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by: Yessenia Walsh

HistoryandSystemsofPsychology PSY401

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Yessenia Walsh
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yessenia Walsh on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY401 at Drexel University taught by JamesCalkins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/212497/psy401-drexel-university in Psychlogy at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
WEEK 1 6212010 103500 PM Hypocrites William James first psychology text book 0 Need the opportunity to identify ideas 0 Chairman of the philosophy and psychology program at Harvard If there is a brain how is that compatible to human motivation 0 Like free will Or freedom of choice 0 Where are you in connection of the animality and materiality of your brain Wrote a book on psychic phenomena He was not sure if you could be quick to decide You do not want to be so presumptuous Epilepsy o Sometime surgical intervention 0 So lets say there is a tumor a lot of surgeons will just remove it 0 So they gave the patient the opportunity to view the operation and the stimuli that the kid was receiving So first they would have a screen on his brain so that he could watch the surgery This is so the surgeon can actually test certain areas of the brain through tactile stimulation So the epileptic sees the surgery happening and he has a direct experience as the electrode is being applied to his brain No one else can experience this You cannot drop into someone else s consciousness The history of psychology is really a lot of thinking about what we are 400 CE o The Mediterranean area is a hot bed of innovations of culture and traditions Grappling with problems of death and immortality So many cultures of the time were people trying to deal with the question of mans position in nature Trying to deal with out mortality Most cultures have acknowledged and dealt with loosing someone Different cultures have created remarkable insight on how to explain the loss of loved ones and the loss of ourselves Prometheus 0 Created man by going down to a stream sometimes and taking some clay and molding a few creatures which became men and women which were useful for the gods to interact with This was no myth for the Greeks Most societies like Egypt have many theories on death 0 Why do we have this tendency and urge to create these myths Also myths about healing Something we want for ourselves and our loved ones is to be healthy You always hear gurus of time be healing You even have it now This desire to maintain health or be healed or have healing powers was really pervasive in o GreeceIn greexe Sparta and athans were at war The greeks were always at war But yet the desire to be healthy was always a passion Mutter museum 0 Has a stairway and at the top is escalopious The escalapians page 51 son of Apollo were healers who follow escalopious who was a Greek god He also has the snake curled around him people were very passionate about snake venom They thought they could be a source of health Snake toxins could be of some bene t The snake itself has been the symbol for wisdom and insight In india one of the major drugs was from a root that looked like and was named after a snake So back to escalapious he also had arod that was connected with the snake Many greeks thought he was mortal but he wasn t he was a god A young man Cos who grew up on an island close to turkey well Hypocrotes was able to grow up there He was very interested in health And he made a school for health And his school was different because it was based on reason and objective thinking If someone told him about the gods he would not knock them but he would point out that the thoughts behind the gods were not empirical have objective observations So his approach was to be based on observation and reason As opposed to so many others who would invoke the gods One of the diseases we are going to be talking about is EPILEPSY EPILEPSY O O O O O O O One of the handouts is a selection of hypocratic texts He called it the a Because at that time one of the things that the gods did was to get pissed off at humans Like Zeus and his thunderbolt to cast you into the world of hatees Freud considered this the unconscious Mythology helps out immensely with bad things happens to good people 1 out of 20 people will have a seizure in there lifetime Best way to view it is with an EEG Temporal lobe is a major issue If someone has auditory experiences and auditory hallucinations it is in the temporal lobe This is the hearing If a seizure occurs which is a large discharge in a synchronous fashion The frontal lobe Probably fall down You could have tremors on one side of your body depending on which side of the frontal lobe So back to Hypocrotes don t tell me the gods are doing this please they do This is a natural development of the bodies dysfunctions An anatomical development A politically shrude man The average statesman of Greece the theologeons would not have like it if it was not named as a gods punishment Epilepsy is in the brain It is not in the lvier toes or heart It is a brain malfuntion So what did Hypocroties recommend I Trephination which are holes drilled into the brain movie master and commander open up the cargo bay to get sunlight 1790 s The point is that everyone would gather around to look at the operation Hypocroties considered