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by: Talia Armstrong PhD

ElectricalEngineeringLaboratory ECEL301

Marketplace > Drexel University > Electrical Engineering > ECEL301 > ElectricalEngineeringLaboratory
Talia Armstrong PhD
GPA 3.54


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Class Notes
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Talia Armstrong PhD on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECEL301 at Drexel University taught by Basavaiah in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/212566/ecel301-drexel-university in Electrical Engineering at Drexel University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
Thermochemistry October 26 2011 Dr Jay Gilbert Thermochemistry 39 pm a n V A a Mi nm F P 3 r rizguiclzilyg What 2 thenrrnuchetuuiisuyi aruywaiy g it The study of the absorption or release of heat that accompanies chemical reactions 4 Usually to form a more stable product H do cl if th p roolu mo all By looking at the energy of the reaction Open System Closed System and Isolated System Matter water vapor Isolated system Energy Energy is the ability to do work and supply heat Work is motion against an opposing force For example lifting weight against gravity is work Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of its motion Kinetic energy KE is given as the mass times the velocity of the object under consideration KE 2 mV2 2 Atom A is mm B 395 moving fast B Before collision moving slowly Atom B is now moving fast Atom A is now moving slowly B l A b After COHISIOI l The above picture illustrates the outcome afterthe exchange of kinetic energy between two atoms in motion The total energy is Potential Energy Potential energy PE is the energy of position or internal arrangement Stretched bow possesses stored energy of position certam y pQ39 sn39 c a energy Energy Changes and Conservation Potential Potential Iquot A energy energy I Kinetic 1 energy a When the Child is at points a and 0 they have only PE at point b only KE Total energy is conserved PE KE constant The SI Unit Of Energy is the Joule dis Calorie is the original that was unit used to express energy all Calorie is defined as the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius is One joule J is the amount of energy needed to move a 1 kg mass a distance of 1 meter J 1 J 1 Nm 1 kgmzls2 lcal 4184 J exactly One joule is a small amount of energy 9 One joule is a very small amount of energy a 100 watts light bulb consumes 36 x 105 J of energy in an hour 9 Usually energy is expressed in kio joules rather than in joules 91kJ1000J 36 x 105or 010 kWh used in 1 hour The first law of thermodynamics O The first law of thermodynamics can be stated as This O The first law of thermodynamics can also be expresses as Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transformed from one form of energy to another Also known as the first law of thermodynamics The Internal Energy 0 The internal energy is the sum of the potential energy and the kinetic energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy The internal energy is a state function which means that the energy of an object depend on the current condition only 9 It doesn t matter how the object acquired that energy or how it will lose it A State Function Change in altitude depends only on the difference between the initial and nal values not on the path taken 10000 ft Path A t 12 miles 5000 ft quot 39 0 ft Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall Incl O The internal energy is given the symbol E We can t measure the internal energy of anything so we measure the changes in energy AE AE Efinal Einitial O For chemical reactions the Efinal and Einitial correspond to Eplroclucts and Emactants respectively Therefore we can rewrite the above equation as AEE E products reactants The Significance of AE O The Change internal energy AE expressed as the final minus the initial or the products minus the reactants AE is positive O The system absorbs energy from the surroundings and the internal energy of the final state is higher than the initial state AE is negative Q The system releases energy to the surroundings and the internal energy of the final state is lower than the initial state 9 Consider the reaction es 029 9 0029 Cs 02 g reactants Internal energy AE lt 0 negative C02g product Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 0 Since the reactants have higher energy than the products AE is nega ve O The energy lost by the reactants is picked by the surroundings System 1 i Energy ow AESYS lt 0 negative AESHrr gt 0 positive Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 9 According to the first law of thermodynamics the energy is conserved therefore AEsys AEsurr 0029 Csgt 029 4 Here the carbon dioxide is the reactant and the sign of AE is positive Cs 023 products Internal energy AE gt 0 positive CO2 g reactant Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall inc OAlso on reversing the reaction the energy flows into the system Surroun i Energy flow gt 0 positive AEsurr lt 0 negative ABSS Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc The heat q and the work W 0 According to the first law of thermodynamics the change in internal energy equals the sum of heat transferred q and the work done w AEqw O The pictures on the next two slides show how change in internal energy is related to heat and work Kinetic energy at o On a smooth table most of the kinetic energy is transferred from the collision 45 i first ball to the second ball with a small amount lost through friction Initial kinetic l W A y energy 50 Heat lost 05 I a Smooth table Kinetic energy after V collision OJ o On a rough table most of the kinetic energy of the first ball is lost through friction less than half is transferred to the second ball r u tum l Kinetic energy at collision 20J Initial kinetic l energy 50 39 l l i Heat lost 301 3 l Kinetic energy after l l collision 2 OJ b Rough table PANLJ F nnnn Dam Du LIA I O The heat q and the work W are not state functions as we can see from the previous two slides that the q and W vary depending on the table used Change in internal energy is a state function I Work is not a state function I


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