation I A child goes to the doctor and sees the doctor using the stethoscope Then at home give them a play doctor set and they will mimic the doctor I Piaget develops at about 18 months I 6 weeks mimic faces I 69 months copy actions with objects I 1214 months imitate rationally I 18 months imitate intended but not completed 0 Violation of Expectation Method I Habituation Event I Test Event 0 Evaluation of the Sensorimotor Stage I What types of information is being researched by Piaget and by current researchers 0 Core Knowledge Perspective I Born with innate specialpurpose knowledge systems 0 Core domains of thought I Core domains allow quick grasp of related information I Support rapid 0 Suggested Domain of Core Knowledge I Physical I Linguistic I Psychological I Numerical o Infant s Numerical knowledge I Infants may be able to o Discriminate quantities up to 3 0 Do simple arithmetic I Findings are controversial 0 Model ofInformation Processing figure 55 I Theory comes from computers 0 InformationProcessing Improvements I Attention o More efficient 0 Better sustained attraction 0 Less attraction to novelty 0 Ability to shift attention I Memory 0 Retention intervals lengthen 0 Recall appears by 1st year 0 Excellent in 2 101 year I Categorization o Able to perceptually categorize by 1st year 0 Able to conceptually categorize by year 2 0 Development of Categorization I Perceptual 0 Based on similar overall appearance or prominent part I Conceptual o Vygotsky s Sociocultural theory I Social contexts o Other people contribute to cognitive development I Zone ofproximal development 0 Tasks child cannot do alone but can learn with help of more skilled partners 0 ToddlerInfant Intelligence Tests I Bayley Scales 0 Cognitive 0 Language 0 Motor 0 Socialemotional 0 Adaptive behavior I HOME 0 Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment 0 Check to allay fear of mental retardation 0 Used by social workers 0 Meaning of different IQ scores I Intelligence quotient measurements against typical performance for age 0 Standardization o Re ects SES diversity I Normal distribution 0 Bellshaped I Best used for screening 0 Normal distribution of IQ scores I Mean is 100 o Developmentally Appropriate Child care I Adultchild interactions I Teacher qualification I Relationships with parents I Licensing and accreditation I Physical setting I Group size I Caregiverchild ratio I Daily activities 0 IQ Improvement from Early Intervention Programs I Helps for up to age 2 o 3 Theories of Language Development I Behaviorist 0 Learn through operant conditioning I Nativist 0 LAD I Interactionist o Combines the above 2 0 Getting Ready to Talk I 1St Speech Sounds 0 Cooing 0 Around 2 months 0 Babbhng 0 Around 6 months I Becoming a communicator 0 Joint attention 0 Give and take 0 Preverbal gestures 0 Starting to talk I 1St words 0 Around 12 months o Underextention 0 Only familiar with what he knows o Overextension 0 Assume all 4 legged animals are dogs I 2 word utterances o Telegraphic speech 0 Individual Difference in Language Development I Environment 0 Culture I Gender I Temperament I Language Style 0 Referential o Expressive 0 Supporting Early Language Learning I With infants 0 Respond to coos and babbles 0 Establish joint attention 0 Use childdirected speech 0 Play social games I With toddlers years 13 0 Play makebelieve together 0 Have frequent conversations o Read often and talk about books Chapter 6 Emotional and Social Components of Development 0 Psychosocial Stages During Infancy and Toddlerhood I 1St year 0 Basic trust vs mistrust 0 Need responsiveness I 2 1 year 0 Autonomy 0 1st appearance of basic emotions I Happiness o Smile I Anger 0 General distress o Anger I Fear 0 Fear and stranger anxiety 0 Understanding Emotions of Others I Emotional contagionOperant conditioning 0 Early infancy I Recognize other s facial expressions O O O o 45 months Social referencing 0 Around 810 months Social referencing Relying on others emotional reactions to appraise situation 0 Caregivers can use to teach children how to react SelfConscious Emotions Appear at about 2 Shame Embarrassment Guilt Envy Pride Emerge middle of second year Children become aware of self as separate and unique Require adult instruction about when to feel emotions Emotional SelfRegulation Adjusting own state of emotional intensity Requires effortful control Grows over 1St year with brain development Caregivers contribute to child s selfregulation style Temperament Reactivity 0 Speed and intensity of o Emotional arousal 0 Attention 0 Motor activity Selfregulation Strategies to modify activity