that pressure could cause epilepsy For other reasons that cause epilepsy check out the hand out o Idiocyncratic seizures no explanation as opposed to symptomatic seizure Which is a re ection of underlying condition So that the seizure is a symptom of something else like a blood clot I The person may have hallucination or auditory memories but what is causeing it That is the question 0 TO SUMMARIZE l quotH He gets credit for saying the critical factor is the brain He did is He did try different forms of treatment and of course the drill the hole in the brain thing But you are left with a lot of the disease and malfunctioning vessils I Things from the book I Saw dreams as indicators of illness The more the dream strayed from reality the greater the illness I The very rst to classify emotional disorders 0 Mania melancholia paranoia disorganized behaviors epilepsy natural disease of the brain The 4 elements or temperaments o The naturalists thought this DEMOCROTIS everything is made of something else Thought they were called atoms in the void It meant also that seeing is not necessarily believing Hypocrites takes over Democrotis theory Everything was made up of humors meaning uids or systems inside the body 0 Earth Black Bile wetness Melancholia I Chronically depressed if you have too much black bile 0 Air Yellow Bile dryness Choleric 0 Water Phlegm coldness Phlegmatic I Sluggishness depression stupidity 0 Fire Blood heat Sanguine o The book says that intelligence is made up of a balance of fire and water An excess of water stupid And excess of fireimpulsive Treatment for too much re would be to replace meat with fish exercise So lets take a neurotransmitter norepinepherin and pretend it s a humor Ifthey have to little it can cause depression Like black bile This kind of thinking is not so far off So the imbalances is what causes problems As long as the brain is at rest there is no problem 0 Inadequate amounts of acetocholine can cause Alzheimer s St Thomas Aquiness and Darwin 0 De ned human beings as rational animals 0 Rationality is the essence of humans 0 The brain is what makes us rational But this is the thoughts back then Not now obviously This is the continuum of animals and men so says Darwin 0 o The brain is the most signi cant function we have 0 Nervous systems go back about 35 million years ago Along with the rst duplicatable DNA Small changes over an immense period of time makes big changes Arguments between Hypocrites and Escalapian followed 6212010 103500 PM Aristotle 300BC 2425 36 41 44 49 5560 131 245 266 418 444 Philosopher Gets credit for being one of the originators of psychology Wrote De Anima which means concerning the soul Very first psychology book Follows the same pattern of the text books now minus the brain stem Not a chapter on social psychology Topics on thought reasoning and emotion Wrote text books for almost every single human inkling 0 Letters 0 Poly sci 0 Logic 0 Zoology text He taught Alexander the great 0 Philip is Alexander s father and he gave Aristotle a lot of money 0 People were afraid Aristotle could be a very large in uence of Alexander 0 They would look at many things about what is going on in life like picking up sea shells Wrote essays on literary criticism 0 So anyone who wrote anything he critiqued o 90 of things known at all in Greece through to India was known by Aristotle I social religious political Empiricism Empirical controlled observation Aristotle created it in the way that he wrote it up and made it clear to the public The idea is to how to acquire information To figure out how the world works Controlled systematic observation 0 Organize them 0 So he would look at animals and understand that they change from season to season 0 So like Jane Goodall She had the best observation basically She took systematic pictures Same time every day In different phases too like for eating and drinking She discovered and found behaviors and observed them She even found homosexuality within the gorillas Cause effect 0 5 pages on causality Read it Ch 3 o 4 levelstypes of causes Must understanding the material structure of a thing is necessary to an understanding of causation These are antecedent conditions I 1 Efficient physical cause causality I Physical force Ifyou hit something it moves Do dominoes hitting each other and falling down 1 7 I 2 Material cause I dominos are hard so that they force the other one down when it tips over Like if you made a domino out of cotton It would not necessarily make the other domino s move a Knee re ex from a hammer This would be nerves and tendons and muscles I 3 Formal Cause I form or shape of the material I how things are distributed in space I So like the shape of a domino compared to a sphere for example Which would change how things move I 4 Final cause The end or purpose I cause for which the event took place The why of it all I It gets complicated when you talk about the universe Cause there are happenstances of nature still I Ifyou listen to religion god has a plan a nal cause for all ofus I So Aristotle said what is it in us that allows us to contribute to causality perhaps motivation 0 Some say that is not okay Some people think that behavior is a function of learning 0 Others say that you are born the way you are That it is in your genes NATURE VS NURTURE Still something always DID IT SO ITS STILL CAUSALITY o Aristotle reasoning I All cows eat grass So if Bessie