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by: Burnice Herman

OrganicChemistryIII CHEM243

Marketplace > Drexel University > Chemistry > CHEM243 > OrganicChemistryIII
Burnice Herman
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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Burnice Herman on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM243 at Drexel University taught by MonicaIlies in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/212561/chem243-drexel-university in Chemistry at Drexel University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Review Topics CHEM 243 Exam 1 Lectures 1 5 same review topics as for Quiz 1 Lectures 6 10 1 saw gt Know how to recognize the activating and deactivating substituents for EAS activating e39 donors either via sigma bonds alkyl groups sigma donors or via a lone pair of e39 ppi conjugation pi donors resonance effect heteroatoms directly bonded to the aromatic ring and which do NOT participate in double bonds deactivating e39 acceptors via polarization of double bonds in functional groups attached to the aromatic ring Show the activating effect i e ortho and para directing and the deactivating effect i e meta directing by using resonance structures Know the strongest activating functional groups i e phenoxide amino and the weakest ones alkyl groups Why are halogens weakly deactivating yet 0 and p directing Because the sigma acceptor effect the attraction of the electrons in a sigma bond due to the higher electronegativity of halogen atoms superposes on the ppi conjugation resonance effect one of the lone pairs of e39 in a p orbital of the halogen atom interacts with the pi e39 in the aromatic ring and thus extends the aromatic conjugation Know how to predict EAS products based on the effects of multiple substituents already present on the aromatic ring groups with the same type of effect reinforce each other sterical hindrance reduces the yield of a particular isomer groups with con icting effects activating groups take over Know how to write the reaction mechanism for FriedelCrafts alkylation and acylation Know the limitations of FriedelCrafts alkylation Know the alternative method to F riedelCrafts alkylation for making alkylbenzene derivatives with straight side chains longer than 2 C atoms Know how to recognize primary 1 secondary 2 and tertiary 3 C atoms in structural formulas Know how to recognize nucleophilic aromatic substitution halogen on the ring a strong nucleophile attacking and how to write the products for such reactions Why ring deactivating groups for EAS become activating groups for nucleophilic aromatic substitution m in any nucleophilic mechanism the attack is done by a nucleophile so any group that decreases the electron density on the aromatic ring favors the nucleophilic attack Know how to explain orientation effects in electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution either through the centers of modified electron density on the ring or through the stability of the resulted sigma complexes Know the differences between the two types of mechanisms for nucleophilic aromatic substitution 12 Addition reactions of benzene derivatives w chlorination and hydrogenation 13 Sidechain reactions of benzene derivatives always at the benzylic position oxidation and halogenation 14 Know the alcohollike reactions of phenols 15 Know how to compare acidity between analog alcohols phenols and carboxylic acids 16 Name two biological applications of redox reactions amp chemical structures or reactions required for biological applications Good Luck


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