Easy 40 Difficult10 Slowto warm up 15 Unclassified3 5 0 Fit into more than one or none Biological basis for temperament Inhibited shy o React negatively withdraw from new stimuli 0 High heart rates stress hormones and stress symptoms 0 Higher right hemisphere frontal corteX activity Uninhibited sociable Stability of Temperament Develops with age 0 Low to moderate stability 0 Better indicator after age 3 Genetics and the Environment in Temperament I Genetic in uences o Responsible for about half ofindividual differences 0 Ethnic and seX difference I Environment in uences 0 Nutrition 0 Caregiving 0 Cultural variations 0 Goodness of Fit Model I Combines genetics and environment I Childrearing to match temperament o Ethological Theory ofAttachment I Preattachment I Attachment in the making I Clear cut attachment 0 Separation anxiety I Formation of a reciprocal relationship I Secure60 I Avoidant15 I Resistant10 I Disorganizeddisoriented15 41911 MIDTERM NEXT TUESDAY CHAPTERS 18 Chapter 6 Continued 0 Factors that affect attachment security I Opportunity for attachment I Quality of caregiving o Sensitive responsive caregiving o Interactional synchrony I Infant characteristics I Family circumstances 0 Parents internal working models 0 Multiple Attachments I Fathers I Siblings I Grandparents I Professional caregivers o Fathers and Attachment I Fathers as playmates mothers as caregivers in many cultures I Important factors in attachment 0 Sensitivity o Warmth o Siblings and Attachment I Majority of children have siblings at some point o Adjustment to a sibling while at the preschool age 0 Rich emotional relationship 0 Parents must promote positive relationship I Differences in temperament emerge 0 Attachment and later development I Secure attachment related to positive outcomes in 0 Preschool 0 Middle childhood I Continuity of caregiving may link infant attachment and later development 0 Selfdevelopment I Selfawareness 0 From birth 0 Aided by intermodal perception I Selfrecognition o Emerges in 2 101 year 0 Helped by acting on environment and noticing effects 0 Rouge test at 18 months I Empathy o Aided by selfawareness selfconscious emotions o Empathy vs sympathy o Categorical Self I Categorize self and others into social categories 0 Age 0 Physical characteristics 0 Good or bad I Used to organize behavior Effortful Control I Inhibiting impulses I Managing negative emotions I Behaving acceptably I Children need 0 Awareness of self as separate and autonomous 0 Confidence in directing own actions 0 Memory for instructions 0 Compliance I Understanding and obeying caregivers wishes and standards I Emerges between 12 and 18 months I Toddlers assert autonomy by sometimes not complying I Warm sensitive caregiving increases compliance Helping toddlers develop compliance and selfcontrol I Respond with sensitivity and support I Give advance notice of change in activities I Offer many prompts and reminders I Reinforce selfcontrolled behavior 0 O I Encourage sustained attention I Support language development I Increase rules gradually Chapter 7 Physical and cognitive development in early childhood 0 Physical development in early childhood 2 101 year I Body growth slows 0 Shape becomes more streamlines I Skeletal growth continues 0 New growth centers 0 Lose baby teeth I Brain growth increases 0 Hemispheres begin to lateralize 0 Brain development in early childhood I Frontal lobe areas for planningorganizing develop I Left hemisphere active 0 Language skills handedness I Linking areas of the brain develop 0 Cerebellum reticular formation hippocampus corpus callosum o Handedness I Re ects dominant cerebral hemisphere o Righthanded 90 haveleft hemisphere dominance o Lefthanded 10 have both hemispheres activating during writing I May be genetic basis but affect by experience 0 Position in uterus practice I Few lefthanders show developmental problems 0 Left hemisphere damage may link lefthandedness and some mental problems 0 In uences on physical growth and health I Heredity and hormones 0 Growth hormones o Thyroidstimulatinghormone I Emotional wellbeing o Psychosocial dwarfism I Nutrition I Infectious disease 0 Malnutrition o Immunization I Childhood injuries 0 Eating in early childhood I Appetite decreases o Vary meal to meal O OO O O I Wariness ofnew foods is adaptive I Need highquality diet 0 Limit fats oils salt and sugar I Imitates others food choices Infectious disease and malnutrition I Poor diet suppresses immune system I Illness reduces appetite I Diarrhea a danger 0 Oral rehydration therapy and zinc can help Immunizations I Many American children lack