is a cow then she eats grass 0 Things don t happen just because there is normally a cause 0 If the tires come off your car there is a reason for it 0 Logic Organization of life 0 Vegetative Plants are simpler than animals 0 Nutrition and reproduction 0 So the vegitative soul is a gastro intestinal system 0 Animal o Dissection I Since Greece was constantly at war he had a good supply of body So he could dissect I But he was always in a hurry 0 Would show Alexander that the animals change from season to season 0 Sensation and mobility I The heart depending in what you read I Sensing soul The place ofpassion I the brain I feelings and such Cognitive psychology I Ifyou read Aristotle carefully there are no references for Hypocrites Which is weird Aristotle not so good with physiology I So when he would stuffy the bodies from war he would not notice the connection in the brain I A cooling system Helping to blow the heat away Gave it no respect as a possible place for thinking processes 0 Human 0 Error on brain 0 Did not suspect evolution He just organized things Did not suggest sequence over time But if you add that you pretty much had Darwin s theory 0 Greece was constantly at war Religions 0 Greece was infused with mythology Overwhelming mythology o Aristotle was very careful not to offend anybody when it came to religious beliefs 0 But the people who came to listen to him understood to start to separate the gods from the facts 0 He tries to say we don t need the gods Ifwe do then we will use them Animals and plants 0 Animals are more complex 0 So we know there is an originational different So we have that which is truly a plant vegetative soul 0 And same with animal They have a soul too 0 And in soul we mean essence That which makes them what they are 0 So humans have a human soul its not religious though 0 So for Aristotle humans think and that is what makes us who we are Thinking is the soul of humans So we are part of the animal kingdom but we are rational so we are better 0 When we have the effect and we want to know the cause that is called induction 0 Inductive reasoning You are 5 and you find a burnt doll and you connect the dots to find out what happened 0 Have the cause to effect Deductive Concept or idea Maple o gtgtgtgtboth trees Oak a very real thing They are physically real but what about that concept of tree 0 That s what humans deal with and animals cant now we would argue with that So where in our body is the concept of Tree 0 Hypocrites would know what was up But Aristotle does not 0 Aristotle s answer would be that it cannot be the brain Picking it up and thinking its cold But another issue is that the brain is itself a structure It has characteristics that make it a brain And it has its own properties So how would Itake a concept of something physical and then put it into something physical So how can you take an abstraction and put it into a substance like the brain or even a desk Ideas cannot be any place at all They have no location in the human body Stolastics prophesors of philosophy And it follows Aristotle And that is very compatible with the Christian tradition 0 Concepts and ideas are forms Most of us think in terms of images and things So when I was talking about trees you most likely would be seeing them in your head This is a sensible representation From the book One of the first to struggle with the meaning of causations Alexander the greats tutor Founded the school lyceum Interested in what could be gained form the senses Comprehensive quality Father of zoology Deductive logic Soul and body are interdependent HYLOMORPHISM Functions of the soul 0 1 All forms have a nutritive function the process of growth and reproduction 2 Sensitive function Sensing and perception 3 Movement functions 000 4 Function of reason I Passive componen senses and with the function of common senses which ties on sense to another through the ability to compare and make judgments I active components 0 Memory 0 The object of memory is the past 0 The object of perception is the present 0 The object of expectation is the future 0 Memory must be something within us like an impression or a picture 0 Recollection is NOT memory Its I s a searching for an image in a corporeal substrate Issues with recollection imply releaming o Sensing 0 Potential sensing is present So When you listening for the chiming of the clock 0 Actual listening is when the chiming actually occurs 0 Sense objects I Color timbre I Actualizing stimuli but such stimuli must interact with the medium through an organism 0 Common sensible I Figure sensory pattern number magnitude movement Galen 6212010 103500 PM Well appointed physician in Rome 0 Went to all the loyalty and the gladiators 0 Did not like loss of life 0 Did physiology 0 O Physiologythe way things work Anatomy the structure 0 He would go to the Atlas mountains O O O 0 He would spend time doing vivsections So when the animals were alive He would cut the nerves on the spinal cords to see what corresponding body part went with it Wanted to know how the body functions Veri ed the critical functioning of the brain He followed Impiracle observation 0 Created the first well thought out systematic observation of the body Others pale in comparison to him 0 He was so good that his theories were considered set in stone until the l9Lh century It was just known as truth 0 o Spirits This was very unfortunate because it held physicians