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by: Vernice Schuster

Astronomy PHYS181

Vernice Schuster
GPA 3.54


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Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vernice Schuster on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS181 at Drexel University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/212528/phys181-drexel-university in Physics 2 at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
H57 A w pcz mu m s Menuan Z Hubble ueep Heist MOON IS SPACE CREATURES SKULL quot whee WWW 4w 5 m quotSpacels Lharegmn shunethe earth39s atmusphere quot me Ht Grad Imbka m ASTRONOMY The study ofnnatten and energy in our Universe Scale Scale Scale Scale Me And the an ofmeasuring things f 71 C C Fundamental Properties MASS kg or gslugsgmjns TIME s or h0urse0ns LENGTH m or kmparseclightyears CHARGE c known as Coulomb Scientific Notation Selentlflc Notat1on 602000000000000000000000 6 02 x 1023 MASS WI l Electrons 80 X 100 kg 10 The Planck Time r v mm mm 1X103943 s Human Heartbeat Proton Decay 1X104OS LENGTH Proton Size 1X103915 t Mammmz Furthest Galaxies Formed MAKING MEASUREMENTS 19 20 MEASURING ANGLES degrees 360 in a circle are second 350 are degrees In a m we 1 60arcmin6039 139 60arcsec60quot 21 22 Approximate angles 23 24 Triangulation Small Angle Formula d Distance to Object D Diameter of Object a Angular Size radians Units of Distance Distance units Astronomical Unit AU 1496 X 108 km Light Year l yr 946 X 1012 km Parsec pc 326 l yr SOLAR MAP mmn m 77 Relative Sizes in Our Solar System and Beyond How Big is the Universe Big universe 10 BillionBillion Billion centimeters across l0000000000000000000000000000 cm 1028 cm 10 Billion LightYears 6000 Mpc Handy Guide to the Scale of the Universe The Earth is the sizHandiyss cale IThe Moon is the size ofyonr THUMB 3 m away IThe Sun is an 11 m diameter ball at City Hall IJupiter is a ball 1m in diameter in Cherry Hill NJ IPluto is the size of your nger tip in Centml Park Manhattan IThe center of our galaxy is still 2 billion km away IThe edge of the observable universe is still 800 trillion km away 32 IMPORTANT Physical Quantities Are Described in Terms of Fundamental Units Scientific Notation Angular Measure Small Angle Formula RA and DEC 42 I39m179 1 far 1 whal czrtaru gnawc Vau m rhm mm b 17 392X V 17 V quot 111 mm in in t Vary afar a fig ung1 Iquot may 1 quotmuraliii all band an mmmm mmmMa ms campy smlmam md wig5m ar panfhzis c MIYusaphzs NtlryNr Ilzizvz rm a czrt sf Inain aimmsczrt fc pmbzm i jm as dumb as m mxfguy hymnll m Ibzizvz fhaf a an475139s Inain z mmfhzulagica prabzmsg m nzxfguy39 mrum s T OQHDze rmauhem General Solar Properties Lamas 21 135 s Grm A v v Ross 243 65quot 5 wwasa lRoss126 Lacame 9352 NEHMOH U Proxima Cen raur i 5 HmD D Dt Pm v Proxima Centauri L Stellar parallax 076 4 V Distance 1076 13 pc Distance 270000 AU Distance 43 Iy u Proper Motions of Stars P e r quotSO N Apparent Bmgmness e Lum nuns ImenswyDtstancez m 0 t i 0 n Unhinqw A change in apparent magnitude by 5 corresponds to an increase in apparent brightness by a factor of 100 g S The loyscale allows us to express large differences in a compact way WEE e 3 EzHEOHNUUgt opnbhpnmmmp Op n Estimating Stellar Radii 5 Pew C 1quot 0quot 79mm Stellar Radu h Sp Iaa1t Inmnsl sum PmmlmmAbWrnltan a saw mm m s a allquot ALUUU r n 31 3mm HuHD39CN39SV A Blluuvlliul 9m fironnesCa Mi39 a F n HMeakerlyCaJnntzei MK 0 G lelnwe 5920 H Wliktr Caquot Ionlud 5 We quotsum mam K Orange 5399 CI IEINHECSK munat t metals strung leenk M R 3550 sum mm s e e r HerTzsprung Russell Diagram 3 E E Inlrin c nrigmness sunH 10 A Frutgnn a 390 193 nlgul 47w laugh Iquot W 9 ca Dormanu su N53 mus n H mm 21mm 1000 man man 3000 mm Shirs Su ace temperature K v M m an man can M55 mmzwm um now u 5mm mm summon quotpmmu 1 Supernavaewm 