full set 0 Cost 0 Schedules o Misconceptions about vaccines Factors related to childhood injuries I Gender and temperament I Poverty single parenthood low parental education I Societal conditions 0 International differences 0 Births to teenagers not ready for parenthood o Shortage of quality childcare International death rates due to injury Motor Skill Development in early childhood I Grossmotor skills 0 Balance improves o Gait smooth and rhythmic by age 2 0 Upper and lowerbody skills combine into more refined actions by age 5 0 Greater speed and endurance I Fine motor skills 0 Selfhelp dressing eating 0 Drawing and painting Progression of drawing skills I Scribbles during 2 101 year I First representational forms 0 Label already made drawings around age 3 0 Draw boundaries and people 0 Age 34 I More realistic drawings 0 Preschool to school age Individual differences in motor skills I Genetics 0 Size and shape I Gender I Practice I Caregiver encouragement 42111 Midterm Know the bold definitions know the topics covered in the notes 0 Piaget s Preoperational stage I Ages 27 I Gains in mental representation 0 Make believe play 0 Symbol real world relations I Limitations in thinking 0 Egocentrism 0 Conservation 0 Hierarchicalclassification Early Childhood Development of make believe I With age make believe gradually becomes 0 More detached from real like conditions 0 Less self centered o More complex 0 Sociodramatic play 0 Benefits of make believe play I Practice representational schemes I Re ect on thinking control behavior and take another s perspective I Gain in social language and literacy skills I Improve attention memory and logical reasoning 0 Dual Representation I Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol I Mastered around age 3 I Say a map I Adult teaching can help 0 Maps photos drawings and make believe play supports experience with symbols 0 Point out similarities in the real world 0 Limitations of preoperational thought I Cannot perform mental operations 0 Egocentrism I Failure to distinguish other views from one s own 0 Animistic Thinking I Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities 0 Limits on conservation I Centration 0 Focus on one aspect and neglect other I Irreversibility 0 Cannot mentally reverse a set of steps Piagetian Class Inclusion Problem 0 O O O O O O O O O I There are 16 red owers and 4 blue owers 0 Preoperational children will say that there are more red owers than owers in general Followup research on preoperational thought I Egocentric thought 0 Can adjust language to others take others perspectives in simple situations 0 Animistic thinking comes form incomplete knowledge of objects I Illogical thought 0 Can do simplified conservation 0 Can reason by analogy I Categorization 0 Everyday knowledge is categorized I Appearance vs reality 0 Can solve appearance Evaluation of Piaget I Many experts refute preoperational stage idea 0 Stages are too strict o Piaget assumed abrupt change Educational Principles Derived from Piaget s Theory I Discovery learning I Acceptance of individual difference I Sensitivity to children s readiness to learn 0 Developmentally appropriate practices Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory I Private Speech I Zone ofproximal development Children s Private Speech I Piaget called this egocentric speech I Vygotsky viewed it as foundation for all higher cognitive processes I Helps guide behavior I Gradually becomes more silent Zone of Proximal Development I Scaffolding supports children s learning I Assisted discovery and peer collaboration also help children learn Vygotsky and Education I Assisted Discovery 0 Teacher 0 Guides learning 0 Tailors help to zone of proximal development Vygotsky and make believe play I Provides zone of proximal development O O 0 Rules strengthen capacity for selfcontrol Evaluation of Vygotsky s Theory I Helps explain cultural diversity in cognition I Emphasizes importance of teaching I Focus on language deemphasizes observation other learning methods Recognition and Recall I Noticing that a stimulus is identical or similar to a previous experience vs generating a mental representation of an absent stimulus I Recall more difficult Memory strategies I Preschoolers don t use 0 Rehearsal 0 Organization 0 Elaboration I Do use 0 Scripts 0 Greater elaboration with age Autobiographical memory I Longlasting representations of one time events I Improves with cognitive conversational skills I Parents help develop narrative o Elaborative o Repetitive Metacognition I Awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought I Develops with theory of mind Development of Theory of Mind I Awareness of mental life 0 Infancy through age 3 I Mastery of false beliefs 0 Around age 4 0 In uence of cultural and social factors Fostering Emergent Literacy I Spoken language skills 0 Phonological awareness 0 Adult conversations I Informal literacy experiences 0 Interactive reading 0 Games writing I Training books for lowSES families Early Childhood Mathematical Reasoning I Ordinality 0 Relationship between quantities o 14 to 16 months I Cardinality 0 When counting last number is the total 0 354 years of age 0 Individual Differences in Early Childhood Mental Development I Factors contributing to individual differences 0 Home environment 0 Quality of child care preschool or kindergarten 0 Educational media 0 Features of HighQuality Home Environment I Stimulation 0 Toys games reading 0 Language 0 Academic I Physical organization I Pride affection warmth I Social modeling I Variety I No physical punishment 0 Types ofpreschools I Childcentered or academic 0 Learn through play vs formal lessons 0 Signs of Developmentally Appropriate Practice I Physical setting I Group size I Caregiverchild ration I Daily activities I Adultchild interaction 0 Learningvvith computers 0 Language Development in Early Childhood I Vocabulary o Fastmapping I Grammar o Overregulation I Conversation o Pragmatics I Supporting language development 0 Recasts expansions Chapter8 o Erikson s Theory Initiative vs Guilt I Initiative new sense of purposefulness I Guilt o Overly strict superego or conscience causing too much guilty 0 Related to excessive O O O O O o Threats o Criticism o Punishment SelfUnderstanding I Emerging language skills enable children to discuss inner mental states I Selfawareness and selfconcept increase together Selfconcept I Based on observable characteristics 0 Appearance 0 Possessions o Behaviors I Typical emotions and attitudes I Asserting rights to objects Mine helps define boundaries of self SelfEsteem I judgments we make of our own worth I Feelings about those judgments include 0 Global appraisal o judgments of different aspects of self Developing emotional competence I Emotional understanding improves I Emotional selfregulation improves I More selfconscious emotions and empathy Emotional Understanding I Preschoolers judge 0 Causes of emotions 0 Consequences of emotions o Behavioral signs I Challenged by con icting cues I Parents siblings play contribute to understanding Emotional SelfRegulation I By age 34 know strategies for adjusting emotional arousal I Effortful control important Common fears of early childhood I Monsters I Ghosts I Darkness I Preschoolchild care I Animals I Phobias are possible SelfConscious Emotions I Shame I Embarrassment I Guilty I Pride I Preschoolers depend on adult feedback to know when to experience these emotions I Culture also in uences o Sympathy and Empathy I Empathy is o A complex mix of cognitions and emotion 0 Must detect demotions and take other s perspective 0 Individual Differences in Empathy I Temperament o Sociable assertive good at emotional regulational I Parenting 0 Warm sensitive parents who encourage emotional expressiveness 0 Peer Sociability in play I Nonsocial activity 0 Unoccupied onlooker behavior 0 Solitary play I Parallel play 0 Plays near other children with similar materials 0 Does not try to in uence them I Social interactions 0 Associative play 0 Children playing with blocks with trade blocks 0 Cooperative play 0 Children work together and pool their blocks 0 Culture Variations in Play I Collectivist cultures 0 Stress group harmony o Discourage selfassertion I Views on importance ofplay vary 0 Early childhood friendships I Someone who likes plays with you shares toys I Friendships change frequently I Friends more reinforcing emotionally expressive than non friends 0 Friendship provides social support 0 Ease in acquiring predicts late achievement behaviors 0 Parental In uences on Early Peer Relationships I Direct 0 Arrange play dates informal peer activities I Indirect 0 Secure attachment 0 Emotionally expressive sensitive communication 0 Parentchild play o Perspectives on Moral development I Psychoanalytic o Freud 0 Today I Social learning I Cognitive development 0 Characteristics of Good Behavior I Warmth and responsiveness I Competence and power I Consistency between words and behavior 0 Punishment in Early Childhood I Alternatives to harsh punishments I Parents can increase effectiveness of punishment Positive Discipline I Use transgressions as opportunities to teach I Reduce opportunities to misbehavior I Provide