back Popes thought dissection was evil and improper o Naturalliver o The breakdowns of digestion the nutrients are sent to the heart and mixed with the blood 0 Critical material 0 Vital o The blood 0 Had a problem with the circulatory system 0 He thought that there were connecting links in the heart So an ebb and ow in the heard as opposed to the circulation that we know of now 0 Goes to the entire body but also to the brain I He wanted to figure out how the brain controls the body I Thought the whole thing was hydrolics So like aquaducts 0 So he thought the uid was taken up to the brain And went through the ventricles And then out of it emerges the third spirit which is the animal spirit 0 Animal o Is a filtered blood So like a filtered vital spirit 0 When the uid comes out it fills the third ventricle 0 Then the animal spirit lls the nerves and ventricles Thought that it was hollow He also thought the muscles were hollow and the blood lled them to make them move The nerves are hollow when he observes them 0 The uid goes through the 3rd ventricle through the spinal canal and comes back to the membranes of the brain 0 3 membranes around the brain I 1 Outer Dura Mater I very tough membrance Substancial I 2 Arachnoid I looks like a spiders web I uid travels bwteeen them in the sub arachnoid space And it lls with cerebral spinal uid I 3 Pia Mater 0 comes up through the sun arachnoid space till it comes upi to the sop and gets reabsorbed into the superior sinus o Cerebral spinal uid I Boyancee I And nutrience o Galen throught that it helped to solve the question of the communication of the brain So muscles are hollow and can be in ated It is in ated through the nerves 0 It is created in the retae merabla 0 He was right minues the technicalities o Insefalitus infection of the cerebral spinal uid This will kill you 0 Plus the numa 0 Which is basically air Now known as oxygen 0 Intertwines with other areas of the body like blood 0 Entwines with the animal spirit Galen II 6212010 103500 PM Confrontation with our own materiality and carnality Does not have to do with liver and hearts and kidneys it all has to do with the brain Created lSt basic known physiology How it all worked Nutrients are obtained from the numa gastro intestine Then they are taken to the liver where they are processed and then passed onto the blood He had an issue with the circulatory system because he did not know about the capillaries Air added to the blood to create the vital spirit VITAL SPIRIT The important part for us is that the nutrients in the blood is taken to the brain So when the blood gets to the brain rete mirabilechoroid pleXis 0 So here the blood is lteredthinned and is called the ANIMAL SPIRIT cerebral spinal uid Vessels and nerves travel together and they both require nutrients He is trying to gure out that if the brain is the critical organ and it can do all these things like movement but how does it control movement As in through the nerves So the psychic pneuma can go through BRAIN o SKULL o MENINGES I DURA MATER I ARACHNOID LAYER I PIA MATTER o SUBARACHNOID SPACE I ANIMAL SPIRIT LIVES HERE AND GOES ALL THE WAY UP TO THE TOP v SUPIRIOR SAGITAL SINUS SPACE Ecephalitis o If there are any ruptures at all in the pia mater you have a problem of in ammation then uids ll those areas of brain tissue there is too much pressure and bacteria can get into the brain tissue itself People have actually dies from this WEEK 45 6212010 103500 PM Avicenna 9801037 A physician Interested in Hypocrates and Galen Translation from arabic wrote a lot the higher mental processes are in the brain We do not have much sophistication when it comes to dissection The empty spaces on the picture are the ventricles If the ventricles become enlarged o Schizophrenia can happen 0 If its in birth fetal alcohol syndrome can occur I That is when the brain s ventricles enlarge and ll with CSF o In the back of the brain is where the memory according to him 0 EsmotivaEstimation occurs In the center around the third ventrical 0 Common sense meeting place of the senses Origins of universities 0 Professor 0 Gives lecture and commands o Instructor 0 Does what the professor says and tell the demontrator what to do with a pointer o Demonstrator 0 Actually does the dissection o The students make the diagram 0 Middle ages to the renaissance is a very serious problem Leonardo Da Vinci Interested in mechanical engineering and psychology and sculpture and paintings 0 Had a notebook and kept a daily log 0 Many of these notations were on the brain and the mind Wanted to understand what he was painting How the muscles were constructed 0 Would go to medical school and find out But at the same time the mind won that is what fascinated What is memory It must be the brain So he paid some people to bring him bodies and he did some dissections of his own but he wanted the professionals so he took himself to med school and took some anatomy classes 0 Eye ball I Real issues about spheres Purity needs to be a circle The lens is not a perfect sphere This is Leonardo taking it down I Optic chiasm 0 Brain 0 Took resin injected it 0 Then set the brain out for the brain to disintegrate What you would have left would be what the ventricles looked like in the brain I This showed 4 ventricles I One on the left side which has horns that go into the temporal lobe I One on the right side I One at the bottom at the spinal canal I One in the