39Raugmy he sz w a may my 3uuuuu mm mm maxxwe man me am 39Campaied pr man yaf neuham 39Eicape vehcny g cZ IShang 2mm w radm Joce yn 82H 24yzar o d Cambmdgz grad smdzm mm mquot w permd c radm gna m m canx eHmmn Cygnus Myx ermu y 2ng m 133m 32mm quotmm Hubbie Image u he Crab NebuiaPuisar Ruiaies mice every 0 0015 5 mi SpaceTi me is Curved Alber i Eins iein General Theory of Relafivify 2x A massive objec i39s dis i39or39f space and Time in Their vicinity The dis i39or39fion is The cause of Gr39avi139y Time Effec i39s 396r39avi139a139ional Red Shif i39ing 396r39avi139a139ional Lensing lt Black hole propzrfizs Light cannot escape Eveni horizon 39Muss 5 times the mass of the sun and greater 39Angulur momentum 39Churge most are neutral How am we damn Mam WMsyau mm Accre i ion is Emissions Gravi i a i ional Lansing IMPORTANT Relative Motion Apparent Magnitude HR Diagram Stellar Evolution The Principle of Equivalence Black Hole Properties NEXT ms GALCTIC STRUCTURE Phys 181701 That s no rnoon That s a space station Obi Wan Kenabt rmxwm The sun with all those planets revolving around it and dependent on it can still ripen abunch of gmpes as if it had nothing else in the universe to do Guttea Golder ASTRONOMY The study of matter and energy in our Universe and its evolution over time Early Observations The Sun and Moon ECLIPSES GREEK N ekleipsis A bandonment I580 s BC Herodotus reports that a war between the Lydians and the Medes was ended by a solar eclipse that took both armies by surprise during a battle I1504 Christopher Columbus convinced Jamaicans to aid him by threatening that the Christian god would swallow the sun in anger and event which then proceeded right on schedule SHADOWS Shadows Echpse Facts Mann and sun havemughly me same angular s1ze Lunar echpses last abuut 1 h 45 mm m1 Mann39s nmbral shaduw un me Eanh1s nu wxderthan 157 m1 Thus sular ee11pses last nu murethan 7mm in see Tutal ee11pses uncur every 18 yr 11 days On the average a g1ven lucanun may Wmess a lunar ee11pse nearly every year and spatial sular ee11pse nearly avary Ether year but atutal sular ee11pse unly abuut unce every fuur eenmnes T otalit 06 on nu 20 UNAR SERVATJONS N unar servatlons 21 22 What time is it I v H I z w t s r wr 71m 5 rr 7 M rm 5 2 V N Mum 39 23 ANALEMMA 25 A m m a aw a1 SW cm 3 my 94v M um um M 1m 27 28 mucus w 179 J 1 th anhaw W wk 7ngwNg m sv t vma a 5 rm 2 21m law1 we Wu 20 gmme 2 g L W r Cancer Apr 15 X A m AW a A am a M L r m c 2 3mm 1W me am mm 2 slsmm We Ms NW magnu 29 m Eratosthenes 240 BC Estinslif tdfst eo dl t m 31 The Motion of the Planets Around the Sun Plato N 400 BC 8amp9 tsetl lllle i f ise sky Must be explained Models must have these features 1 Must be mathematical 2 Must explain observations 3 Must be based on the perfection of circles 4 Must obey Aristotelian Physics 33 Aristotelian Physics A ristftle 342 An object will not move unless some in uence causes its motion Conversely the absence of such an in uence would render an object motionless The consequence of the Aristotelian view is that the Earth can not be in motion because the in uence producing such motion would be felt Aristotle39s Periodic Table His chemistry was just as bad Et 5 Ether 35 Stellar Parallax aquot 2 Tire n w w fl l Xquot Sought but not observed until 1838 Axistarchus Relative Distances Ptolem 150 AD and Sizes Sun 7 Peg mv F w w Mum In 640 AD a er a 14 month siege by Arabs the great city and libmry of Ale andria fell The Arabs recognized the value of the Almagest and continued to develop mathematics and astronomy In Europe much knowledge Was lost and the est Was consumed by the Dark Ages 43 IMPORTANT Eclipse Frequency Moon Phase Tells Time Aristotelian Physics Stellar Parallax Plato Describes Features of Model Retrograde Motion amp Ptolemy s Model REVOLUTION


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