reasons for rules I Have children participate in family duties and routines I Try compromising and problem solving 0 Aggression I Proactive instrumental I Reactive hostile 0 Child rearing styles I Authoritative 0 Best style I Authoritarian I Permissive I Uninvolved I Characteristics are not important 0 Child maltreatment I Abuse I Neglect 0 42811 Chapter9 o Sternberg s Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence I Creative Intelligence I Practical Intelligence I Analytical Intelligence 0 Gardner s Multiple Intelligences Linguistics I Logicsmathematics I Musical I Spatial I Bodilykinesthetic I Naturalist I Interpersonal I Intrapersonal 0 Cultural Bias in Testing I 2 views 0 Tests not biased represent success in the common culture 0 Cultural factors can hurt test performance 0 Communication styles 0 Test content 0 Stereotypes 0 Social and Emotional Intelligence I Perceiving I Understanding 0 Reducing Cultural Bias in Testing I Combine tests with assessment of adaptive behavior I Dynamic assessment I Reduce highstakes testing o NCLB o Undermine Chapter 10 Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood o Erikson s Theory Industry vs Inferiority I Industry 0 Developing sense of competence at useful skills I Inferiority o Pessimism and lack of confidence get in the way 0 Changes in SelfConcept During Middle Childhood I More balanced less all or none descriptions I Social comparisons I Ideal and real self I Reference social groups I Cultural variations 0 Hierarchical Structure of SelfEsteem in Middle Childhood I In uences on SelfEsteem 0 Culture 0 Childrearingpractices o Attributions o Masteryoriented o Learned helplessness I Learn that you re not as good at something based on comparison 0 Role of Parenting in SelfEsteem I Authoritative style is best I American cultural values focus on self 0 Can lead to overindulgence o Paradox less achievement behaviors more antisocial behaviors I Encourage goalsetting o In uences on Achievementrelated Attributions I Parents 0 Toohigh standards 0 Believe child incapable o Trait statements I Teachers 0 Learning vs performance goals I Gender in uences I SES ethnicity I Cultural values 0 Emotional Development in Middle Childhood I Selfconscious emotions more governed by personal responsibility 0 Pride or guilt I Emotional understanding 0 Explain emotion using internal states 0 Understand mixed emotions 0 Rise in empathy 0 Supported by cognitive development and social experience I Emotional selfregulation o Coping Strategies I Problemcentered coping o Situation is seen as changeable 0 Difficulty is identified 0 Decision made on what to do I Emotioncentered coping 0 Used if problemcentered does not work 0 Goal is emotional selfefficacy 0 Internal private and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about outcome 0 Changes in Moral Views I Flexible moral rules 0 Lying not always bad 0 Truth not always good I Clarify link between moral imperative and social convention o More respect for conventions with purpose 0 Consider intentions 0 Understanding Individual Rights I Challenge adult authority within personal domain I View denials ofpersonal choices as wrong I However place limits on individual choice 0 Typically decide in favor of kindness and fairness 0 Understanding Diversity and Inequality I SchooLagech dren 0 Associate power privilege with whites o Assign stereotype traits to minorities I With age reduce prejudice o Considerinnertra s I Individual differences based on o Fixed view of personality traits o Overly high selfesteem 0 Social world in which people are sorted into groups RedudngPrdudme I Longterm intergroup contact 0 Neighborhoods 0 Schools 0 Conununi es I Foster belief in changeability of human traits I Vohnnee ng o Peergroups I Formed from proximity similarity I Peercukure o Behaviorvocab1 arydresscode 0 Can include relational aggression and exclusion Friendship in Middle Childhood I Personal qualities trust becomes in important I More selective in choosing friends 0 Choose dendssnn artose I Friendscanlastseveralyears 0 Must learn to resolve disputes I Type of friends in uences development 0 Aggressive friend of magnify o Peeracceptance I Popular I Rejected I Controver al I Neglected O 0 5311 Paper Text citations author year or page Due in class Exam Review Discontinuous development Psychoanalytic perspective Piaget s theory of cognitive development Final isn t cumulative but should know basics like Piaget s and Erikson s theories Video PBS video quotA class divided on frontline 5511 Chapter 10 continued 0 Bullies and victims I Bullies 0 Most are boys 0 Physically