center 0 Very Critical about the schools of anatomy 0 These are supposed to be physicians about how the body was put together and da vinci knew more Side note guy with headaches had been in accident Then got shot during war Then the bullet was in the ventricle And so the bullet would move around in the ventricle and give him headaches Ended up finding a way to shove the bullet into the comer of the horn so it would be wedged there and would no longer move around So back to leo Vesalius 6212010 103500 PM Revolution of anatomy He de ned the different sections of the brain Everything was systematical dissection Dissection of the brain in labeled measured separated layers Anatomical directions Descartes Systematical skeptical positions Catholicism played a large role in his life It is the basic belief of a soul that makes him different from all the others The soul is immaterial So it must be somewhere How does it affect will and it has to be immortal Lying in his bed he invented geometry When he was at home he would go to bed at about noon and then you would see him much later in the day Which was his undoing and he became a court tutor to king charlott in England and she wanted him to be his tutor in spring in stolckholm in the north which was cold and frigid And he was supposed to be tutoring at 6am sharp in an incredible hall He came down with the pneumonia and died REFLEX o Re exes cannot just be thought They are automatic I Afire I B foot I c I D I E I F Afferent into the brain The diagram shows the afferent signal Still Galen s physiology The animal spirit goes to the ventricle Then the tube is a big 0 nerve Efferent out of the brain MAJOR QUESTION 0 Mind and Soul Mental functions and the functions of the soul are the same the only difference is that the soul is immoirtal and will survive However he 0 knows that geln ins true o How can the soul which is immaterial singular and uniform work on a material thing brain or have anything to do with the brain How can the material structure of the brain and the immaterial structure of the soul interact I How do the soul and brain come together He knows that the animal spirits are in the ventricle How does the soul get involved He came across a structure that was behind the right ventricle The pineal gland exists Hr gured the ventricles are right there The pineal gland is where the soul contacts the body through this which is singular Descartes is into hydrolics Tubes with uids and not string Cannot be in other structures Pineal gland is the placeof action between the immortal soul and the body Imagine you put a water balloon Water needs to go into the balloon to in ate it The balloon is the muscle The uids going into the muscle that cause the muscle to expand o Dualism 0 Soul 0 Brain 0 Interactionism an interaction between brain and soul 0 Don t really solve this problem 0 Materialism just matter Glisson 1672 0 Would give demonstrations of why Galens theory is not correct 0 Would go into local community 0 Would get a tub of water Take a perfectly good conditioned person and have them stick there arm in the water The the arm would be marked where the water is Then have the man make a st So what would happen ro the water level according to Galen the water level will rise But we all know that does not happen The beginning of Galen being replaced What are the 4 humors Trace the cerebral spinal uid What are the ventricles the abesena described The Cartesian theory Diagram labeling possibly Like the anatomical diagrams Like the brain Temperments Nothing form the text except what we have referred to here Phrenology 6212010 103500 PM Respectable beginning A definite understanding that the brain was critical This is discovered by Franz Gall Qualified and legit physician Brain areas related to psychological function Language loss seems to be related to frontal lobes The phrenologists would explore the bumps on the head And then make an interpretation of the underlying brain function The assumption that there is a relationship between the bump and the brain is nonsensical Fame and fortune Phrenology was a business At least now it would be kind of right Cortical localization Flourens Pigeon Brain 0 O 0 Very simple Has a cerebellum like us To coral the animal and hold it down And then use probes to sever the bones and open the brain Then you can extract a particular part Take away the two hemisphere decerebrate no cerebrum Fall down in a few minuets Move around randomly Show no responses to sound or light Kind of like a zombie Take away right or left hemisphere Right The left side of the body will become unable to move and push itself around in circles n Same for vision They become less sensitive to light Equipotentiality 0 Example Friend of professors She was in Wisconsin and she was in a car accident A bad one She had suffered brain damage The brain damage was in the left side in the Wernickes area She was rendered unable to process language She could not identify sounds that she heard For males and females we almost always have wernickes area on the left side After about 6 months or so of procedures they were able to get about 50 of her lost language skills retrieved The right side was beginning to be active during these linguistic involvement Recovery of lost function Paul Broca o Interested in neuropathology Documented investigations o Brain damage toward anterior section of left hemisphere In the frontal lobe