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Comparative Psychology

by: Ms. Alda Zemlak

Comparative Psychology CBH 4004

Ms. Alda Zemlak
GPA 3.79

Toru Shimizu

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Toru Shimizu
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Alda Zemlak on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CBH 4004 at University of South Florida taught by Toru Shimizu in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/212634/cbh-4004-university-of-south-florida in Behavioral Sciences at University of South Florida.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
l Behavioral Endocrinology a How hormones mediates behavior and vice versa i Bidirectional interaction b Hormones Characteristics and functions i travel via circulatory system slower then neurotransmitters 1 longer travel from endocrine gland to target ii Some neurotransmitters can also be hormones may be referred to as neurohormones l e g norepinepherine is a nt but also released by the adrenal gland c Negative feedback i Regulation of hormones ii Loop that when hormone reaches a certain level in body will return to originating gland and signal for the cessation of release 2 Evolution of Hormone function a Chem structure samesimilar across species i The function however is modified b Insulin preserved unchanged from bacteriahumans 3 Behavior Command Centers a Contrasting stimuli in environment i trigger opposing responses contradictory ii eg praying mantis l Muscular control via segment ganglia 2 Why a brain a Inhibitory msgs higher functions than simple motor functions b proto cerebral ultra primitive 3 Ganglia groups eyes resp ab control surrounding areas wo direct control by brain iii eg cricket 1 Neuron in brain control center a ring measured 2 Control a air puff to sensory appendages causes an inhibition of control center in favor of sensory response 4 Hand preference due to variation in sex hormone in utero a b 10 male 4 female Lefties have more artists and athletes but have more incidences of learning disabilities autism motor learning dysfunction stuttering 5 Environmental a b C Impoverished rats had thinner cerebral cortex and enriched rats had thicker i Can happen at any time in life Males and females have differences in brain functioning and shape itself i Males asymmetrical brain female sym Animal trials show that there is a use it or lose i effect on the brain i Non use can lead to degradation ii Enrichment of brain use will lead to neurogenesis in hippocampus where it facilitates learning 1 Enviro enrich phys exer drugs can facilitate neurogenesis 6 Hormones and Behavior E Food intake vital to cell survival Thirst Na intake vital to cell survival Sleep Behavioral schedules i circadian rhythm e Leptin Used to trigger cessation of hunger sensation feeding f AngiotensinII stimulates thirst sensation and Na appetite g Growth hormone i acromegaly 7 Behavioral Endocrinology of Stress a Why don t zebras get ulcers Dr Robert Zapolsky i They have stress hormones and stress reactions but only When needed ii The zebra example experiences stress solely for ghtor ight and never at another time 1 Humans can call uponexperience stress reactions on cue b OreXinHypocretin i OreXin studies stand out more w feeding behavior ii Hypocretin studies stand out more w sleeping behavior ii39 Same thing diff name research done separately no one knows what to call it iv Inducing sleep lt Research done on dog w narcolepsy to nd treatment for humans v Many things can trigger narcolepsy laughing or eating vii Genetic mutations w oreXinhypocretin that causes narcolepsy viii Looking into giving narcoleptic people synthetic form of this hormone to cure it 8 Biological Clocks a Have cells that are biological clocks b Light is a major time keeper regulate circadian rhythm i Puberty l The hormones FSH and LH begin the process of differentiating male and female at just the right time ii SCN Saprachasmatic nucleus 1 SCN lesiontransplant 2 takes in light stimuli to the SCN in the hypothalamus and outputs rhythms 3 Moonlight can regulate behavior in nocturnal creatures a Based on survival 4 Light or dark rhythms a Rhythms may be different than conventional 24hour timeline iii PER gene protein important in circadian rhythm l Activated or deactivated level of protein based on environment or aging 2 Found across species 3 Found in SCN in humans 4 Mutation of PER gene affect circadian rhythm iv Circannual Rhythm 1 Lifelong changes in mating hibernation and active behavior relative to the years N In trials w animals w circannual rhythms no clear evidence was found as to whether CR is internalized or result of environment stimuli 9 Parasites and Manipulation of Host Behavior E Fquot 0 3 1 Chemicals neurotransmitters and hormones Direct nervous system changes Manipulates host to own ends Rabies i Modify behavior of animals infected to facilitate rapid spreading ii Infects amigdalya in host for them to experience no fear and be overly aggressive so that they attack iii Infectious cells found in saliva so bites infect another animal e Toxoplasma and rats i Similar to rabies in that it modifies behavior of rat to effectively feed itself to cats to spread toxoplasma not through consciousness of rat ii Harsh implications with in utero human offspring developmentbehavior disorders iii Toxoplasma correlation with schizophrenia


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