relationally aggressive o Highstatus powerful 0 Popular 0 Most eventually become disliked I Victims 0 Passive when active behavior expected Give in to demands Lack defenders Inhibited temperament Physically frail o Overprotected controlled by parents 0 Helping rejected children I Positive social skills 0 Focus on I Improve academic achievement I Intervene with harsh parenting practices 0 Gender typing in middle childhood I Gender stereotypes o Extend stereotypes to include personalities and school subjects I Gender identity 0 3ml4th grade 0 Boys strengthen identification with masculine traits I Culture and social factors 0 Family relationships I Parents 0 Coregulation 0 Dialogue between parents and children I Siblings o Rivalry o Companionship and assistance 0 Need parental encouragement 0 Only children I High in selfesteem achievement motivation I Closer relationships with parents 0 Pressure for mastery I Peer acceptance may be a problem 0 Lack of practice in con ict resolution 0 International divorce rates I US has the highest I Italy is lt 1 0 Consequences ofparental divorce I Immediate o Instability con ict drop in income 0 Parental stress disorganization 0 Consequences affected by 0 Age 0 Temperament 0 Sex I Longterm 0 Improved adjustment after 2 years 0 Father s involvement improves adjustment outcome 0 Helping families through divorce I Shield children from con ict I Provide continuity I Explain what divorce means 0 Blended families I Motherstepfather 0 Most frequent o Boy s usually adjust quickly 0 Older children and adolescents ofboth sexes display more problems I Fatherstepmother o Often leads to reduced fatherchild contact 0 Girls and stepmothers eventually have more positive contact 0 Maternal employment and child development I Benefits 0 Children have higher selfesteem 0 Positive family and peer relations 0 Fewer gender stereotypes o More father involvement I Drawbacks 0 Less time for children 0 Risk of ineffective parenting 0 Support for working parents I Flexible schedules job sharing I Sick leave I Involvement of other parent 0 Fears and anxieties in middle childhood I Fears of dark thunder lightning and supernatural being persistent I Fears based on wider world emerge 0 Many are mediafueled o Harsh living conditions can lead to anxiety I School phobia o 57 years separation from home 0 1113 particular aspects of school 0 due to physical and emotional changes I Harsh living conditions promote severe anxieties 0 Ethnic and political violence I Chronically dangerous environments 0 Less of feelings of safety 0 Desensitization to violence I Parents schools communities must provide security 0 Child sex abuse I Victims more often female I Usually reported in middle childhood I Abusers may use technology to lure I Prevent through education 0 Factors related to resilience I Personal characteristics 0 Easy temperament o Mastery orientation 0 Pursue mastery of an ability 0 Warm parental relationship Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive development in Adolescence o Conceptions ofAdolescence I Biologicalperspective I Social perspective 0 3 phases ofadolescence I Early o 1114 0 Rapid puberty change I Middle o 1416 0 Puberty nearly complete I Late O o 1618 0 Anticipation of adult roles 0 Full adult appearance Hormonal changes in puberty I Growth hormone and tyroxine increase around age 89 I Estrogens I Androgens o Testosterone Sex differences in body growth in adolescence I Boys start at 125 o Gain more muscle I Girls start at 10 o Gain more fat Decline in physical activity from ages 915 I School is getting harder I Declining energy Sexual maturation I Primary sexual characteristics 0 Maturation of the reproductive organs 0 Girls menarche 0 Boys spermarche I Secondary sexual characteristics 0 Other visible parts of the body that signal sexual maturation Individual differences in timing of puberty I Heredity I Nutrition exercise I Geographical location I SES I Ethnic group Adolescent brain development I Synapses pruning I Growth and myelination speed up I Neurotransmitters Sleep habits in adolescents I Still need almost as much sleep but go to bed later 0 Biological phase delay 0 Social habits I Lack of sleep impairs regulation of attention emotion 0 Lower achievement 0 Mood problems Reactions to puberty I Girls 0 Surprised o More positive than in the past 0 Father s involvement helps I Boys 0 Mixed reactions 0 Sooner than expected 0 Could benefit from telling people 0 Adolescent moodiness I More negative life events I Stronger responses I Mood swings 0 Related to daily events 0 Cultural scripts o Adolescent