on the left side This brain area is very close to the area that controls facial muscles All these variations of facial expressions would be part of the communications among the primates o Example some drugs are used to relax facial muscles One of the ways in which products can elevate muscles o Instructions come to Broca s area from the Werneckies area o Controls speech muscles o This whole function is in the left hemisphere almost exclusively o Speech is controlled by c Petfield 0 Would get permission from his patients no other treatment to surgically remove part of the brain A flap was made to open up the skull Then the clamps pull the dura mater away 0 Touch broca s area with electrode speech becomes messed up It interferes with articulation 0 Carl Wernicke o A comparable source of damage in the sensory areas o Render the sounds into language o You do not process visial material visually you do it by speaking to yourself o Phineas Gage o Measurement and skulls o Do we think in terms of words Can we say the word cat independently of thinking it Some people can Some people can read without Broca s area o Normally people have to go from werneckes area to broca s to speak or read o Touch werickes area with electrode and you cant write andymore 6212010 103500 PM Helmholtz Master of physics and physiology Updates the question of communication in the brain Interested in how information moves around in the nervous system c Kymograph could plot changes in muscle contraction o If the muscle contracts it is attached to a string which is attached to a pulley which is attached to a weight which is attached to a lever which will leave a mark on a paper that is attached to the drum to show muscle contraction The paper is covered in soot and a mark is made on the rotating drum Cause and effect Touch electrode to nerve We shock the nerve And the muscle will contract Was able to show that the response is not instantaneous There is a time period on the chart that shows that there is time between when the nerve is stimulated for the muscle to contract in response The basic idea is that everything takes time 0 O O O o Injury potential 0 One wire attached to the surface one wire attached to the inside of the injury It would then go through a volt meter which was just basically a coil The coil would move in representation of the current moving That means electricity is associated with biological tissue Millivolt is the right measure to talk about voltages in the body What is true for tissue if not the same for cells 80 millivolts At this point they just know about tissue nbot cells 0 O Hemholtz 4 o Squid 0 Has a giant axon that you can actually see 0 They figured out how to put an electrocode into the axon So one E goes in the axon and one goes outside of the axon A device was created OSCILLOSCOPE which created an electrical field If there is a change of voltage around the beam it will be deflected either to the left or right 0 To remember through the people on this page you were ablet 0 get a rendition of changes in that axon depending upon if it was stimulated or not The inside of the axon is negative And the inside of cells and nerve cells is negative with respect to the outside which is positive 0 So if you stimulated the squids axon you would have a voltage produced on the axon You would start at 70 then go up to 30 then back to 30 0 They did the same thing with micro electrodes Hemholtz 6 Freud Electrode inside and on the outside Injury potential 0 How the biological cell works Negative on inside positive on outside Resting potential 0 Action potential 0 The negatives and positives change Electro chemical event Died from smoking Was addicted to cocaine His cells were joined together No dendrites Microscopes not powerful enough Basically stated that the verves are made of axons But still no dendrites or separation of the cells When he wnet into practice he went into practice with Jacob Breurer Freud thought that hysteria was interesting 0 Didn t think there were internal organs involved He thought that it was in the brain Went to paris and started working with Jean Charcot Charcot would take the hysteria patients and would use Mezmer s technique Except he would start with magnets and would realize that you could just have them concentrate and have them go into a hypnotic trance Mezmer thought that you could move magnets around someone s head and the hysteria would cease OOO o Ego o SuperEgo Id o Repressed 0 Memories form the past that are disturbing that you do not want to remember o Perceptual consciousness o Unconscious 0 That which is unavailable to the awareness o Lasting problem no one has figured out how the nerves are connectedor lack there of Von Loewi o Two hearts see hand out page 2 6212010 103500 PM Germany was the place for science in the 19th century Ernst Weber Interested in the sensory system like Aristotle Interested in quantitative relationships Tries to take things form nature and pit them in quantifiable form How its needed that you need light in order to see but the question is how much light Started out with something fairly simple The Two Point Threshold 0 Differences in musical instruments Different levels of sensitivity on the skin So when do you feel it and when does it heart So the two point threshold is touching someone with two points and how far apart or close to together do the points have to be so that the participant can tell