Calculus I MAC 2311
Popular in Course
Popular in Calculus and Pre Calculus
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Duane Bayer on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAC 2311 at University of South Florida taught by Erika Asano in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/212641/mac-2311-university-of-south-florida in Calculus and Pre Calculus at University of South Florida.
Reviews for Calculus I
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 9 O conce I I I I I o figur I F INAL REVI EW pt incubator theory 7 explains evolution of firms concentrating close to the center and later relocating to the outer edge of the city theory holds that agglomeration economies associated with high density cores are more favorable to new firms starting out could become more self sustaining and then would be able to relocate to fringe where costs like land are substantially less consumer services 7 dealing with the final consumption of goodsservices and therefore are principally related to the retail industry producer services 7 related to immediate demandaid in the production of other goodsservices power center 7 implies an agglomeration of big box retailers ex warehouse clubs 7 sam s clubdiscounters 7 walmart and targetcategory killers price wide selection special category low 7 home depot sports authority circuit city often locate near shopping centers but do not compete against them instead compete against local shopping centers lifestyle center 7 anchorless offers fine dining and upscale retailing in convenient open air layout e and table noyelle and stanback s functional typology of 2 each metropolitan area was placed into a type metropolitan areas categories and example 7 based on its industrial specialization increasing size of markers changes in transportation and technology increased importance of public sector and nonprofit activities rise of very large corporations o classification and categories classification of industry 7 primary activities workers are directly engaged with raw productsagriculture fishing mining secondary activities manufacturing industries or those industries where workers are involved in making or processing products tertiary activities where workers are involved in providing services both to producers and to consumersretail and service guaternary activities made up of professionals engaged in the production an processing of info or knowledge based activities info services least cost theory minimizing 3 categories economic sectors and examples 3 specific agglomeration economies 7 manufacturing location in which an industry is located where it can minimize its cost and therefore maximize its profits accounts for the location of a manufacturing plant in terms of the owner s desire to minimize 3 categories of cost 0 l transportation site chosen must entail the lowest possible cost of moving finished increase w distance raw materials to the factory to the market 0 2 labor so a factory might do better farther from products higher labor costs reduce profits raw materials and markets in cheap labor is available 0 3 agglomeration when a large number of eg they can provide assistance to each enterprises cluster in the same area city other through shared talents and eg office furniture services facilities manufacturing plants need 3 agglomeration economies 7 lcost saving due to scale such as the rise of businesses providing services to other firms 2information as communication is enhanced by firms locating near each other 3social fixed capital or societal infrastructure which would include railroadshighwaysschoolsshopping centers and banks including associated services All of them reduce productions costs big box retailers 1 presence of a rich variety of consumer goods and 4 critical urban amenities for future growth services 2 7 aesthetics and physical setting 3 7 good public service 4 7 transportation infrastructure 0 equation basicnonbasic ratio basiclocal business dependent on external factorsnonbasiclocal business that depend on local conditions BANBA 0 description weight losing case the weight of the final product is less than the weight of the raw weight gaining case final product is heavier than the raw materials that require transport usually a case of some ubiquitous available everywhere raw material such as water being incorporated into the product CHAPTER 10 o concept urban sprawl 7 defined as dispersed auto dependent development outside compact urban often in erratic centers low density settlement building patterns located along highways in formerly rural areas and consuming excessive amounts of land root cause of sprawl 7 decentralization of people both housing and employment growth and redistribution and jobs from urban cores to the suburbs have occurred in suburban areas 0 classification and categories rise of urban sprawl 7 expansion of low density single use development with leap frog tendencies isolated strips of commercial development that are served only by automobiles 39 problems associated with urban sprawl 7 loss of prime farmland traffic congestion demise of the town center loss of sense of community belonging reduction in access to employment disruption of natural habitats 0 three waves of expansion of urban area in the freeway urban growth was through the construction of more residential units farther from the city core wave consisted of the outward movement of major retail business to the suburbs the outward spread of employment 39 characteristics of edge cities 7 population decentralization from the core to the periphery 5 million square feet or more of leasable office space 600000 square feet or more of leasable retail spaces more jobs than bedrooms perceived by the population as one place not considered part of a city as recently as 30 years ago center of employment on the outskirts of the urban area 39 reasons for many people attracted to edge cities 7 convenience much to do providing many shopping and entertainment opportunities 39 implications of growing number of edge cities 0 Edge cities contribute to employment opportunities both for employers and employees 0 in the internet era communications at a peripheral location can often function as well as anywhere else in the metropolis 0 Rental prices era lower in edge cities than the downtown 0 E ommuting to an edge city might reduce commuting time compared to traveling to the downtown O 0 The environmental quality of work life is likely to be better in the edge city than in the center 39 ther working an living stresses might be reduced such as noise and crime 0 description 39 two groupings of theories reasons for central areas are developed first residential location choices are determined by minimizing commuting costs to the central business district central areas are developed first 2m1theory 7 fiscal social problems approach emphasizes fiscal and social stresses of the central city as the main impetus for suburbanization four stage model I Stage 1 the walkinghorse car era before the l880s primitive horse drawn transport systems the distances limited the physical expansion of cities lacking a transit network a roughly concentric circle pattern Stage 2 lasted from the l880s to world war I streetcar rails encouraged elongated corridors of residential development elongation was end courage by commuter stops along the interurban rail lines housing type changed from multiple family to single family and two family housing Stage 3 during the l920s the recreational auto era the growing use of automobiles caused a dramatic increase in the supply of land at the same time urban transport networks matured and many cities became more star shaped as a result Stage 4 the freeway era post world war ll the widespread use of the automobile for both recreation and commuting the l956 interstate highway act brought about a cataclysmic change in the spatial pattern of cities fast highways encouraged the very rapid expansion of the urban area what does smart growth encourage 0 promotes development that is friendly to commuters including the provision of public transportation access 0 equation ER ratio an ER of lO or greater or an ER below lO An ER of lO or greater a metropolitan zone has more jobs than it has resident workers in other words a net commuter inflow into the zone An ER below lO the metropolitan zone has fewer jobs than resident workers that is net outflow of workers from the area CHAPTER 11 o concept brownfield 7 abandoned site eyesore greenfield regenerations non renewable energy coal petroloilgas uranium nuclear renewable energy solar wind geothermal infiltration water goes through the soil layer runoff water from the urban surface goes straight to riverslakesoceans 0 figure and table table 115 pg 423 CHAPTER 12 o concept 39 zoning 7 refers to the portioning of land in a city by ordinance into sections reserved for different purposes 39 urban governance 7 refers to the structures and actions by which a city or metro area manages and provides leadership in its public processes 0 classification of categories 39 three major types of urban governance single tier 7 refers to a single unified government for an entire urban area grows largely through annexation two tier 7 involves a government system that is integrated for a Whole metropolitan area might be in the form of country government cooperative forms 7 consists of cooperative arrangement of various institutions in the municipalities of a metropolitan area usually cooperative government is the grouping of various entities to manage a particular function
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'