emotions across the week I Monday and Wednesday have the worst moods o Parentchild relationships during adolescence I Rise in con ict 0 Adaptive behavior 0 Psychological distancing 0 Different views of teen readiness for responsibility I Most con ict is mild 0 Also affection support 0 Factors in reactions to timing ofpuberty I Physical attractivenessbody image 0 Girls want to be smaller 0 Boys want to be bigger 0 Nutrition in adolescence I Calorie needs increase I Poor food choices common I Iron vitamin deficiencies I Eating with family can help 0 Eating disorders I Severe dieting strong indicator I Family relationships I Cultural pressure 0 Anorexia nervosa o Bulimia nervosa o More common and easier to treat 0 May be slightly overweight I Throwup to lose weight 0 Adolescent sexuality I North American attitudes restrictive 0 Media contradicts family messages 0 Abstinence programs 0 More liberal over past 40 years 0 Most say premarital sex I Activity matches attitudes 0 Rates decline since 1990 s Talking to adolescents about seX I Foster open communication I Use correct terms I Listen discuss collaborate I Think before talking I Keep conversations going Sexually active adolescents I Girls more activity for 1st 3 years of high school Contraceptive use I Recent increase in use I But many Americans Canadians do not use Sequence of coming out I Feeling different 0 Ages 612 I Confusion 0 1115 I Selfacceptance 0 Timing varies Adolescents and STDs I Adolescents highest STD rate 0 16 teens I AIDS most serious I Females more easily infected I Education improving Risk for teen mothers I Less educational achievement I More time as single parents I Economic problems I Pregnancy problems Help for teen pregnancy I Prevention 0 More seX ed 0 Promoting abstinence 0 Increasing access to contraceptives I Intervention with teen pregnancies 0 Affordable childcare Adolescent parenthood I Mother s age at childbirth 0 Strong predictor of neXt generation s age at childbirth I Not inevitable but linked to 0 Home environment parenting 0 Intelligence education 0 Father s absence Adolescent substance use I Have tried by grade 10 o 40 cigarettes 0 Alcohol 63 0 Illegal drugs 38 I Europe 0 Alcohol not as big of a problem 0 Adolescent substance abusers I Compared to experimenters o More antisocial impulsive acts 0 Start earlier 0 More likely to be affect by genetic and social factors 0 Prevention and treatment I School and community programs I Teach skills to resist peer pressure I Reduce social acceptability of drugs Piaget s theory formal operational stage I Hypotheitcodeductive reasoning I Propositional thought 0 Followup research on formal operational thought I Schoolage children start developing abstract thinking skills I Formal operation may not be universal Chapter 12 Emotional and Social development during Adolescence o Erikson s Theory Identity vs Role confusion I Define who you are what you value and direction in life I Lack of direction and definition of self 0 Selfconceptin adolescence I Unify separate traits into larger abstract ones I May describe contradictory traits social situations I Gradually combine traits into organized system 0 Qualifiers o Integratingprinciples o Selfesteem in adolescence I Continues to differentiate I Generally rises o Temporarily drops at school transitions Individual differences become more stable 0 I Identity achievement I Moratorium I Foreclosure I Diffusion I Longterm diffusion 0 Factors that affect identity development I Personality 0 Flexible openminded I Child rearing practices 0 Authoritative 0 Culture and identity I View of selfcontinuity I Culturalmajority adolescents I Cultural minority adolescents 51011 Chapter 12 continued 0 Kohlberg s Stages ofMoral Development I Preconventional level I Conventional level 0 Maintain social system I Postconventionalprincipledlevel 0 Question social s stem 0 Research on Kohlberg s theory I Few people reach postconventional I Conventional require more profound thought than Kohlberg suspected I People often reason belowlevels ofwhich they are capable o Competing Issues of Morality I Moral implications I Socialconventional implication I Personal 0 In uences on Moral Reasoning I Childrearingpractices o Caring supportive 0 Discuss more concerns I Schooling o Moral Reasoning and Behavior I Modest connection I Behavior in uenced by many factors 0 Emotion o Temperament o Situation history 0 Moral selfrelevance 0 Civic Responsibility I Knowledge 0 Political issues I Feelings I Skills I In uences 0 Religious involvement and morality
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