that there are two points About three mm is the threshold from 21 threshold when we went from 2 to 1 and 1 to 2 The finger is more sensitive because there are more receptors on our fingers because we touch things as opposed to our forearms 0 Got him thinking about other types of things like sight OOO Psi psychological dimension Phi physical dimension Absolute threshold minimal amount of stimulus to create a sensory system response We are talking about the psychology of the threshold that requires an intact human being to respond Measurement of the tested stimulant that is the least amount that is necessary for you to detect it When we can tell 50 of the time something is touching us that is the threshold Just noticeable difference JND when you first notice the difference o Amount of proportional increase to the stimulus is a constant relative to the initial stimulus Fechner o Fechners law 0 Thought there was a rhythmic function to detecting different types of stimuli Herman Ebbinghaus Interested in higher mental processes especially memory and learning His name was Clyve and he could only remember his wifes name and how to play the piano No processing of events Very enthusiastic about weber In his book for the first time he wrote down the statement of experimental psychology in one paragraph He defined it Nonsense Syllable Forgetting Curve Measures of Memory 0 Recall something remembered 0 Recognition true false or multiple choice question Who was the first one to write a book on ebbinghaus its ebinghaus 0 Savings method of ebbingaus if you memorize something back in highschool How many repetitions would it take you to do that and now be able to repeat what you learned Presumably it would take you less Less tries non less time Kymographe memory drum 0 The wind up drum that recorded things He took the drum and rotated it 90 degrees but between an inner and outer layer of metal A section would be cut out with the nonsense syllable in the cut out area Then it would rotate and a new nonsense syllable would appear Scientific ie experiment 0 IV independent variable 0 DV dependent variable 0 CV confounding variable So he would make up a list of 10 nonsense variables like poz He would go through them like cards but they would be in order Short list is easy to remember than a long list He could have easily made learning curves but he only made the forgetting curve Eventually the learning curve was made in the 20th century with pigeons first Brain problems can make you forget The device used in class with the two points was called an aesthesiometer FC Donders Created a procedure that would allow an experimenter to quantify different aspects of mental timing mental chronometry How long does a throught take The idea of clocks is something that took place is a marker with something psychological The onset of stimulus and the onset of response Interested in Vagers work Simple idea 0 The light will come on and then you would hit a telegraph key Were still using the carbon on the paper Discrimination between the two stimuli is more demanding that just hitting the button with one light 0 Choice reaction Two telegraph keys are used along with two colors If it is green hit the left if it is red hit the right This takes more time o It is the mind that we are dealing with The time it takes to see something and react the time to discriminate amongst two things and the time to choose between those two things and react Chronometry study of time and measure This is mental chronometry According to some the mind transcends measurement and that shrinks are wrong especially from England 0 So why is this quantitative O 0 On the hand out o A 100ms o B 150ms o C 250ms 6212010 103500 PM Binet o Child psychologistpediatrician o Used the modified Kyrogram o Kids were getting behind in school So like someone in school was in third grade but the person was 16 o Wanted to find these kids who had trouble learning before they got to the point of 16 in 3rd grade Intelligence measure America caught on to this They really liked this idea of measured intelligence o Put puzzle pieces into a picture o Tactile tests o Story tests Stern says o to set the ages up at a ratio c you can either divede the ma by the ca or the othe way around o The purpose is to show that they kid who is doing well is shown in a single number a bigger number that the less smart kid o Basically created IQ David Wexler o Helped standardize tests Achievement tests Medical tests 6212010 103500 PM Learning about animals brains and behavior is instructional Clever Han s Ethology study of animal behavior for the sake of understanding the behavior Stumpf had heard that Clever Han s could do math Retired math teacher who meant well He was quite enthusiastic about some of the animals intellectual abilities The issue was that he was not using the experimental method One hypothesis was that this specific hourse was damn brilliant There were some interesting debates on how you evaluate hypothesis o If you have 2 things to be explained like the famous apple falling down take the simplest one and do that first o Maybe his performance is related to whether or not the audience knows the answer Anything that oskar wanted to do the owener would agree to it o So lets do cubed 2A2 They thought that the horse would notice the Q s that would give away the right answer o Lots of people were starting to follow Darwin o The psychologists were