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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Jenelle Herman on Thursday September 18, 2014. The Reader belongs to Psych 360 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 148 views.
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Date Created: 09/18/14
Chapter 1 An Invitation to Social Psychology Characterizing Social Psychology scientific study of the feelings thoughts and behaviors of individuals in social situations Explaining behavior Study situations in which people exert influence over one another and how people respond How people decide whowhat to believe Psychologists make inferences about motives personalities and abilities of other people Comparing Social Psychology with Related Disciplines Personality psych Cognitive psych Sociology The Power of the Situation How does the situation that people find themselves in affect their behavior The Milgram Experiments Men volunteered to be participants in a punishmentlearning experiment and always played the part of the teacher Forced to give electric shocks to the student when they answered wrong 80 gt 150v 625 450v average was 360v Seminarians as Samaritans Seminarians were told they were going to deliver a short sermon some were told they had plenty of time others were told they were already late All passed by a man in need of help Seminarians were only good samaritans and stopped to help when they weren t in a hurry The Fundamental Attribution Error Most people are more affected by outside influences rather than who they are on the inside internal factors such as beliefs values personality traits or abilities that guide a person s behavior The failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions or traits on behavior as defined by Lee Ross Channel Factors certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but that can have great consequences for behavior either facilitating or blocking it or guiding behavior in a particular direction EXAMPLE students were shown scary materials on why they should get a tetanus shot most decided to get the shot but most didn t actually go Then they asked students when would be convenient for them to go and how they would go more people showed if they had a more concrete plan The Role of Construal peoples interpretation and inference about the stimuli or situations they confront our perceptions drive our behavior towards others Interpreting Reality based on the German word gestalt meaning form or figure this approach stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by means of some automatic registering device but by active usually unconscious interpretation of what the object represents as a whole a situation involving payoffs to two people who must decide whether to cooperate deny or defectadmit In the end trust and cooperation lead to higher joint payoffs than mistrust and defection Students in a study were more competitive if they were told they were playing the wall street game and more cooperative if they were told they were playing the community game disposition was NO USE in predicting their behavior Schemas 2 a knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored information Helps you to understand what to expect in any given situation based upon previous expenence Stereotypes Schemas that we have for different types of people based on one characteristic Automatic Versus Controlled Processing The mind processes social situations two ways Automatic unconscious often based on emotional factors occur first give rise to implicit attitudes and beliefs that cannot be readily controlled by the conscious mind Conscious systematic more likely to be controlled by careful thought secondary results in explicit attitudes and beliefs of which we are aware Types of Unconscious Processing Two major types Skill Aquisition exercising a skill without being mentally aware of doing so ie driving a car Automatic Mental Processing beliefs and behaviors are generated without our awareness of the cognitive processes behind them Functions of Unconscious Processing Efficient conscious processes can only run serially while unconscious processes can operate in parallel Evolution and Human Behavior How we are the Same an evolutionary process that molds animals and plants so that traits that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on to subsequent generations Evolution theory helps to explain why people behave the way we do Human Universals Human behavior and institutions are universal Human behaviors are seen not just throughout different human cultures but as well as different higher up species as well as ALL species Group Living Language and Theory of Mind Living in groups provides protection mates and foraging the understanding that other people have beliefs and desires Comes prewired people who do not have this ability are considered autistic Evolution of Gender Roles Polygyny one man several wives Polyandry one woman several husbands the evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring Because these costs and benefits are different for males and females one sex will normally value and invest more in each child than will the other sex Females tend to invest more because they have a limited numiffber of offspring that they can produce as opposed to males who in theory can produce an infinite number of offspring Avoiding the Naturalistic Fallacy 2 the claim that the way things are is the way they should be Used to justify racism fascism violence and other negative human tendencies Social Neuroscience fMRl functional magnetic resonance imaging fMR s used to detect which areas of the brain are used for specific functions Helps understand why different skills develop at different times Teenagers don t have danger senses which is why they take more risks than adu s Old people have decreased learning sensors which is why they dont learn as well as young people Culture and Human Behavior How we are Different Cultural Differences in Social Relations and SelfUnderstanding Cultural differences extend from beliefs and values all the way to the level of fundamental forms of self conceptions and social existence and even to perceptual and cognitive processes Cultures in which people tend to think of themselves as distinct social entities tied to each other by voluntary bonds of affection and organizational memberships but essentially separate from other people and having attributes that exist in the absence of any connection to others Europe former English colonies including America Canada and Australia Cultures in which people tend to define themselves as part of a collective inextricably tied to others in their group and placing less importance on individual freedom or personal control over their lives East and South Asian countries China Japan Koreas India Middle East and Latin America Who Are You Individualism versus Collectivism in the Workplace Culture and Gender Roles Are sexual norms arbitrary or do they have practical roots Practical Polyandry in Nepal keeps the land amongst one family Some Qualifications Differences in dependance can vary from country to region to family to individual to certain situations Culture and Evolution as Tools for Understanding Situations