immerged in the idea of the gradual development of the human mind Darwin o A naturalist student of biology o A very challenging mind How are things related to eachother and where di they come from Not satisfied with religious answers o Prometheus was very interested in creating companion ships for his fellow gods o Darwin knew the myths of religion But maybe there is a natural explanation as opposed to a supernatural explanation Let the simplist explanation suffice o Ager plate is like how humans will run out of food Only toxins will be left o Social Darwinism o A number of animals of an island And they are used to having an animal to eat If they rely on that one animal for food then they are screwed if something changes in the climate Biston Betularin o Moths in Manchester area that had white wings They were able to develop in large numbers and were well camouflaged because everything was white and clean Occasionally a dark winged moth would pop up Variation is critical for variation o The dark died off pretty quickly They were killed off by the predetors Not easy to camoflage Then there is the revolution and so everything goes black Carbon deposits So the soot falls everyplace So the rules for adaption in Manchester has just changed What is survival now is dark winged o The population of moths has now dramatically shifted based upon a change in the environment The environment changes the rules o If you have enough shifts in enough phenotypes together you end up with a new species Which is the main thesis in the origin of species James o New Text chapters 0 Habit now it s the psychology of learning 0 emotion o Haraclitus Greek philosopher that proceeded Socrates 0 Things change They do not stay the same o On the other hand you have Parmenides 0 People are overlooking the basic idea that something underlies change Something that serves as the underlying basis for change o Spent a lot of time on the nervous system Thorndike o Came to james at Harvard and asked him people are trying to study and learn from animals o Had a box called the thorndike box 0 Had a lever on it o If the cat could pull the lever then the door would open 0 Woman mary calkins 6212010 103500 PM William James update article Experimental psychology When he was interested in the mind and self determination and consciousness he was interested in the functions as opposed to the structure of the mind Functional psychology 19051925 0 Pavlov Watson Czar sponsored Pavlov Conditioned response 0 Dogs O 0000 O O O The location of the learning centers in the brain He became involved in cortical localization Apalation studies Responses of gastro intestinal responses by using the kymograph System to remove saliva Came into a room with animals And the animals started to salivate So why was that Psychological causes The time of the day Perhaps the fact that I am walking im IT IS CALLED A PSYCHIC REFLEX n A psychological origin But today it is known as a learned reaction Salivations functions as a lubricant Orienting reflex Applied instinct for the survival of the organism Something that is wired in through the evolution of the organism Irradiation what happens in the nerve cells when the light is shown before the shock Learning process in the brain itself Alexander luria O O Involved in Pavlov s work Interested in the psychopathology of the brain Where the brain damage was being caused in war with shrapnel Psychometrics Founder of neuropsychology Freud II Liked wundts laboratory research and procedures Have to have specific meanings of the words you are using Apperception wtf is that He said I mean if you are talking about brain conditions that s fine He did not like subjective things He was really into objective psychology Wanted to make psychology objective Wrote his first major book behaviorism Psychology should be the study of pure behavior To him behavior is what people say or do So talking is verbal behavior Example you have the classic BF Skinner continued behaviorism o Impressed with Watsons work 0 Thorndikian 0 Over all view that psychology should be limited to behavior has gone away basically Fascinated by nervous system Nerve cells are the basic structure of the entire nervous system When he was at the Univ of Vienna and going into practice he got a grant He was invited to the hospital for women by Charcot Because of they had hysteria because they had hysters which was basically the uterus Like hot flashes and such The theory was that the uterus became detached and was moving around in the body Charcot had a method for dealing with these patients called Mesmerism Named after anton Mesmer Who was fascinated by magnets You could move magnets around the body and people would become less disturbed A trance like state you can pit a person into He preferred the term hypnotic a sleep like state Charcot liked the term hypnotism Intrigued Freud Got into practice with Jacob Froyer Bertha was Jacob s patient And they seemed to acquire knowledge of early sexual trials So when they went back to Vienna and they were still in practice Freud would take the peculiar cases and Jacob would take the normal ones Freud liked his patients to relax on the couch and he realized he did not have to hypnotize them Especially if he asked them to talk about there dreams Free association replaced hypnosis The idea of going back into the mindbrain was critical


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